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crocin and crocetin

Ajay Godwin Potnuri, Lingesh Allakonda, Mangala Lahkar
Chemotherapy induced testicular toxicity is an emerging reason for azoospermia and impotency in males. Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent to manage neoplastic and non-neoplastic autoimmune diseases. Testicular toxicity along with bladder and hepatotoxicity are its widely reported adverse effects. Crocin (CR) is the digentiobiosyl ester of crocetin, found in the fruits of gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides E.) and dried stigmas of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) possess antioxidant, anti-depressant, anti-tumor and aphrodisiac properties...
February 24, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Oussama Ahrazem, Javier Argandoña, Alessia Fiore, Carolina Aguado, Rafael Luján, Ángela Rubio-Moraga, Mónica Marro, Cuauhtémoc Araujo-Andrade, Pablo Loza-Alvarez, Gianfranco Diretto, Lourdes Gómez-Gómez
Crocins, the red soluble apocarotenoids of saffron, accumulate in the flowers of Crocus species in a developmental and tissue-specific manner. In Crocus sieberi, crocins accumulate in stigmas but also in a distinct yellow tepal sector, which we demonstrate contains chromoplast converted from amyloplasts. Secondary metabolites were analysed by LC-DAD-HRMS, revealing the progressive accumulation of crocetin and crocins in the yellow sector, which were also localized in situ by Raman microspectroscopy. To understand the underlying mechanisms of crocin biosynthesis, we sequenced the C...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Syed Imran Bukhari, Mahreen Manzoor, M K Dhar
Crocus sativus is an herbaceous plant that belongs to family Iridaceae. It is commonly known as saffron and has been used for medicinal purposes since many centuries in India and other parts of the world. Saffron of commercial importance comprises of dried stigmas of the plant and is rich in flavonoids, vitamins, and carotenoids. Carotenoids represent the main components of saffron and their cleavage results in the formation of apocarotenoids such as crocin, picrocrocin, and safranal. Studies conducted during the past two decades have revealed the immense therapeutic potential of saffron...
January 3, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
María José Bagur, Gonzalo Luis Alonso Salinas, Antonia M Jiménez-Monreal, Soukaina Chaouqi, Silvia Llorens, Magdalena Martínez-Tomé, Gonzalo L Alonso
The spice saffron is made from the dried stigmas of the plant Crocus sativus L. The main use of saffron is in cooking, due to its ability to impart colour, flavour and aroma to foods and beverages. However, from time immemorial it has also been considered a medicinal plant because it possesses therapeutic properties, as illustrated in paintings found on the island of Santorini, dated 1627 BC. It is included in Catalogues of Medicinal Plants and in the European Pharmacopoeias, being part of a great number of compounded formulas from the 16th to the 20th centuries...
December 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Seyed Hamed Hashemi-Shahri, Alireza Golshan, Seyed Ahmad Mohajeri, Javad Baharara, Elaheh Amini, Farzaneh Salek, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Zahra Tayarani-Najaran
BACKGROUND: Crocus sativus (Iridaceae) has been traditionally used in the Iranian folk medicine and as a culinary additive. Major components of the plant that are responsible for biological properties are saffranal, crocin, picrocrocin and crocetin. Although the level of crocetin is not high, some of the important activities of saffron such as antioxidant activity have been attributed to crocetin. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we investigated the effects of crocetin on melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells...
December 13, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Eiji Inoue, Yasuharu Shimizu, Ryo Masui, Tomomi Hayakawa, Tomoe Tsubonoya, Satoko Hori, Keiichi Sudoh
Saffron, the stigma of Crocus sativus Linné (Iridaceae family), has been known to inhibit aggregation of β-amyloid, a nerve tissue protein. α-Synuclein (αS) is a 140-amino acid protein found abundantly in various regions of the brain. Its abnormal aggregation and accumulation in nerve tissue are said to cause neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Lewy body dementia, and multiple-system atrophy. This study (part of this study was presented at the 137th Annual Meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan) examined the effects of saffron, its constituents (crocin-1, crocin-2, crocetin, and safranal), and crocetin structural analogs (hexadecanedioic acid, norbixin, and trans, trans-muconic acid) on αS aggregation, and αS fibril dissociation...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
Mojtaba Shafiee, Nazanin Sadat Aghili Moghaddam, Mohammad Nosrati, Mahsa Tousi, Amir Avan, Mikhail Ryzhikov, Mohammad Reza Parizadeh, Hamid Fiuji, Majid Rajabian, Amirhossein Bahreyni, Majid Khazaei, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian
Saffron, the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L., is mainly used as a food coloring and flavoring agent. This agricultural product is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases including asthma, liver disease, menstruation disorders, and, of special interest in this review, metabolic syndrome. Saffron and its active components including crocin, crocetin, and safranal are potential therapeutic candidates for attenuating MetS complications including hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity, and dyslipidemia...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Azar Hosseini, Bibi Marjan Razavi, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Saffron as a medicinal plant has many therapeutic effects. Phytochemical studies have reported that saffron is composed of at least four active ingredients which include crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. The carotenoids of saffron are sensitive to oxygen, light, heat and enzymatic oxidization. However, regulation of these factors is required for saffron quality. Some pharmacologic effects of saffron and its active compounds include cardioprotective, neuroprotective, memory enhancer, antidepressant and anxiolytic...
November 13, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Oussama Ahrazem, Gianfranco Diretto, Javier Argandoña, Ángela Rubio-Moraga, José Manuel Julve, Diego Orzáez, Antonio Granell, Lourdes Gómez-Gómez, Qiao Zhao
Crocetin, one of the few colored apocarotenoids known in nature, is present in flowers and fruits and has long been used medicinally and as a colorant. Saffron is the main source of crocetin, although a few other plants produce lower amounts of this apocarotenoid. Notably, Buddleja davidii accumulates crocetin in its flowers. Recently, a carotenoid dioxygenase cleavage enzyme, CCD2, has been characterized as responsible for crocetin production in Crocus species. We searched for CCD2 homologues in B. davidii and identified several CCD enzymes from the CCD1 and CCD4 subfamilies...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Zeynab Mohamadi Yarijani, Ali Pourmotabbed, Tayebeh Pourmotabbed, Houshang Najafi
OBJECTIVES: Crocus sativus (saffron) has been widely used in traditional medicine. It has also been found to possess many beneficial properties in modern medicine. The most important ingredients of saffron are crocin, crocetin, safranal, and picrocrocin. This study evaluated the protective effects of crocin against the inflammation, oxidative stress, and functional disturbances of the kidney induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Different doses of crocin (0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally 30 min before I/R...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Maryam Rameshrad, Bibi Marjan Razavi, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Saffron and its main components have traditionally been used as pharmaceutical agents. Current experimental research projects have also exhibited their applications in a wide spectrum of disorder treatments. Area covered: This review covers the demonstrated findings and patents on therapeutic/pharmaceutical properties of saffron and related derivatives, since 2000 to bold their outstanding merit on human health. An extensive literature review was performed in USP Patent, Patentscope, Espacenet and Google Patent in the field of CNS, cardiovascular, urogenital, dermatological and inflammatory disorders...
July 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Sweta Patel, Maryam Sarwat, Tajdar H Khan
Cancer is a disorder which has noted a significant rise in incidence worldwide and continues to be the largest cause of mortality. It has a dramatic impact on human life expectancy and quality of life in spite of the increase in technology and the treatments available for cancer patients. These new therapeutic options being chemotherapy, radiotherapy, photolytic therapy and catalytic therapy are known to have many adverse reactions and also no better positive outcomes than before. Hence, research is now focused more on utilizing the vast repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge i...
July 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Moslem Jafarisani, S Zahra Bathaie, Mir F Mousavi
Therapeutic effects of saffron ingredients were studied in some diseases. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these ingredients were also studied, but their transport mechanism is not clearly known. Serum albumin has been known as the most important transporter of many drugs in the body that affects their disposition, transportation, and bioavailability. Here, we investigated the interaction of crocin (Cro) with HSA, for the first time, and compared with the crocetin (Crt)-HSA interaction. UV and fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD), and molecular docking was applied to investigate the possibility and mechanism of binding of HSA with these natural carotenoids...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Laleh Dehghani Tafti, Seyyed Mahyar Shariatpanahi, Mahmoud Mahdavi Damghani, Behjat Javadi
Drug delivery across the skin is used for several millennia to ease gastrointestinal (GI) ailments in Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM). TPM topical remedies are generally being applied on the stomach, lower abdomen, lower back and liver to alleviate GI illnesses such as dyspepsia, gastritis, GI ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal worms and infections. The aim of the present study is to survey the topical GI remedies and plant species used as ingredients for these remedies in TPM. In addition, pharmacological activities of the mentioned plants have been discussed...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Meysam Sajjadi, Zahra Bathaie
OBJECTIVE: Crocin (Cro) and crocetin (Crt) are two widely known saffron carotenoids, which exert anticancer effects by different mechanisms. Here, we investigated and compared the preventive effect of Cro and Crt at the initiation and promotion stages of breast cancer induction in an animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, female Wistar albino rats were injected with three doses of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU). The preventive intervention was done at different times for the initiation and promotion stages...
April 2017: Cell Journal
Hélder Oliveira, Xiaoshuang Cai, Qian Zhang, Victor de Freitas, Nuno Mateus, Jingren He, Iva Fernandes
The gastrointestinal absorption of the main carotenoids present in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, crocetin, crocin-1 and crocin-2, was assayed through transport studies on MKN-28 and Caco-2 cell lines. Overall, crocetin was the compound that presented the highest gastrointestinal transport efficiency. Additionally, and since after absorption crocins are metabolized into crocetin, the antiproliferative capacity of crocetin was assayed in MKN-28 (stomach), MCF-7 (breast) and Caco-2 (colon) cancer cell lines. The results point to an antiproliferative effect of crocetin on the three cell lines tested...
April 19, 2017: Food & Function
Yue Zhang, Fei Fei, Le Zhen, Xuanxuan Zhu, Jiankun Wang, Sijia Li, Jianliang Geng, Runbin Sun, Xiaoyi Yu, Tingting Chen, Siqi Feng, Pei Wang, Na Yang, Yejin Zhu, Jingqiu Huang, Yuqing Zhao, Jiye Aa, Guangji Wang
Crocin and crocetin in rat plasma were simultaneously analysed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS/MS), and method was fully validated. For the first time, levels of both crocin and crocetin in plasma were profiled after oral administration of crocin, and this UPLC-MS/MS approach was applied to evaluate pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of crocin and crocetin in rats. It was shown that crocin transformed into crocetin quickly in the gastrointestinal tract, and crocetin was 56-81 fold higher exposed in rat plasma than crocin after oral administration of crocin...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Lourdes Gómez-Gómez, Verónica Parra-Vega, Alba Rivas-Sendra, Jose M Seguí-Simarro, Rosa Victoria Molina, Claudia Pallotti, Ángela Rubio-Moraga, Gianfranco Diretto, Alicia Prieto, Oussama Ahrazem
Crocins, the glucosides of crocetin, are present at high concentrations in saffron stigmas and accumulate in the vacuole. However, the biogenesis of the saffron chromoplast, the changes during the development of the stigma and the transport of crocins to the vacuole, are processes that remain poorly understood. We studied the process of chromoplast differentiation in saffron throughout stigma development by means of transmission electron microscopy. Our results provided an overview of a massive transport of crocins to the vacuole in the later developmental stages, when electron dense drops of a much greater size than plastoglobules (here defined "crocinoplast") were observed in the chromoplast, connected to the vacuole with a subsequent transfer of these large globules inside the vacuole...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
E Karkoula, N Lemonakis, N Kokras, C Dalla, E Gikas, A L Skaltsounis, A Tsarbopoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
Yang Ni, Lin Li, Weiyang Zhang, Dan Lu, Caixia Zang, Dan Zhang, Yang Yu, Xinsheng Yao
Ten new crocins, neocrocins B-J (1-9), and 13-cis-crocetin-8'-O-β-D-gentiobioside (14), along with ten known crocins, were isolated from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (Gardeniae Fructus). The structures of these compounds were elucidated by analyzing HRESIMS, UV/Vis and 1D and 2D NMR spectra, and their neuroprotective effects against hydrogen peroxide- and L-glutamic acid-induced SH-SY5Y cell injury were evaluated. The UPLC-Q/TOF-MS chromatogram of a crocin-rich fraction derived from gardenia fruit extracts was established using the obtained crocin compounds as references...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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