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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147836/effects-of-saffron%C3%A2-and-its-constituents-%C3%A2-crocin-1-crocin-2-and-crocetin-on-%C3%AE-synuclein-fibrils
#1
Eiji Inoue, Yasuharu Shimizu, Ryo Masui, Tomomi Hayakawa, Tomoe Tsubonoya, Satoko Hori, Keiichi Sudoh
Saffron, the stigma of Crocus sativus Linné (Iridaceae family), has been known to inhibit aggregation of β-amyloid, a nerve tissue protein. α-Synuclein (αS) is a 140-amino acid protein found abundantly in various regions of the brain. Its abnormal aggregation and accumulation in nerve tissue are said to cause neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Lewy body dementia, and multiple-system atrophy. This study (part of this study was presented at the 137th Annual Meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan) examined the effects of saffron, its constituents (crocin-1, crocin-2, crocetin, and safranal), and crocetin structural analogs (hexadecanedioic acid, norbixin, and trans, trans-muconic acid) on αS aggregation, and αS fibril dissociation...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136374/saffron-against-components-of-metabolic-syndrome-current-status-and-prospective
#2
Mojtaba Shafiee, Nazanin Sadat Aghili Moghaddam, Mohammad Nosrati, Mahsa Tousi, Amir Avan, Mikhail Ryzhikov, Mohammad Reza Parizadeh, Hamid Fiuji, Majid Rajabian, Amirhosein Bahreyni, Majid Khazaei, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian
Saffron, the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L., is mainly used as a food coloring and flavoring agent. This agricultural product is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases including asthma, liver disease, menstruation disorders, and, of special interest in this review, in metabolic syndrome. Saffron and its active components including crocin, crocetin and safranal are potential therapeutic candidates for attenuating MetS complications including hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity, and dyslipidemia...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134501/pharmacokinetic-properties-of-saffron-and-its-active-components
#3
Azar Hosseini, Bibi Marjan Razavi, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Saffron as a medicinal plant has many therapeutic effects. Phytochemical studies have reported that saffron is composed of at least four active ingredients which include crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. The carotenoids of saffron are sensitive to oxygen, light, heat and enzymatic oxidization. However, regulation of these factors is required for saffron quality. Some pharmacologic effects of saffron and its active compounds include cardioprotective, neuroprotective, memory enhancer, antidepressant and anxiolytic...
November 13, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981773/evolutionarily-distinct-carotenoid-cleavage-dioxygenases-are-responsible-for-crocetin-production-in-buddleja-davidii
#4
Oussama Ahrazem, Gianfranco Diretto, Javier Argandoña, Ángela Rubio-Moraga, José Manuel Julve, Diego Orzáez, Antonio Granell, Lourdes Gómez-Gómez, Qiao Zhao
Crocetin, one of the few colored apocarotenoids known in nature, is present in flowers and fruits and has long been used medicinally and as a colorant. Saffron is the main source of crocetin, although a few other plants produce lower amounts of this apocarotenoid. Notably, Buddleja davidii accumulates crocetin in its flowers. Recently, a carotenoid dioxygenase cleavage enzyme, CCD2, has been characterized as responsible for crocetin production in Crocus species. We searched for CCD2 homologues in B. davidii and identified several CCD enzymes from the CCD1 and CCD4 subfamilies...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852439/crocin-has-anti-inflammatory-and-protective-effects-in-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-renal-injuries
#5
Zeynab Mohamadi Yarijani, Ali Pourmotabbed, Tayebeh Pourmotabbed, Houshang Najafi
OBJECTIVES: Crocus sativus (saffron) has been widely used in traditional medicine. It has also been found to possess many beneficial properties in modern medicine. The most important ingredients of saffron are crocin, crocetin, safranal, and picrocrocin. This study evaluated the protective effects of crocin against the inflammation, oxidative stress, and functional disturbances of the kidney induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Different doses of crocin (0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally 30 min before I/R...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705037/saffron-and-its-derivatives-crocin-crocetin-and-safranal-a-patent-review
#6
Maryam Rameshrad, Bibi Marjan Razavi, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Saffron and its main components have traditionally been used as pharmaceutical agents. Current experimental research projects have also exhibited their applications in a wide spectrum of disorder treatments. Area covered: This review covers the demonstrated findings and patents on therapeutic/pharmaceutical properties of saffron and related derivatives, since 2000 to bold their outstanding merit on human health. An extensive literature review was performed in USP Patent, Patentscope, Espacenet and Google Patent in the field of CNS, cardiovascular, urogenital, dermatological and inflammatory disorders...
July 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602167/mechanism-behind-the-anti-tumour-potential-of-saffron-crocus-sativus-l-the-molecular-perspective
#7
REVIEW
Sweta Patel, Maryam Sarwat, Tajdar H Khan
Cancer is a disorder which has noted a significant rise in incidence worldwide and continues to be the largest cause of mortality. It has a dramatic impact on human life expectancy and quality of life in spite of the increase in technology and the treatments available for cancer patients. These new therapeutic options being chemotherapy, radiotherapy, photolytic therapy and catalytic therapy are known to have many adverse reactions and also no better positive outcomes than before. Hence, research is now focused more on utilizing the vast repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge i...
July 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537197/saffron-carotenoids-crocin-and-crocetin-binding-to-human-serum-albumin-as-investigated-by-different-spectroscopic-methods-and-molecular-docking
#8
Moslem Jafarisani, S Zahra Bathaie, Mir F Mousavi
Therapeutic effects of saffron ingredients were studied in some diseases. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these ingredients were also studied, but their transport mechanism is not clearly known. Serum albumin has been known as the most important transporter of many drugs in the body that affects their disposition, transportation, and bioavailability. Here, we investigated the interaction of crocin (Cro) with HSA, for the first time, and compared with the crocetin (Crt)-HSA interaction. UV and fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD), and molecular docking was applied to investigate the possibility and mechanism of binding of HSA with these natural carotenoids...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392893/traditional-persian-topical-medications-for-gastrointestinal-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Laleh Dehghani Tafti, Seyyed Mahyar Shariatpanahi, Mahmoud Mahdavi Damghani, Behjat Javadi
Drug delivery across the skin is used for several millennia to ease gastrointestinal (GI) ailments in Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM). TPM topical remedies are generally being applied on the stomach, lower abdomen, lower back and liver to alleviate GI illnesses such as dyspepsia, gastritis, GI ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal worms and infections. The aim of the present study is to survey the topical GI remedies and plant species used as ingredients for these remedies in TPM. In addition, pharmacological activities of the mentioned plants have been discussed...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367420/comparative-study-on-the-preventive-effect-of-saffron-carotenoids-crocin-and-crocetin-in-nmu-induced-breast-cancer-in-rats
#10
Meysam Sajjadi, Zahra Bathaie
OBJECTIVE: Crocin (Cro) and crocetin (Crt) are two widely known saffron carotenoids, which exert anticancer effects by different mechanisms. Here, we investigated and compared the preventive effect of Cro and Crt at the initiation and promotion stages of breast cancer induction in an animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, female Wistar albino rats were injected with three doses of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU). The preventive intervention was done at different times for the initiation and promotion stages...
April 2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322405/gastrointestinal-absorption-antiproliferative-and-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-the-major-carotenoids-of-gardenia-jasminoides-ellis-on-cancer-cells
#11
Hélder Oliveira, Xiaoshuang Cai, Qian Zhang, Victor de Freitas, Nuno Mateus, Jingren He, Iva Fernandes
The gastrointestinal absorption of the main carotenoids present in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, crocetin, crocin-1 and crocin-2, was assayed through transport studies on MKN-28 and Caco-2 cell lines. Overall, crocetin was the compound that presented the highest gastrointestinal transport efficiency. Additionally, and since after absorption crocins are metabolized into crocetin, the antiproliferative capacity of crocetin was assayed in MKN-28 (stomach), MCF-7 (breast) and Caco-2 (colon) cancer cell lines. The results point to an antiproliferative effect of crocetin on the three cell lines tested...
April 19, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056427/sensitive-analysis-and-simultaneous-assessment-of-pharmacokinetic-properties-of-crocin-and-crocetin-after-oral-administration-in-rats
#12
Yue Zhang, Fei Fei, Le Zhen, Xuanxuan Zhu, Jiankun Wang, Sijia Li, Jianliang Geng, Runbin Sun, Xiaoyi Yu, Tingting Chen, Siqi Feng, Pei Wang, Na Yang, Yejin Zhu, Jingqiu Huang, Yuqing Zhao, Jiye Aa, Guangji Wang
Crocin and crocetin in rat plasma were simultaneously analysed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS/MS), and method was fully validated. For the first time, levels of both crocin and crocetin in plasma were profiled after oral administration of crocin, and this UPLC-MS/MS approach was applied to evaluate pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of crocin and crocetin in rats. It was shown that crocin transformed into crocetin quickly in the gastrointestinal tract, and crocetin was 56-81 fold higher exposed in rat plasma than crocin after oral administration of crocin...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045431/unraveling-massive-crocins-transport-and-accumulation-through-proteome-and-microscopy-tools-during-the-development-of-saffron-stigma
#13
Lourdes Gómez-Gómez, Verónica Parra-Vega, Alba Rivas-Sendra, Jose M Seguí-Simarro, Rosa Victoria Molina, Claudia Pallotti, Ángela Rubio-Moraga, Gianfranco Diretto, Alicia Prieto, Oussama Ahrazem
Crocins, the glucosides of crocetin, are present at high concentrations in saffron stigmas and accumulate in the vacuole. However, the biogenesis of the saffron chromoplast, the changes during the development of the stigma and the transport of crocins to the vacuole, are processes that remain poorly understood. We studied the process of chromoplast differentiation in saffron throughout stigma development by means of transmission electron microscopy. Our results provided an overview of a massive transport of crocins to the vacuole in the later developmental stages, when electron dense drops of a much greater size than plastoglobules (here defined "crocinoplast") were observed in the chromoplast, connected to the vacuole with a subsequent transfer of these large globules inside the vacuole...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976146/development-and-validation-of-a-uplc-method-for-quantifying-trans-crocin-4-and-crocetin-from-saffron-in-plasma-a-pharmacokinetic-study
#14
E Karkoula, N Lemonakis, N Kokras, C Dalla, E Gikas, A L Skaltsounis, A Tsarbopoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936687/discovery-and-lc-ms-characterization-of-new-crocins-in-gardeniae-fructus-and-their-neuroprotective-potential
#15
Yang Ni, Lin Li, Weiyang Zhang, Dan Lu, Caixia Zang, Dan Zhang, Yang Yu, Xinsheng Yao
Ten new crocins, neocrocins B-J (1-9), and 13-cis-crocetin-8'-O-β-D-gentiobioside (14), along with ten known crocins, were isolated from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (Gardeniae Fructus). The structures of these compounds were elucidated by analyzing HRESIMS, UV/Vis and 1D and 2D NMR spectra, and their neuroprotective effects against hydrogen peroxide- and L-glutamic acid-induced SH-SY5Y cell injury were evaluated. The UPLC-Q/TOF-MS chromatogram of a crocin-rich fraction derived from gardenia fruit extracts was established using the obtained crocin compounds as references...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861946/saffron-a-promising-natural-medicine-in-the-treatment-of-metabolic-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Bibi Marjan Razavi, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Metabolic syndrome is a disorder which encompasses obesity, high blood glucose, high cholesterol levels and high blood pressure. Moreover, metabolic syndrome is considered as the most important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD is the leading cause of mortality in the world for both men and women. Several chemical drugs are available to treat metabolic risk factors, but because of the safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects, nowadays herbal therapy has a critical role in the treatment of these CVD risk factors...
April 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842483/patents-on-therapeutic-and-cosmetic-applications-of-bioactives-of-crocus-sativus-l-and-their-production-through-synthetic-biology-methods-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Mitali Dawalbhakta, Manasi Telang
BACKGROUND: Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) has a long history of use as a food additive and a traditional medicine for treating a number of disorders. Prominent bioactives of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to carry out an extensive patent search to collect information on saffron bioactives and their derivatives as therapeutic and cosmeceutical agents. All patents related to the area of interest published globally till date have been reviewed...
2017: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638711/carotenoids-biochemistry-pharmacology-and-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Alireza Milani, Marzieh Basirnejad, Sepideh Shahbazi, Azam Bolhassani
Carotenoids and retinoids have several similar biological activities such as antioxidant properties, the inhibition of malignant tumour growth and the induction of apoptosis. Supplementation with carotenoids can affect cell growth and modulate gene expression and immune responses. Epidemiological studies have shown a correlation between a high carotenoid intake in the diet with a reduced risk of breast, cervical, ovarian, colorectal cancers, and cardiovascular and eye diseases. Cancer chemoprevention by dietary carotenoids involves several mechanisms, including effects on gap junctional intercellular communication, growth factor signalling, cell cycle progression, differentiation-related proteins, retinoid-like receptors, antioxidant response element, nuclear receptors, AP-1 transcriptional complex, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and inflammatory cytokines...
June 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452919/crocetin-protects-ultraviolet-a-induced-oxidative-stress-and-cell-death-in-skin-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#19
Takuya Ohba, Mitsue Ishisaka, Saori Tsujii, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Koya Kubo, Naofumi Umigai, Takao Iwawaki, Hideaki Hara
Crocetin, the aglycone of crocin, is a carotenoid found in fruits of gardenia (Gardeina jasminoides Ellis) and saffron (Crocus sativus L.). We investigated the protective effects of crocetin against ultraviolet-A (UV-A)-induced skin damage and explored the underlying mechanism. Human skin-derived fibroblasts cells (NB1-RGB) were damaged by exposure to UV-A irradiation (10J/cm(2)). Crocetin protected these cells against cell death and reduced the production of reactive oxygen species induced by UV-A irradiation...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27403251/therapeutic-effects-of-saffron-crocus-sativus-l-in-digestive-disorders-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Alireza Rezaee Khorasany, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Saffron, the dried red-orange stigmas of Crocus sativus L, has been known as a flavoring agent, food coloring and traditional herbal medicine. Pharmacological effects of saffron are mainly attributed to crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. These components especially crocin, have significant effects including antidepressant and anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-cancer and other therapeutic effects on different parts of our body namely cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, genital-urinary and central nervous system...
May 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
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