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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933582/microrna-181c-ameliorates-cognitive-impairment-induced-by-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-in-rats
#1
Chen Fang, Qian Li, Guowen Min, Min Liu, Jing Cui, Jing Sun, Liang Li
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) characterized by global cerebral ischemia is an important risk factor contributing to the development of dementia. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the cellular adaptation to long-term ischemia/hypoxia by turning off or on the expression of target genes. MiR-181c is widely expressed in the nervous system, and tripartite motif 2 (TRIM2) is one of its target genes. In this work, we had identified that progressive spatial memory deficiency was induced in the bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2-VO) rat models...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933063/aire-downregulation-is-associated-with-changes-in-the-posttranscriptional-control-of-peripheral-tissue-antigens-in-medullary-thymic-epithelial-cells
#2
Ernna H Oliveira, Claudia Macedo, Cristhianna V Collares, Ana Carolina Freitas, Paula Barbim Donate, Elza T Sakamoto-Hojo, Eduardo A Donadi, Geraldo A Passos
Autoimmune regulator (Aire) is a transcriptional regulator of peripheral tissue antigens (PTAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that Aire also played a role as an upstream posttranscriptional controller in these cells and that variation in its expression might be associated with changes in the interactions between miRNAs and the mRNAs encoding PTAs. We demonstrated that downregulation of Aire in vivo in the thymuses of BALB/c mice imbalanced the large-scale expression of these two RNA species and consequently their interactions...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932994/comparative-mrna-and-microrna-profiling-during-acute-myocardial-infarction-induced-by-coronary-occlusion-and-ablation-radio-frequency-currents
#3
Eduardo T Santana, Regiane Dos Santos Feliciano, Andrey J Serra, Eduardo Brigidio, Ednei L Antonio, Paulo J F Tucci, Lubov Nathanson, Mariana Morris, José A Silva
The ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery is the most commonly used experimental model to induce myocardial infarction (MI) in rodents. A high mortality in the acute phase and the heterogeneity of the size of the MI obtained are drawbacks recognized in this model. In an attempt to solve the problem, our group recently developed a new MI experimental model which is based on application of myocardial ablation radio-frequency currents (AB-RF) that yielded MI with homogeneous sizes and significantly reduce acute mortality...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932990/regulation-of-connexins-expression-levels-by-micrornas-an-update
#4
REVIEW
Juan F Calderón, Mauricio A Retamal
Control of cell-cell coordination and communication is regulated by several factors, including paracrine and autocrine release of biomolecules, and direct exchange of soluble factors between cells through gap junction channels. Additionally, hemichannels also participate in cell-cell coordination through the release of signaling molecules, such as ATP and glutamate. A family of transmembrane proteins named connexins forms both gap junction channels and hemichannels. Because of their importance in cell and tissue coordination, connexins are controlled both by post-translational and post-transcriptional modifications...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932893/let-7a-enhances-the-sensitivity-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-to-cetuximab-by-regulating-stat3-expression
#5
Fei Xue, Yanhui Liu, Hongwei Zhang, Yu Wen, Lei Yan, Qiang Tang, Erhui Xiao, Dongyi Zhang
BACKGROUND: Let-7 miRNAs are reported to play an inhibitory role in carcinogenesis, tumor progression, recurrence, and pluripotency of cancer. However, few studies have reported the relationship between let-7 and drug sensitivity, especially for let-7a (a subtype of let-7). This study aimed to investigate the function of let-7a in regulating the sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines to cetuximab. METHODS: The cytotoxicity of cetuximab on HCC cell lines (Huh7, Hep3B, HepG2, SNU449, and SNU387) was evaluated using a cell viability assay (the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay) and a cell proliferation assay (the Click-iT EdU Imaging Kit) in the presence of a control, a let-7a mimic, and a let-7a inhibitor...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932553/normalization-matters-tracking-the-best-strategy-for-sperm-mirna-quantification
#6
Celia Corral-Vazquez, Joan Blanco, Albert Salas-Huetos, Francesca Vidal, Ester Anton
STUDY QUESTION: What is the most reliable normalization strategy for sperm microRNA (miRNA) quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reactions (qRT-PCR) using singleplex assays? SUMMARY ANSWER: The use of the average expression of hsa-miR-100-5p and hsa-miR-30a-5p as sperm miRNA qRT-PCR data normalizer is suggested as an optimal strategy. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Mean-centering methods are the most reliable normalization strategies for miRNA high-throughput expression analyses...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932485/axonal-micrornas-localization-function-and-regulatory-mechanism-during-axon-development
#7
REVIEW
Bin Wang, Lan Bao
Subcellular localization and translation of messenger RNAs are essential for the regulation of neuronal development and synaptic function. As post-transcriptional regulators, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been emerging as central players in the development and maturation of the nervous system. Recent discoveries reveal the critical functions of miRNAs in the axon of neurons via multiple pathways of molecular regulation. Here, we introduce methods for isolating axonal miRNAs and review recent findings on the localization and function as well as regulatory mechanism of axonal miRNAs during axon development...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932456/physico-chemical-fingerprinting-of-rna-genes
#8
Ankita Singh, Akhilesh Mishra, Ali Khosravi, Garima Khandelwal, B Jayaram
We advance here a novel concept for characterizing different classes of RNA genes on the basis of physico-chemical properties of DNA sequences. As knowledge-based approaches could yield unsatisfactory outcomes due to limitations of training on available experimental data sets, alternative approaches that utilize properties intrinsic to DNA are needed to supplement training based methods and to eventually provide molecular insights into genome organization. Based on a comprehensive series of molecular dynamics simulations of Ascona B-DNA consortium, we extracted hydrogen bonding, stacking and solvation energies of all combinations of DNA sequences at the dinucleotide level and calculated these properties for different types of RNA genes...
December 8, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931616/micrornas-in-cardiovascular-disease
#9
REVIEW
Temo Barwari, Abhishek Joshi, Manuel Mayr
Micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are in the spotlight as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. More than 1,000 miRNAs are encoded in the human genome. In this review, we provide an introduction to miRNA biology and research methodology, and highlight advances in cardiovascular research to date. This includes the potential of miRNAs as therapeutic targets in cardiac and vascular disease, and their use as novel biomarkers. Although some miRNA therapies are already undergoing clinical evaluation, we stress the importance of integrating current knowledge of miRNA biology into a systemic context...
December 13, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931283/mir-146a-inhibits-proliferation-and-enhances-chemosensitivity-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-via-reduction-of-sod2
#10
YaJie Cui, Kaie She, Defu Tian, Peilian Zhang, Xiaoyan Xin
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecological malignancy, accounting for 90% of all ovarian cancer. Dysregulation of miRNAs is associated with several types of EOC. In the current research, we aimed to study the role of abnormal expression of miR-146a in the development of EOC and to elucidate the possible molecular mechanisms. Compared with control samples, mRNA expression of miR-146a was significantly decreased in EOC tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-146a prohibited cell proliferation, enhanced apoptosis, and increased sensitivity to chemotherapy drugs in EOC cells...
May 2016: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931222/mir-15a-16-reduces-retinal-leukostasis-through-decreased-pro-inflammatory-signaling
#11
Eun-Ah Ye, Li Liu, Youde Jiang, Jenny Jan, Subhash Gaddipati, Susmit Suvas, Jena J Steinle
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia is a significant risk factor for diabetic retinopathy and induces increased inflammatory responses and retinal leukostasis, as well as vascular damage. Although there is an increasing amount of evidence that miRNA may be involved in the regulation in the pathology of diabetic retinopathy, the mechanisms by which miRNA mediate cellular responses to control onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy are still unclear. The purpose of our study was to investigate the hypothesis that miR-15a/16 inhibit pro-inflammatory signaling to reduce retinal leukostasis...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930710/urb-rip-an-adaptable-and-efficient-approach-for-immunoprecipitation-of-rnas-and-associated-rnas-proteins
#12
Kyle A Cottrell, Sergej Djuranovic
Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression is an important process that is mediated by interactions between mRNAs and RNA binding proteins (RBP), non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) or ribonucleoproteins (RNP). Key to the study of post-transcriptional regulation of mRNAs and the function of ncRNAs such as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) is an understanding of what factors are interacting with these transcripts. While several techniques exist for the enrichment of a transcript whether it is an mRNA or an ncRNA, many of these techniques are cumbersome or limited in their application...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930306/mir-17%C3%A2-92-family-clusters-control-inkt-cell-ontogenesis-via-modulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#13
Maya Fedeli, Michela Riba, Jose Manuel Garcia Manteiga, Lei Tian, Valentina Viganò, Grazisa Rossetti, Massimiliano Pagani, Changchun Xiao, Adrian Liston, Elia Stupka, Davide Cittaro, Sergio Abrignani, Paolo Provero, Paolo Dellabona, Giulia Casorati
Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT) cells are T lymphocytes displaying innate effector functions, acquired through a distinct thymic developmental program regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). Deleting miRNAs by Dicer ablation (Dicer KO) in thymocytes selectively impairs iNKT cell survival and functional differentiation. To unravel this miRNA-dependent program, we systemically identified transcripts that were differentially expressed between WT and Dicer KO iNKT cells at different differentiation stages and predicted to be targeted by the iNKT cell-specific miRNAs...
December 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929461/isolation-of-high-density-lipoproteins-for-non-coding-small-rna-quantification
#14
Danielle L Michell, Ryan M Allen, Stuart R Landstreet, Shilin Zhao, Cynthia L Toth, Quanhu Sheng, Kasey C Vickers
The diversity of small non-coding RNAs (sRNA) is rapidly expanding and their roles in biological processes, including gene regulation, are emerging. Most interestingly, sRNAs are also found outside of cells and are stably present in all biological fluids. As such, extracellular sRNAs represent a novel class of disease biomarkers and are likely involved in cell signaling and intercellular communication networks. To assess their potential as biomarkers, sRNAs can be quantified in plasma, urine, and other fluids...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929459/perturbations-of-circulating-mirnas-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-detected-using-a-multiplexed-high-throughput-gene-expression-platform
#15
Nicolaas H Fourie, Ralph M Peace, Sarah K Abey, LeeAnne B Sherwin, John W Wiley, Wendy A Henderson
The gene expression platform assay allows for robust and highly reproducible quantification of the expression of up to 800 transcripts (mRNA or miRNAs) in a single reaction. The miRNA assay counts transcripts by directly imaging and digitally counting miRNA molecules that are labeled with color-coded fluorescent barcoded probe sets (a reporter probe and a capture probe). Barcodes are hybridized directly to mature miRNAs that have been elongated by ligating a unique oligonucleotide tag (miRtag) to the 3' end...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929436/comparison-of-small-rna-profiles-of-glycine-max-and-glycine-soja-at-early-developmental-stages
#16
Yuzhe Sun, Zeta Mui, Xuan Liu, Aldrin Kay-Yuen Yim, Hao Qin, Fuk-Ling Wong, Ting-Fung Chan, Siu-Ming Yiu, Hon-Ming Lam, Boon Leong Lim
Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and phased small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs; from PHAS loci), play key roles in plant development. Cultivated soybean, Glycine max, contributes a great deal to food production, but, compared to its wild kin, Glycine soja, it may lose some genetic information during domestication. In this work, we analyzed the sRNA profiles of different tissues in both cultivated (C08) and wild soybeans (W05) at three stages of development. A total of 443 known miRNAs and 15 novel miRNAs showed varying abundances between different samples, but the miRNA profiles were generally similar in both accessions...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929395/deficiency-in-the-ubiquitin-conjugating-enzyme-ube2a-in-alzheimer-s-disease-ad-is-linked-to-deficits-in-a-natural-circular-mirna-7-sponge-circrna-cirs-7
#17
Yuhai Zhao, Peter N Alexandrov, Vivian Jaber, Walter J Lukiw
Our understanding of the highly specialized functions for small non-coding single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) in the transcriptome of the human central nervous system (CNS) continues to evolve. Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a recently discovered class of ssRNA enriched in the brain and retina, are extremely stable and intrinsically resilient to degradation by exonuclease. Conventional methods of ssRNA, microRNA (miRNA), or messenger RNA (mRNA) detection and quantitation requiring free ribonucleotide ends may have considerably underestimated the quantity and significance of CNS circRNA in the CNS...
December 5, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929147/simultaneous-detection-of-multiple-targets-involved-in-the-pi3k-akt-pathway-for-investigating-cellular-migration-and-invasion-with-a-multicolor-fluorescent-nanoprobe
#18
Mingming Luan, Na Li, Wei Pan, Limin Yang, Zhengze Yu, Bo Tang
We develop a multicolor fluorescent nanoprobe for assessing cellular migration and invasion by simultaneously imaging miRNA-221, PTEN mRNA and MMP-9 involved in the PI3K/AKT pathway which can regulate cellular mobility and invasiveness.
December 8, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929118/exosomal-microrna-mir-1246-induces-cell-motility-and-invasion-through-the-regulation-of-dennd2d-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#19
Sujata Sakha, Tomoki Muramatsu, Koji Ueda, Johji Inazawa
Metastasis is associated with poor prognosis in cancers. Exosomes, which are packed with RNA and proteins and are released in all biological fluids, are emerging as an important mediator of intercellular communication. However, the function of exosomes remains poorly understood in cancer metastasis. Here, we demonstrate that exosomes isolated by size-exclusion chromatography from a highly metastatic human oral cancer cell line, HOC313-LM, induced cell growth through the activation of ERK and AKT as well as promoted cell motility of the poorly metastatic cancer cell line HOC313-P...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929108/human-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-exosomal-mirnas-are-critical-factors-for-inducing-anti-proliferation-signalling-to-a2780-and-skov-3-ovarian-cancer-cells
#20
Abu Musa Md Talimur Reza, Yun-Jung Choi, Hideyo Yasuda, Jin-Hoi Kim
An enigmatic question exists concerning the pro- or anti-cancer status of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Despite growing interest, this question remains unanswered, and the debate became intensified with new evidences backing each side. Here, we showed that human adipose MSC (hAMSC)-derived conditioned medium (CM) exhibited inhibitory effects on A2780 human ovarian cancer cells by blocking the cell cycle, and activating mitochondria-mediated apoptosis signalling. Explicitly, we demonstrated that exosomes, an important biological component of hAMSC-CM, could restrain proliferation, wound-repair and colony formation ability of A2780 and SKOV-3 cancer cells...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
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