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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677044/ren%C3%A3-dubos-tuberculosis-and-the-ecological-facets-of-virulence
#1
Mark Honigsbaum
Reflecting on his scientific career toward the end of his life, the French-educated medical researcher René Dubos presented his flowering as an ecological thinker as a story of linear progression-the inevitable product of the intellectual seeds planted in his youth. But how much store should we set by Dubos's account of his ecological journey? Resisting retrospective biographical readings, this paper seeks to relate the development of Dubos's ecological ideas to his experimental practices and his career as a laboratory researcher...
September 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577673/bridging-income-generation-with-group-integrated-care-for-cardiovascular-risk-reduction-rationale-and-design-of-the-bigpic-study
#2
Rajesh Vedanthan, Jemima H Kamano, Hana Lee, Benjamin Andama, Gerald S Bloomfield, Allison K DeLong, David Edelman, Eric A Finkelstein, Joseph W Hogan, Carol R Horowitz, Simon Manyara, Diana Menya, Violet Naanyu, Sonak D Pastakia, Thomas W Valente, Cleophas C Wanyonyi, Valentin Fuster
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide, with >80% of CVD deaths occurring in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes are risk factors for CVD, and CVD is the major cause of morbidity and mortality among individuals with DM. There is a critical period now during which reducing CVD risk among individuals with diabetes and pre-diabetes may have a major impact. Cost-effective, culturally appropriate, and context-specific approaches are required...
June 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472938/exploring-generative-mechanisms-of-the-antiretroviral-adherence-club-intervention-using-the-realist-approach-a-scoping-review-of-research-based-antiretroviral-treatment-adherence-theories
#3
Ferdinand C Mukumbang, Sara Van Belle, Bruno Marchal, Brian van Wyk
BACKGROUND: Poor retention in care and non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) continue to undermine the success of HIV treatment and care programmes across the world. There is a growing recognition that multifaceted interventions - application of two or more adherence-enhancing strategies - may be useful to improve ART adherence and retention in care among people living with HIV/AIDS. Empirical evidence shows that multifaceted interventions produce better results than interventions based on a singular perspective...
May 4, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102466/the-care-of-the-ultra-orthodox-jewish-patient
#4
Ezra Gabbay, Matthew W McCarthy, Joseph J Fins
The Ultra-Orthodox Jewish community embraces a system of values and a rigorous behavioral code that are deeply rooted in religious tradition and history. Here we describe some of the unique challenges that stem from the encounter between modern medical practice and the Ultra-Orthodox world. Through examples of clinical and ethical scenarios ranging from prenatal care to end-of-life decisions, we illustrate problems related to observance of age-old practices in a modern hospital setting, balancing acceptance of Divine will with standard risk assessment, reconciliation of patient autonomy with deference to rabbinic authority and fear of stigma associated with mental illness in a traditional society...
April 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075698/older-adults-and-management-of-medical-devices-in-the-home-five-requirements-for-appropriate-use
#5
Sara C Keller, Ayse P Gurses, Nicole Werner, Dawn Hohl, Ashley Hughes, Bruce Leff, Alicia I Arbaje
Medical devices, or instruments or tools to manage disease, are increasingly used in the home, yet there have been limited evaluations of how older adults and caregivers safely use these devices. This study concerns a qualitative evaluation of (1) barriers and facilitators of appropriate use, and (2) outcomes of inappropriate use, among older adults at the transition from hospital to home with skilled home health care (SHHC). Guided by a human factors engineering work system model, the authors (1) conducted direct observations with contextual inquiry of the start-of-care or resumption-of-care SHHC provider visit, and (2) semi-structured interviews with 24 older adults and their informal caregivers, and 39 SHHC providers and administrators...
January 11, 2017: Population Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074373/introduction-to-the-special-issue-precarious-solidarity-preferential-access-in-canadian-health-care
#6
Lynette Reid
Systems of universal health coverage may aspire to provide care based on need and not ability to pay; the complexities of this aspiration (conceptual, practical, and ethical) call for normative analysis. This special issue arises in the wake of a judicial inquiry into preferential access in the Canadian province of Alberta, the Vertes Commission. I describe this inquiry and set out a taxonomy of forms of differential and preferential access. Papers in this special issue focus on the conceptual specification of health system boundaries (the concept of medical need) and on the normative questions raised by complex models of funding and delivery of care, where patients, providers, and services cross system boundaries...
January 10, 2017: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034975/pain-and-cognitive-functioning-in-adults-with-down-syndrome
#7
Nanda C de Knegt, Frank Lobbezoo, Carlo Schuengel, Heleen M Evenhuis, Erik J A Scherder
OBJECTIVE:  The aim of the present study was to examine whether cognitive functioning (i.e., memory and executive functioning) is related to self-reported presence of pain (i.e., affirmative answer to the question whether the individual feels pain) and experience of pain (i.e., intensity and affect) in adults with Down syndrome (DS). DESIGN, SETTING, AND SUBJECTS:  Cross-sectional study of 224 adults with DS (mean age = 38.1 years, mild-severe intellectual disabilities) in the Netherlands...
December 29, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768967/the-impact-of-maternal-adiposity-specialization-on-infant-birthweight-upper-versus-lower-body-fat
#8
Alexandra C Sundermann, Troy D Abell, Lisa C Baker, Mark B Mengel, Kathryn E Reilly, Michael A Bonow, Gregory E Hoy, Richard D Clover
BACKGROUND: The specialization of human fat deposits is an inquiry of special importance in the study of fetal growth. It has been theorized that maternal lower-body fat is designated specifically for lactation and not for the growth of the fetus. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to compare the contributions of maternal upper-body versus lower-body adiposity to infant birth weight. We hypothesized that upper-body adiposity would be strongly associated with infant birth weight and that lower-body adiposity would be weakly or negligibly associated with infant birth weight-after adjusting for known determinants...
November 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652228/psychosexual-therapy-for-delayed-ejaculation-based-on-the-sexual-tipping-point-model
#9
REVIEW
Michael A Perelman
The Sexual Tipping Point(®) (STP) model is an integrated approach to the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of men with delayed ejaculation (DE), including all subtypes manifesting ejaculatory delay or absence [registered trademark owned by the MAP Educational Fund, a 501(c)(3) public charity]. A single pathogenetic pathway does not exist for sexual disorders generally and that is also true for DE specifically. Men with DE have various bio-psychosocial-behavioral & cultural predisposing, precipitating, maintaining, and contextual factors which trigger, reinforce, or worsen the probability of DE occurring...
August 2016: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530252/the-heroic-and-the-villainous-a-qualitative-study-characterising-the-role-models-that-shaped-senior-doctors-professional-identity
#10
Kirsty Foster, Chris Roberts
BACKGROUND: The successful development and sustaining of professional identity is critical to being a successful doctor. This study explores the enduring impact of significant early role models on the professional identity formation of senior doctors. METHODS: Personal Interview Narratives were derived from the stories told by twelve senior doctors as they recalled accounts of people and events from the past that shaped their notions of being a doctor. Narrative inquiry methodology was used to explore and analyse video recording and transcript data from interviews...
August 16, 2016: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525157/new-evaluation-vector-through-the-stanford-mobile-inquiry-based-learning-environment-smile-for-participatory-action-research
#11
REVIEW
Paul Kim, Ji-Young An
OBJECTIVES: This article reviews an evaluation vector model driven from a participatory action research leveraging a collective inquiry system named SMILE (Stanford Mobile Inquiry-based Learning Environment). METHODS: SMILE has been implemented in a diverse set of collective inquiry generation and analysis scenarios including community health care-specific professional development sessions and community-based participatory action research projects. In each scenario, participants are given opportunities to construct inquiries around physical and emotional health-related phenomena in their own community...
July 2016: Healthcare Informatics Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27400726/being-an-informed-consumer-of-health-information-and-assessment-of-electronic-health-literacy-in-a-national-sample-of-internet-users-validity-and-reliability-of-the-e-hls-instrument
#12
Gül Seçkin, Dale Yeatts, Susan Hughes, Cassie Hudson, Valarie Bell
BACKGROUND: The Internet, with its capacity to provide information that transcends time and space barriers, continues to transform how people find and apply information to their own lives. With the current explosion in electronic sources of health information, including thousands of websites and hundreds of mobile phone health apps, electronic health literacy is gaining an increasing prominence in health and medical research. An important dimension of electronic health literacy is the ability to appraise the quality of information that will facilitate everyday health care decisions...
2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27397753/physician-leadership-in-e-health-a-systematic-literature-review
#13
Wouter Keijser, Jacco Smits, Lisanne Penterman, Celeste Wilderom
Purpose This paper aims to systematically review the literature on roles of physicians in virtual teams (VTs) delivering healthcare for effective "physician e-leadership" (PeL) and implementation of e-health. Design/methodology/approach The analyzed studies were retrieved with explicit keywords and criteria, including snowball sampling. They were synthesized with existing theoretical models on VT research, healthcare team competencies and medical leadership. Findings Six domains for further PeL inquiry are delineated: resources, task processes, socio-emotional processes, leadership in VTs, virtual physician-patient relationship and change management...
July 4, 2016: Leadership in Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27397748/can-complexity-science-inform-physician-leadership-development
#14
Colleen Marie Grady
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe research that examined physician leadership development using complexity science principles. Design/methodology/approach Intensive interviewing of 21 participants and document review provided data regarding physician leadership development in health-care organizations using five principles of complexity science (connectivity, interdependence, feedback, exploration-of-the-space-of-possibilities and co-evolution), which were grouped in three areas of inquiry (relationships between agents, patterns of behaviour and enabling functions)...
July 4, 2016: Leadership in Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27160008/fulfilling-outpatient-medicine-responsibilities-during-internal-medicine-residency-a-quantitative-study-of-housestaff-participation-with-between-visit-tasks
#15
Jason Hom, Ilana Richman, Jonathan H Chen, Baldeep Singh, Casey Crump, Jeffrey Chi
BACKGROUND: Internal Medicine residents experience conflict between inpatient and outpatient medicine responsibilities. Outpatient "between visit" responsibilities such as reviewing lab and imaging data, responding to medication refill requests and replying to patient inquiries compete for time and attention with inpatient duties. By examining Electronic Health Record (EHR) audits, our study quantitatively describes this balance between competing responsibilities, focusing on housestaff participation with "between visit" outpatient responsibilities...
May 10, 2016: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27002884/three-things-to-do-with-stories-using-literature-in-medical-health-professions-and-interprofessional-education
#16
Michael Blackie, Delese Wear
It would be unusual to find a current medical school administrator or faculty member who has not heard the phrase "literature and medicine" or who does not know that literature is taught in various forms-short stories, novels, poems, essays-at many points in the curriculum at U.S. medical schools. Yet the phrase is used in slippery if not elusive ways, with no clear referent common to all who use it. This article focuses on three theoretical and pedagogical uses for literature in medical, health professions, and interprofessional education: close reading, ethical or moral inquiry, and drawing illustrations...
October 2015: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26957124/towards-tailored-teaching-using-participatory-action-research-to-enhance-the-learning-experience-of-longitudinal-integrated-clerkship-students-in-a-south-african-rural-district-hospital
#17
Klaus B von Pressentin, Firdouza Waggie, Hoffie Conradie
BACKGROUND: The introduction of Stellenbosch University's Longitudinal Integrated Clerkship (LIC) model as part of the undergraduate medical curriculum offers a unique and exciting training model to develop generalist doctors for the changing South African health landscape. At one of these LIC sites, the need for an improvement of the local learning experience became evident. This paper explores how to identify and implement a tailored teaching and learning intervention to improve workplace-based learning for LIC students...
March 8, 2016: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26892780/understanding-the-dispensary-workflow-at-the-birmingham-free-clinic-a-proposed-framework-for-an-informatics-intervention
#18
Arielle M Fisher, Mary I Herbert, Gerald P Douglas
BACKGROUND: The Birmingham Free Clinic (BFC) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA is a free, walk-in clinic that serves medically uninsured populations through the use of volunteer health care providers and an on-site medication dispensary. The introduction of an electronic medical record (EMR) has improved several aspects of clinic workflow. However, pharmacists' tasks involving medication management and dispensing have become more challenging since EMR implementation due to its inability to support workflows between the medical and pharmaceutical services...
February 19, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26849736/o-019%C3%A2-anxiety-in-pediatric-ibd-a-predictor-for-disease-relapse-and-increased-health-care-use
#19
Claire Hoogendoorn, Ankita Satpute, Laura Reigada
BACKGROUND: The impact of anxiety on disease relapse and health care use for pediatric patients diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) still requires further inquiry. Anxiety can influence health care utilization through multiple avenues, including manipulation of inflammatory processes central to IBD, and via somatic manifestation of psychological stress that may be misinterpreted as disease symptoms or medication side effects. The aim of this study was to examine the association between anxiety and risk for disease relapse, and test whether anxiety predicted greater gastrointestinal (GI) health care utilization over a 12-month period...
March 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26836754/hub-and-spoke-model-making-rural-healthcare-in-india-affordable-available-and-accessible
#20
Srichand Devarakonda
CONTEXT: Quality health care should be within everyone's reach, especially in a developing country. While India has the largest private health sector in the world, only one-fifth of healthcare expenditure is publically financed; it is mostly an out-of-pocket expense. About 70% of Indians live in rural areas making about $3 per day, and a major portion of that goes towards food and shelter and, thus, not towards health care. Transportation facilities in rural India are poor, making access to medical facilities difficult, and infrastructure facilities are minimal, making the available medical care insufficient...
January 2016: Rural and Remote Health
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