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Sceletium tortuosum

Jessica M Carpenter, Mary K Jourdan, Emily M Fountain, Zulfiqar Ali, Naohito Abe, Ikhlas A Khan, Kenneth J Sufka
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sceletium tortuosum (L.) N.E. Br. has been reported to elevate mood, reduce anxiety and stress and alleviate pain. AIM OF STUDY: This study sought to examine the effects of an S. tortuosum alkaloid enriched fraction in the chick anxiety-depression model, a model that shows high predictive validity as a pharmacological screening assay. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Socially-raised male Silver Laced Wyandotte chicks (4-6 days old) were given IP vehicle, imipramine (10mg/kg), or S...
August 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Vamshi K Manda, Bharathi Avula, Ashfaq Mohammad K, Naohito Abe, Ikhlas A Khan, Shabana I Khan
Sceletium tortuosum, is an indigenous herb of South Africa which is widely used as an herbal supplement in the treatment of anxiety and stress. Mesembrenone and mesembrine are the two main pharmacologically active alkaloids present in the extract. Despite the wide therapeutic applications of Sceletium extract, there are no reports of in vivo pharmacokinetic properties or analytical methods to quantify these two important alkaloids in plasma. Therefore, the current study was aimed to develop and validate a simple and sensitive analytical method for simultaneous quantification of mesembrenone and mesembrine in mouse plasma...
August 15, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Ashton D Lesiak, Robert B Cody, Masaaki Ubukata, Rabi A Musah
We demonstrate the utility of direct analysis in real time ionization coupled with high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (DART-HRTOFMS) in revealing the adulteration of commercially available Sceletium tortuosum, a mind-altering plant-based drug commonly known as Kanna. Accurate masses consistent with alkaloids previously isolated from S. tortuosum plant material enabled identification of the products as Kanna, and in-source collision-induced dissociation (CID) confirmed the presence of one of these alkaloids, hordenine, while simultaneously revealing the presence of an adulterant...
March 2016: Forensic Science International
A C Swart, C Smith
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Stress-related illnesses rate among the most prevalent non-fatal diseases globally. With the global trend for consumer bias towards natural medicine, the Sceletium plant has become more prominent in the field of natural products. Although potentially useful effects of Sceletium tortuosum on the central nervous system have been reported, limited data is available on effects of the plant in the peripheral compartment. AIM OF THE STUDY: The current study aimed to elucidate the effect(s) of a Sceletium extract (TRI) rich in mesembrine (1% of plant extract w/w), on adrenal steroid biosynthesis...
January 11, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Wilfried Dimpfel, Leonie Schombert, Nigel Gericke
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The endemic succulent South African plant, Sceletium tortuosum (L.) N.E. Br. (synonym Mesembryanthemum tortuosum L.), of the family Mesembryathemaceae, has an ancient oral tradition history of use by San and Khoikhoi people as an integral part of the indigenous culture and materia medica. A special standardized extract of Sceletium tortuosum (Zembrin®) has been developed and tested pre-clinically in rats, and clinically in healthy subjects. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present investigation aimed at the construction of electropharmacograms of Zembrin® in the presence of three dosages (2...
January 11, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Bożena Muszyńska, Maciej Łojewski, Jacek Rojowski, Włodzimierz Opoka, Katarzyna Sułkowska-Ziaja
The use of herbs or their parts: leaves, roots, rhizomes, flowers, seeds, natural strains, as well as extracts or isolated metabolites is becoming more and more popular. Natural remedies not only act prophylactically, but also help to alleviate symptoms of many diseases and enhance the overall functioning of the internal organs. Many raw materials of natural origin plays a role in treatment of health problems, and also in case of serious diseases such as depression. Depression (affective disorder) now affects about 10% of the population, but in next few years due to the development of civilization and increasing pace of life, the probable number of people suffering from this disease can grow rapidly...
May 2015: Psychiatria Polska
Simon Chiu, Nigel Gericke, Michel Farina-Woodbury, Vladimir Badmaev, Hana Raheb, Kristen Terpstra, Joalex Antongiorgi, Yves Bureau, Zack Cernovsky, Jirui Hou, Veronica Sanchez, Marissa Williams, John Copen, Mariwan Husni, Liz Goble
Introduction. Converging evidence suggests that PDE-4 (phosphodiesterase subtype 4) plays a crucial role in regulating cognition via the PDE-4-cAMP cascade signaling involving phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Objective. The primary endpoint was to examine the neurocognitive effects of extract Sceletium tortuosum (Zembrin) and to assess the safety and tolerability of Zembrin in cognitively healthy control subjects. Method. We chose the randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design in our study...
2014: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Timothy S Murbach, Gábor Hirka, Ilona Pasics Szakonyiné, Nigel Gericke, John R Endres
A well-characterized standardized hydroethanolic extract of a traditionally recognized mak (mild) variety of Sceletium tortuosum, a South African plant with a long history of traditional ingestion, is marketed under the trade name Zembrin(®) as an ingredient for use in functional foods and dietary supplements. It is standardized to contain 0.35-0.45% total alkaloids (mesembrenone and mesembrenol ≥60%, and mesembrine <20%). A 14-day repeated oral toxicity study was conducted at 0, 250, 750, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg bw/day...
December 2014: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Golo M J Meyer, Carina S D Wink, Josef Zapp, Hans H Maurer
Mesembrine and mesembrenone are the main alkaloids of Sceletium tortuosum, a plant species that was used for sedation and analgesia by the KhoiSan, previously known as Hottentots, a tribe in South Africa. After fermentation, the obtained preparation called "Kanna" or "Kougoed" was used by chewing, smoking, or sniffing. Today, Kanna gains popularity by drug users as legal high. For monitoring such consumption, metabolism studies are mandatory because the metabolites are mostly the analytical targets, especially in urine...
January 2015: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Melissa J Loria, Zulfiqar Ali, Naohito Abe, Kenneth J Sufka, Ikhlas A Khan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Broad historical and current uses in addition to diverse activity on CNS targets may make Sceletium tortuosum a useful therapeutic in a variety of clinical settings. This study sought to more broadly characterize activity of Sceletium tortuosum and mesembrine in a number of common, rodent-based assays that model nociception, depression, anxiety, ataxia, and abuse liability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley were administered Sceletium tortuosum extract products and behavioral responses were evaluated in the conditioned place preference (CPP), hot plate, forced swim, elevated plus, and rotarod tests...
August 8, 2014: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
David Terburg, Supriya Syal, Lisa A Rosenberger, Sarah Heany, Nicole Phillips, Nigel Gericke, Dan J Stein, Jack van Honk
The South African endemic plant Sceletium tortuosum has a long history of traditional use as a masticatory and medicine by San and Khoikhoi people and subsequently by European colonial farmers as a psychotropic in tincture form. Over the past decade, the plant has attracted increasing attention for its possible applications in promoting a sense of wellbeing and relieving stress in healthy individuals and for treating clinical anxiety and depression. The pharmacological actions of a standardized extract of the plant (Zembrin) have been reported to be dual PDE4 inhibition and 5-HT reuptake inhibition, a combination that has been argued to offer potential therapeutic advantages...
December 2013: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Emmanuel Amukohe Shikanga, Alvaro M Viljoen, Ilze Vermaak, Sandra Combrinck
INTRODUCTION: Sceletium tortuosum is the most sought after species of the genus Sceletium and is commonly included in commercial products for the treatment of psychiatric conditions and neurodegenerative diseases. However, this species exhibits several morphological and phytochemical similarities to S. crassicaule. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this investigation was to use ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and hyperspectral imaging, in combination with chemometrics, to distinguish between S...
November 2013: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Haylene Nell, Mirna Siebert, Pashini Chellan, Nigel Gericke
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of two doses (8 mg and 25 mg once daily) of a 2:1 standardized extract of the South African medicinal plant Sceletium tortuosum (L.) N.E. Br., trademarked Zembrin,(®) in healthy adult volunteers over a three-month period. DESIGN: This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled single center study. SETTING: Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Bellville, Cape Town, South Africa...
November 2013: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Itumeleng I Setshedi, Gerda Fouche, John Dewar, Vinesh Maharaj, Martin S Myer
Malaria is a major health care problem in tropical regions due to the increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum against widely available antimalarial drugs. Traditional societies relied on medicinal plants to treat parasitic infections. As a result, drugs like quinine and artemisinin were isolated from herbs and barks (Varughese et al. 2010). Sceletium tortuosum has been used as medicine for social and spiritual purposes by San hunter gatherers and Khoi pastoralists. Sceletium tortuosum is rich in alkaloids, one of the important classes of natural product producing treatment for parasitic infections (Kayser et al...
2012: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
Jörg Roscher, Tjorben Nils Posch, Michael Pütz, Carolin Huhn
The consumption of legal and illegal drugs follows an organic trend comparable to the current trend in food consumption. The investigation of such drugs is therefore of interest to characterize the active ingredients of plants and drug preparations. A new method of nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (NACE-MS) as a powerful tool for the separation of complex alkaloid mixtures in difficult matrices is presented in this study for the analysis of samples of Sceletium tortuosum and drug products called Kanna made thereof...
June 2012: Electrophoresis
Emmanuel A Shikanga, Josias H Hamman, Weiyang Chen, Sandra Combrinck, Nigel Gericke, Alvaro M Viljoen
Sceletium tortuosum is an indigenous South African plant that has traditionally been used for its mood-enhancing properties. Recently, products containing S. tortuosum have become increasingly popular and are commonly administered as tablets, capsules, teas, decoctions, or tinctures, while traditionally the dried plant material has been masticated. This study evaluated the in vitro permeability of the four major S. tortuosum alkaloids (i.e., mesembrine, mesembrenone, mesembrenol, and mesembranol) across porcine intestinal, sublingual, and buccal tissues in their pure form and in the form of three different crude plant extracts, namely water, methanol, and an acid-base alkaloid-enriched extract...
February 2012: Planta Medica
Alan L Harvey, Louise C Young, Alvaro M Viljoen, Nigel P Gericke
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The South African plant Sceletium tortuosum has been known for centuries for a variety of traditional uses, and, more recently, as a possible source of anti-anxiety or anti-depressant effects. A standardised extract Zembrin(®) was used to test for pharmacological activities that might be relevant to the ethnopharmacological uses, and three of the main alkaloids were also tested. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A standardised ethanolic extract was prepared from dried plant material, along with the purified alkaloids mesembrine, mesembrenone and mesembrenol...
October 11, 2011: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
C Smith
AIM OF THE STUDY: Sceletium, and especially Sceletium tortuosum, is traditionally used as masticator and thought to have a sedative effect which may be beneficial to reduce symptoms of anxiety and/or depression. The current study evaluated the scientific merit of these anecdotal claims in an in vivo model of psychological stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were administered either placebo, 5 or 20 mg/kg/day of Sceletium tortuosum extract for 17 days by daily oral gavage...
January 7, 2011: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Srinivas Patnala, Isadore Kanfer
AIM OF THE STUDY: Sceletium plant species that contain alkaloids are claimed to have mood elevation and anti-anxiety properties, especially after the plant material has been fermented. The fermented preparation is locally known as "kougoed" or "channa" and has been emphasized and advertised for its increased potency when incorporated in commercial products. The aim of the study was to investigate quantitative and qualitative changes in alkaloidal content following fermentation of plant samples carried out under controlled conditions and also on pure mesembrine hydrochloride (MHCl)...
January 12, 2009: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Gary I Stafford, Mikael E Pedersen, Johannes van Staden, Anna K Jäger
The majority of the population in South Africa use traditional health care to treat various mental conditions. In this review, we present ethnobotanical information on plants used by the traditional healers in South Africa to treat mental illnesses, specifically epilepsy, depression, age-related dementia and debilitative mental disorders. Details of the recent scientific studies conducted on some of these plants are reviewed. Extracts of Searsia chirindensis, Cotelydon orbiculata and Leonotis leonurus have shown in vivo anticonvulsant activity...
October 28, 2008: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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