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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239771/can-training-change-attentional-breadth-failure-to-find-transfer-effects
#1
Lin Fang, Kristof Hoorelbeke, Lynn Bruyneel, Lies Notebaert, Colin MacLeod, Rudi De Raedt, Ernst H W Koster
Recently, there is increasing interest in the causal relationship between attentional breadth and emotion regulation. To test this causal relationship, attentional breadth needs to be manipulated stringently. The aim of the current research was to establish whether visual attentional breadth could be manipulated through experimental training procedures. We conducted two single-session training experiments and one multiple-session training experiment, all of which contained pre- and post-training assessments to test the direct transfer effects of training on attentional breadth construed in different measures...
February 26, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239363/formal-and-informal-learning-and-first-year-psychology-students-development-of-scientific-thinking-a-two-wave-panel-study
#2
Demet Soyyılmaz, Laura M Griffin, Miguel H Martín, Šimon Kucharský, Ekaterina D Peycheva, Nina Vaupotič, Peter A Edelsbrunner
Scientific thinking is a predicate for scientific inquiry, and thus important to develop early in psychology students as potential future researchers. The present research is aimed at fathoming the contributions of formal and informal learning experiences to psychology students' development of scientific thinking during their 1st-year of study. We hypothesize that informal experiences are relevant beyond formal experiences. First-year psychology student cohorts from various European countries will be assessed at the beginning and again at the end of the second semester...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239219/higher-quality-and-lower-cost-from-improving-hospital-discharge-decision-making
#3
James C Cox, Vjollca Sadiraj, Kurt E Schnier, John F Sweeney
This paper reports research on improving decisions about hospital discharges - decisions that are now made by physicians based on mainly subjective evaluations of patients' discharge status. We report an experiment on uptake of our clinical decision support software (CDSS) which presents physicians with evidence-based discharge criteria that can be effectively utilized at the point of care where the discharge decision is made. One experimental treatment we report prompts physician attentiveness to the CDSS by replacing the default option of universal "opt in" to patient discharge with the alternative default option of "opt out" from the CDSS recommendations to discharge or not to discharge the patient on each day of hospital stay...
November 2016: Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238822/does-receiving-a-blood-transfusion-predict-for-length-of-stay-in-children-undergoing-cranial-vault-remodeling-for-craniosynostosis-outcomes-using-the-pediatric-national-surgical-quality-improvement-program-dataset
#4
Michael R Markiewicz, Tord Alden, Mohmed Vasim Momin, Alexis B Olsson, Ray J Jurado, Fizan Abdullah, Michael Miloro
PURPOSE: Recent interventions have aimed at reducing the need for blood transfusions in the perioperative period in patients with craniosynostosis undergoing cranial vault remodeling. However, little is known regarding whether the receipt of a blood transfusion influences the length of hospital stay. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the receipt of a blood transfusion in patients undergoing cranial vault remodeling is associated with an increased length of stay. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To address the research purposes, we designed a retrospective cohort study using the 2014 Pediatric National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP Peds) dataset...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238610/improving-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-in-schools-in-indonesia-a-cross-sectional-assessment-on-sustaining-infrastructural-and-behavioral-interventions
#5
Andrew J Karon, Aidan A Cronin, Ryan Cronk, Reza Hendrawan
Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in schools are important for child health, development, and educational performance; yet coverage in Indonesian schools remains low. To address this deficiency, UNICEF and partners conducted a WASH intervention in 450 schools across three provinces in Indonesia. A survey evaluating the sustainability of infrastructure and behavioral interventions in comparison to control districts was conducted one year after completion of the intervention. The survey data were also compared with national government data to assess the suitability of government data to report progress on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)...
February 12, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236208/seeking-evidence-of-multidisciplinarity-in-environmental-geochemistry-and-health-an-analysis-of-arsenic-in-drinking-water-research
#6
Abiodun D Aderibigbe, Alex G Stewart, Andrew S Hursthouse
A multidisciplinary approach to research affords the opportunity of objectivity, creation of new knowledge and potentially a more generally acceptable solution to problems that informed the research in the first place. It increasingly features in national programmes supporting basic and applied research, but for over 40 years, has been the arena for many research teams in environmental geochemistry and health. This study explores the nature of multidisciplinary research in the earth and health sciences using a sample selected from co-authored articles reporting research on arsenic (As) in drinking water from 1979 to 2013...
February 24, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236125/predictors-of-academic-success-for-m%C3%A4-ori-pacific-and-non-m%C3%A4-ori-non-pacific-students-in-health-professional-education-a-quantitative-analysis
#7
Erena Wikaire, Elana Curtis, Donna Cormack, Yannan Jiang, Louise McMillan, Rob Loto, Papaarangi Reid
Tertiary institutions internationally aim to increase student diversity, however are struggling to achieve equitable academic outcomes for indigenous and ethnic minority students and detailed exploration of factors that impact on success is required. This study explored the predictive effect of admission variables on academic outcomes for health professional students by ethnic grouping. Kaupapa Māori and Pacific research methodologies were used to conduct a quantitative analysis using data for 2686 health professional students [150 Māori, 257 Pacific, 2279, non-Māori non-Pacific (nMnP)]...
February 24, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236123/influence-of-socioeconomic-factors-on-self-reported-prevalence-of-allergic-diseases-among-female-university-students
#8
K Kliś, M Żurawiecka, A Suder, I Teul, B Borowska-Strugińska, E Suliga, I Wronka
Until recently, most studies report an increasing prevalence of allergy and asthma. The research suggests that the increase may have to do with changes in lifestyle and living conditions. This study seeks to determine the prevalence and changes in allergic diseases in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) 6 years apart. The research material consisted of data collected in two cross-sectional surveys conducted among university female students in 2009 and 2015 (respectively, 702 and 1305 subjects). The surveys evaluated the incidence of allergic conditions and socio-economic status...
February 25, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236099/a-meta-analysis-of-single-subject-research-on-behavioral-momentum-to-enhance-success-in-students-with-autism
#9
Richard J Cowan, Leah Abel, Lindsay Candel
We conducted a meta-analysis of single-subject research studies investigating the effectiveness of antecedent strategies grounded in behavioral momentum for improving compliance and on-task performance for students with autism. First, we assessed the research rigor of those studies meeting our inclusionary criteria. Next, in order to apply a universal metric to help determine the effectiveness of this category of antecedent strategies investigated via single-subject research methods, we calculated effect sizes via omnibus improvement rate differences (IRDs)...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236053/almost-psychiatry-the-impact-of-teaching-child-and-adolescent-mental-health-studies-to-undergraduate-college-students
#10
Ursula Diamond, Christina A Di Bartolo, Emily Badin, Jess P Shatkin
OBJECTIVE: The Child and Adolescent Mental Health Studies (CAMS) program is housed in a Liberal Arts undergraduate college of a large research university. Psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, and social workers at the university's medical center teach the courses. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the extent to which CAMS encourages graduates of the program to pursue a career in child and adolescent mental health (CAMH). METHODS: In 2015-2016, graduates of the CAMS program were invited to participate in a mixed methods study...
February 24, 2017: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235834/comparison-of-uk-paediatric-consultants-participation-in-child-health-research-between-2011-and-2015
#11
Rachel Winch, Martin McColgan, Neena Modi, Anne Greenough
OBJECTIVE: To identify whether there have been changes over time in the capacity of paediatric consultants to undertake research and if the activity differs between men and women. DESIGN: Comparison of data from two surveys of UK paediatric consultants. SUBJECTS: UK consultant members of the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. INTERVENTIONS: Surveys carried out in 2011 and 2015. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The proportion of consultants with allocated time in job plans for research, academic appointments, postgraduate qualifications, publications, grant funding and supervision of PhD students...
February 24, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235793/a-mixed-method-multiperspective-evaluation-of-a-near-peer-teaching-programme
#12
Sinéad Lydon, Paul O'Connor, Orla Mongan, Miroslawa Gorecka, Lyle McVicker, Aiden Stankard, Dara Byrne
PURPOSE OF STUDY: Peer teaching (PT) has become increasingly popular. PT may offer benefits for students, tutors and institutions. Although resistance to PT has been identified among faculty, research has typically focused on students' experiences and perceptions, rather than those of the peer tutors or senior doctors/medical faculty. The current study comprised of a comprehensive, multiperspective evaluation of a near PT programme delivered by interns to final-year medical students in the Republic of Ireland...
February 24, 2017: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235755/classical-and-novel-pharmacological-insights-offered-by-the-simple-chick-cardiomyocyte-cell-culture-model-a-valuable-teaching-aid-and-a-primer-for-real-research
#13
N S Freestone, C L S Sam
The chick embryo cardiomyocyte model of cell culture is a staple technique in many physiology and pharmacology laboratories. Despite the relative simplicity, robustness, and reproducibility inherent in this model, it can be used in a variety of ways to yield important new insights that help facilitate student understanding of underlying physiological and pharmacological concepts as well as, more generally, the scientific method. Using this model, this paper will show real data obtained by undergraduate students in the authors' laboratories...
March 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235754/assessing-students-ability-to-critically-evaluate-evidence-in-an-inquiry-based-undergraduate-laboratory-course
#14
Kay Colthorpe, Hyab Mehari Abraha, Kirsten Zimbardi, Louise Ainscough, Jereme G Spiers, Hsiao-Jou Cortina Chen, Nickolas A Lavidis
The ability to critically evaluate and use evidence from one's own work or from primary literature is invaluable to any researcher. These skills include the ability to identify strengths and weakness of primary literature, to gauge the impact of research findings on a field, to identify gaps in a field that require more research, and to contextualize findings within a field. This study developed a model to examine undergraduate science students' abilities to critically evaluate and use evidence through an analysis of laboratory reports from control and experimental groups in nonresearch-aligned and research-aligned inquiry-based laboratory classes, respectively, and contrasted these with published scientific research articles...
March 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231492/family-history-density-of-substance-use-problems-among-undergraduate-college-students-associations-with-heavy-alcohol-use-and-alcohol-use-disorder
#15
Gregory Powers, Lisa Berger, Daniel Fuhrmann, Michael Fendrich
PURPOSE: A family history of alcoholism has been found associated with problematic alcohol use among college students, but less research has examined the effects of family history density of substance use problems in this population. This study examined the prevalence of family history density of substance use problems and its associations with heavy alcohol use, negative alcohol consequences, and alcohol use disorder in a college sample. METHODS: Based on a secondary analysis of a probability sample, data were analyzed from 606 undergraduate students...
February 9, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231485/the-importance-of-teacher-support-differential-impacts-by-gender-and-sexuality
#16
Adrienne B Dessel, Alex Kulick, Laura J Wernick, Daniel Sullivan
Teachers play an important role in shaping the experiences of high school students with regard to patterns of heteronormativity and binary gender norms, particularly for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) students. A climate survey of high school students (n = 953) in the United States examined the association between students' well-being and their relationships with teachers. The sample was majority white (65.8%) and multiracial (14.1%). Cisgender (cis)-girls (49.6%), cis-boys (41...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231484/exploratory-investigation-of-theoretical-predictors-of-nomophobia-using-the-mobile-phone-involvement-questionnaire-mpiq
#17
Lidia Argumosa-Villar, Joan Boada-Grau, Andreu Vigil-Colet
Despite the advantages that the development of new technologies has brought to our lives, it is also true that the problematic use of technology can have negative effects on some people, as the prevalence of nomophobia, defined as the fear and anxiety of being unreachable via one's mobile phone. While some authors are beginning to study the relationship of nomophobia with variables such as age, no investigation has yet been carried out into psychological variables. Our study contributes to the literature by looking at personality, self-esteem, gender and age as predictors of nomophobia, evaluated by the Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire (MPIQ)...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231461/tips-for-young-scientists-on-the-junior-faculty-independent-investigator-job-search
#18
Kelsey C Martin
Landing a job as an assistant professor or independent investigator in neuroscience in an academic institution or research institute depends on the accomplishments young scientists make during years of training as graduate students and postdoctoral fellows. This training prepares scientists for an array of exciting job opportunities, one of which is as a faculty member or independent investigator. My goal in this NeuroView is to provide tips about the job search for young scientists who have decided to enter the junior faculty/independent investigator job market...
February 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231045/original-research-paper-public-health-care-system-a-quasi-experimental-study-acceptance-and-attitude-to-implicate-clinical-services
#19
Syed Wasif Gillani, Mohi Iqbal Mohammad Abdul
A six-month longitudinal intervention arm study with a pre-post cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was performed. A 3-phase objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) design was utilized for evaluation of acceptance and attitude of pharmacy students towards clinical pharmacy services. The pre-OSCE survey showed increased disagreement with the role of clinical pharmacists, compared to a significant positive shift in attitude towards their services in the healthcare team after 6 months of the trial...
March 1, 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230752/impact-of-particulate-matter-exposure-and-surrounding-greenness-on-chronic-absenteeism-in-massachusetts-public-schools
#20
Piers MacNaughton, Erika Eitland, Itai Kloog, Joel Schwartz, Joseph Allen
Chronic absenteeism is associated with poorer academic performance and higher attrition in kindergarten to 12th grade (K-12) schools. In prior research, students who were chronically absent generally had fewer employment opportunities and worse health after graduation. We examined the impact that environmental factors surrounding schools have on chronic absenteeism. We estimated the greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)) and fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) within 250 m and 1000 m respectively of each public school in Massachusetts during the 2012-2013 academic year using satellite-based data...
20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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