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crocin and crocetin

Bibi Marjan Razavi, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Metabolic syndrome is a disorder which encompasses with obesity, high blood glucose, high cholesterol levels and high blood pressure. Moreover metabolic syndrome is considered as the most important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD is the leading cause of mortality in the world for both men and women. Although several chemical drugs are available to treat metabolic risk factors, however, because of the safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects, nowadays herbal therapy has a critical role in the treatment of these CVD risk factors...
November 12, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Mitali Nitin Dawalbhakta, Manasi Alok Telang
BACKGROUND: Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) has a long history of use as a food additive and a traditional medicine for treating a number of disorders. Prominent bioactives of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to carry out an extensive patent search to collect information on saffron bioactives and their derivatives as therapeutic and cosmeceutical agents. All patents related to the area of interest published globally till date have been reviewed...
November 14, 2016: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
Alireza Milani, Marzieh Basirnejad, Sepideh Shahbazi, Azam Bolhassani
Carotenoids and retinoids have several similarities in biological activities such as antioxidant properties, the inhibition of malignant tumor growth, and the induction of apoptosis. Supplementation with carotenoids can influence cell growth regulation, and modulate gene expression and immune response. Epidemiologic studies have shown the correlation of high carotenoid intake from food sources with reduced risk of breast, cervical, ovarian, colorectal cancers, and cardiovascular or eye diseases. Cancer chemoprevention by dietary carotenoids involves some approaches including gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), growth factor signaling, cell cycle progression, differentiation-related proteins, retinoid-like receptors, antioxidant response element, nuclear receptors, AP-1 transcriptional complex, Wnt/β-Catenin pathway, and inflammatory cytokines...
September 16, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Takuya Ohba, Mitsue Ishisaka, Saori Tsujii, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Koya Kubo, Naofumi Umigai, Takao Iwawaki, Hideaki Hara
Crocetin, the aglycone of crocin, is a carotenoid found in fruits of gardenia (Gardeina jasminoides Ellis) and saffron (Crocus sativus L.). We investigated the protective effects of crocetin against ultraviolet-A (UV-A)-induced skin damage and explored the underlying mechanism. Human skin-derived fibroblasts cells (NB1-RGB) were damaged by exposure to UV-A irradiation (10J/cm(2)). Crocetin protected these cells against cell death and reduced the production of reactive oxygen species induced by UV-A irradiation...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Alireza Rezaee Khorasany, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Saffron, the dried red-orange stigmas of Crocus sativus L, has been known as a flavoring agent, food coloring and traditional herbal medicine. Pharmacological effects of saffron are mainly attributed to crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. These components especially crocin, have significant effects including antidepressant and anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-cancer and other therapeutic effects on different parts of our body namely cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, genital-urinary and central nervous system...
May 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Mohammad Hossein Boskabady, Tahereh Farkhondeh
Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus), commonly known as saffron, is used as a food additive, preservative, and medicinal herb. Traditionally, it has been used as an alternative treatment for different diseases. C. sativus' medicinal effects are related to its major constituents like crocins, crocetin, and safranal. According to the literature, C. sativus and its constituents could be considered as an effective treatment for neurodegenerative disorders, coronary artery diseases, asthma, bronchitis, colds, fever, diabetes, and so on...
July 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Wei-E Zhou, Yuan Zhang, Yang Li, Yun Ling, Hong-Na Li, Shao-Hui Li, Shou-Jun Jiang, Zhi-Qin Ren, Zhi-Qiang Huang, Feng Zhang
A novel, rapid and simple analytical method was developed for the quantitative determination of crocin, crocetin and geniposide in soft drink, pastry and instant noodles. The solid samples were relatively homogenized into powders and fragments. The gardenia yellow colorants were successively extracted with methanol using ultrasound-assisted extraction. The analytes were quantitatively measured in the extracts by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. High correlation coefficients (r(2)>0...
May 13, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Ping Chen, Yang Chen, Yarong Wang, Shining Cai, Liang Deng, Jia Liu, Hao Zhang
Iridoid glycosides (mainly geniposide) and crocetin derivatives (crocins) are the two major active constituents in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. In the present study, geniposide, crocins, crocin-1 and crocetin were separated from gardenia chromatographically. Then, mice were orally administrated with geniposide (400 mg/kg b.w.), crocins (400 mg/kg b.w.), crocin-1 (400 mg/kg b.w.) and crocetin (140 mg/kg b.w.) once daily for 7 days with CCl4. Hepatoprotective properties were evaluated by biochemical parameters: Administration of geniposide, crocins, crocin-1and crocetin significantlylowered serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in CCl4-treated mice...
March 1, 2016: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Hamid Mollazadeh, Seyyed Ahmad Emami, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Traditional knowledge can be used as a source for development of new medicines. In the present study, we compare the data on saffron in Razi's Al-Hawi book with modern scientific studies. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus as well as native references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocetin, crocin, safranal, Razi, and Al-Hawi. A variety of properties of saffron including diuretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, appetite suppressant, hypnotic, antidepressant, and bronchodilator effects were mentioned in Al-Hawi...
December 2015: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Gianluca Paredi, Samanta Raboni, Francesco Marchesani, Stella A Ordoudi, Maria Z Tsimidou, Andrea Mozzarelli
Saffron is a spice comprised of the dried stigmas and styles of Crocus sativus L. flowers and, since it is very expensive, it is frequently adulterated. So far, proteomic tools have never been applied to characterize the proteome of saffron or identify possible cases of fraud. In this study, 1D-Gel Electrophoresis was carried out to characterize the protein profile of (i) fresh stigmas and styles of the plant; (ii) dried stigmas and styles from different geographical origins (Spanish, Italian, Greek and Iranian) that had been stored for various periods of time after their processing; and (iii) two common plant adulterants, dried petals of Carthamus tinctorius L...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Oussama Ahrazem, Angela Rubio-Moraga, Maria L Jimeno, Lourdes Gómez-Gómez
Crocin biosynthesis in Crocus has been proposed to proceed through a zeaxanthin cleavage pathway catalyzed by carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 2 (CCD2), and followed by glucosylation reactions catalyzed by CsGT2 (UGT74AD1). In Crocus ancyrensis flowers, crocins with eight (crocin-1), seven (crocin-2), and six glucose (crocin-3) moieties accumulated both in stigma and tepals. We have characterized the structure of these highly glucosylated crocins and follow up their accumulation by high-resolution liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector along the development of both tissues, and coupled to the isolation and analysis of the expression of eighteen genes (PSY-I, PSY-II, PDS-(I-V), ISO-ZDS, ZDS, CtrISO, LYC-I and II, BCH, CaCCD2, UGT74AD2-5) related with the apocarotenoid metabolism in C...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
Bahareh Amin, Alireza Nakhsaz, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to investigate the putative antidepressant effects of crocin and crocetin, two major active ingredients of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) using mice in two different regimens of acute and sub-acute administration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In acute treatment, antidepressant-like activities of crocin and crocetin (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) were evaluated using forced swim test (FST). In sub-acute study (21 times with 24-h intervals), antidepressant-like effects of oral administration of drugs were examined using FST and tail suspension test (TST)...
September 2015: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Amin Mokhtari-Zaer, Mohammad Reza Khazdair, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady
Saffron, Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus) is rich in carotenoids and used in traditional medicine for treatment of various conditions such as coughs, stomach disorders, amenorrhea, asthma and cardiovascular disorders. These therapeutic effects of the plant are suggested to be due to its relaxant effect on smooth muscles. The effect of C. sativus and its constituents on different smooth muscles and the underlying mechanisms have been studied. Several studies have shown the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents including safranal, crocin, crocetin and kaempferol on blood vessels...
September 2015: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Oussama Ahrazem, Angela Rubio-Moraga, Judit Berman, Teresa Capell, Paul Christou, Changfu Zhu, Lourdes Gómez-Gómez
The apocarotenoid crocetin and its glycosylated derivatives, crocins, confer the red colour to saffron. Crocetin biosynthesis in saffron is catalysed by the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase CCD2 (AIG94929). No homologues have been identified in other plant species due to the very limited presence of crocetin and its derivatives in the plant kingdom. Spring Crocus species with yellow flowers accumulate crocins in the stigma and tepals. Four carotenoid CCDs, namely CaCCD1, CaCCD2 and CaCCD4a/b and CaCCD4c were first cloned and characterized...
January 2016: New Phytologist
V Sapanidou, I Taitzoglou, Ι Tsakmakidis, I Kourtzelis, D Fletouris, A Theodoridis, I Zervos, M Tsantarliotou
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production above critical levels affects the genetic and functional integrity of spermatozoa by causing oxidative stress. Spermatozoa are susceptible to oxidative stress in terms of motility and fertilization capacity. Crocin (crocetin di-gentiobiose ester), a main constituent of Crocus Sativus L. (saffron), is known for its antioxidant activity by scavenging ROS, especially superoxide anion. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of crocin on the quality characteristics of spermatozoa and fertilization rate...
November 2015: Theriogenology
Prasan R Bhandari
Cancer is one of the most feared diseases globally and there has been a sustained rise in its incidence in both developing and developed countries. Despite the growing therapeutic options for patients with cancer, their efficacy is time-limited and non-curative. Hence to overcome these drawbacks, an incessant screening for superior and safer drugs has been ongoing for numerous decades, resulting in the detection of anti-cancer properties of several phytochemicals. Chemoprevention using readily available natural substances from vegetables, fruits, herbs and spices is one of the significantly important approaches for cancer prevention in the present era...
April 2015: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Ali Mohammadi Karakani, Gholamhossein Riazi, Seyed Mahmood Ghaffari, Shahin Ahmadian, Farzad Mokhtari, Mahshad Jalili Firuzi, Seyedeh Zahra Bathaie
OBJECTIVES: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder. One of the hallmarks of AD is an abnormal accumulation of fibril forms of tau protein which is known as a microtubule associated protein. In this regard, inhibition of tau aggregation has been documented to be a potent therapeutic approach in AD and tauopathies. Unfortunately, the available synthetic drugs have modest beneficial efficacy with several side effects. Therefore, pipeline drugs from natural sources with anti-aggregation properties can be useful in the prevention and treatment of AD...
May 2015: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Xiaoshuang Cai, Rui Zhang, Ying Guo, Jingren He, Shuyi Li, Zhenzhou Zhu, Gang Liu, Zhiwei Liu, Jun Yang
Compounds in Fructus Gardeniae have been shown to possess a wide array of biological activities. However, Gardenia oil extracted from its fruit is less reported and its composition remains uncertain. To completely characterize lipophilic compounds in Gardenia oil, three conventional extraction (CE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods were investigated. The oil extraction yield obtained by UAE was 51.8% higher than that acquired by cold-pressed extraction (CPE). The fatty acid profile in UAE oil with different solvents was characterized by GC-MS...
July 2015: Food & Function
Keti Zeka, Ketan C Ruparelia, Maria A Continenza, Dimitrios Stagos, Francesco Vegliò, Randolph R J Arroo
Saffron from the province of L'Aquila, in the Abruzzo region of Italy, is highly prized and has been awarded a formal recognition by the European Union with EU Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) status. Despite this, the saffron regions are abandoned by the younger generations because the traditional cultivation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is labour intensive and yields only one crop of valuable saffron stamens per year. Petals of the saffron Crocus have had additional uses in traditional medicine and may add value to the crops for local farmers...
December 2015: Fitoterapia
Bibi Marjan Razavi, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Saffron (Crocus sativus) is an extensively used food additive for its color and taste. Since ancient times this plant has been introduced as a marvelous medicine throughout the world. The wide spectrum of saffron pharmacological activities is related to its major constituents including crocin, crocetin and safranal. Based on several studies, saffron and its active ingredients have been used as an antioxidant, antiinflammatory and antinociceptive, antidepressant, antitussive, anticonvulsant, memory enhancer, hypotensive and anticancer...
2015: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
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