Read by QxMD icon Read

Sceletium tortuosum

Jianping Zhao, Ikhlas A Khan, Sandra Combrinck, Maxleene Sandasi, Weiyang Chen, Alvaro M Viljoen
Sceletium tortuosum (Aizoaceae) is widely recognised for the treatment of stress, anxiety and depression, as well as for obsessive compulsive disorders. A comprehensive intraspecies chemotypic variation study, using samples harvested from two distinct regions of South Africa, was done using both proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H-NMR) spectroscopy of methanol extracts (N = 145) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) of acid/base extracts (N = 289). Chemometric analysis of the 1 H-NMR data indicated two main clusters that were region-specific (Northern Cape and Western Cape provinces)...
May 17, 2018: Phytochemistry
Wilfried Dimpfel, Richard Franklin, Nigel Gericke, Leonie Schombert
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sceletium tortuosum (Mesembryanthemaceae), a succulent plant indigenous to South Africa. is consumed in the form of teas, decoctions and tinctures and is sometimes smoked and used as snuff. In recent years, Sceletium has received a great deal of commercial interest for relieving stress in healthy people, and for treating a broad range of psychological, psychiatric and inflammatory conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The whole extract (Zembrin®) was tested ex vivo in the hippocampus slice preparation after one week of daily oral administration of 5 and 10mg/kg...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
A C Bennett, A Van Camp, V López, C Smith
The link between obesity-induced systemic inflammation and decreased insulin signalling is well-known. It is also known that peripherally produced inflammatory cytokines can cross the blood-brain barrier, resulting in the release of neurotoxins that can ultimately lead to the demise of central nervous system integrity. A high-mesembrine Sceletium tortuosum extract was recently shown to possess cytoprotective and mild anti-inflammatory properties in monocytes and to target specific p450 enzymes to reduce adrenal glucocorticoid synthesis...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
A C Bennett, V López, A van Camp, C Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
John L Krstenansky
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mesembrine alkaloids are considered to be the primary active constituents of the South African medicinal plant Sceletium tortuosum (L.) N.E.Br. (Aizoaceae), and it is used as the dried or fermented aerial material from the plant, which is known as kanna (aka, channa, kougoed). Traditional regional use ranged from relieving thirst, mild analgesia, and alteration of mood. Current interest has focused primarily on the antidepressant action of preparations based on the plant and commercialization is expanding the recognition and availability of these preparations...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Jessica M Carpenter, Mary K Jourdan, Emily M Fountain, Zulfiqar Ali, Naohito Abe, Ikhlas A Khan, Kenneth J Sufka
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sceletium tortuosum (L.) N.E. Br. has been reported to elevate mood, reduce anxiety and stress and alleviate pain. AIM OF STUDY: This study sought to examine the effects of an S. tortuosum alkaloid enriched fraction in the chick anxiety-depression model, a model that shows high predictive validity as a pharmacological screening assay. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Socially-raised male Silver Laced Wyandotte chicks (4-6 days old) were given IP vehicle, imipramine (10mg/kg), or S...
December 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Vamshi K Manda, Bharathi Avula, Mohammad K Ashfaq, Naohito Abe, Ikhlas A Khan, Shabana I Khan
Sceletium tortuosum, is an indigenous herb of South Africa which is widely used as an herbal supplement in the treatment of anxiety and stress. Mesembrenone and mesembrine are the two main pharmacologically active alkaloids present in the extract. Despite the wide therapeutic applications of Sceletium extract, there are no reports of in vivo pharmacokinetic properties or analytical methods to quantify these two important alkaloids in plasma. Therefore, the current study aimed to develop and validate a simple and sensitive analytical method for simultaneous quantification of mesembrenone and mesembrine in mouse plasma...
March 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Ashton D Lesiak, Robert B Cody, Masaaki Ubukata, Rabi A Musah
We demonstrate the utility of direct analysis in real time ionization coupled with high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (DART-HRTOFMS) in revealing the adulteration of commercially available Sceletium tortuosum, a mind-altering plant-based drug commonly known as Kanna. Accurate masses consistent with alkaloids previously isolated from S. tortuosum plant material enabled identification of the products as Kanna, and in-source collision-induced dissociation (CID) confirmed the presence of one of these alkaloids, hordenine, while simultaneously revealing the presence of an adulterant...
March 2016: Forensic Science International
A C Swart, C Smith
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Stress-related illnesses rate among the most prevalent non-fatal diseases globally. With the global trend for consumer bias towards natural medicine, the Sceletium plant has become more prominent in the field of natural products. Although potentially useful effects of Sceletium tortuosum on the central nervous system have been reported, limited data is available on effects of the plant in the peripheral compartment. AIM OF THE STUDY: The current study aimed to elucidate the effect(s) of a Sceletium extract (TRI) rich in mesembrine (1% of plant extract w/w), on adrenal steroid biosynthesis...
January 11, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Wilfried Dimpfel, Leonie Schombert, Nigel Gericke
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The endemic succulent South African plant, Sceletium tortuosum (L.) N.E. Br. (synonym Mesembryanthemum tortuosum L.), of the family Mesembryathemaceae, has an ancient oral tradition history of use by San and Khoikhoi people as an integral part of the indigenous culture and materia medica. A special standardized extract of Sceletium tortuosum (Zembrin®) has been developed and tested pre-clinically in rats, and clinically in healthy subjects. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present investigation aimed at the construction of electropharmacograms of Zembrin® in the presence of three dosages (2...
January 11, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Bożena Muszyńska, Maciej Łojewski, Jacek Rojowski, Włodzimierz Opoka, Katarzyna Sułkowska-Ziaja
The use of herbs or their parts: leaves, roots, rhizomes, flowers, seeds, natural strains, as well as extracts or isolated metabolites is becoming more and more popular. Natural remedies not only act prophylactically, but also help to alleviate symptoms of many diseases and enhance the overall functioning of the internal organs. Many raw materials of natural origin plays a role in treatment of health problems, and also in case of serious diseases such as depression. Depression (affective disorder) now affects about 10% of the population, but in next few years due to the development of civilization and increasing pace of life, the probable number of people suffering from this disease can grow rapidly...
May 2015: Psychiatria Polska
Simon Chiu, Nigel Gericke, Michel Farina-Woodbury, Vladimir Badmaev, Hana Raheb, Kristen Terpstra, Joalex Antongiorgi, Yves Bureau, Zack Cernovsky, Jirui Hou, Veronica Sanchez, Marissa Williams, John Copen, Mariwan Husni, Liz Goble
Introduction. Converging evidence suggests that PDE-4 (phosphodiesterase subtype 4) plays a crucial role in regulating cognition via the PDE-4-cAMP cascade signaling involving phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Objective. The primary endpoint was to examine the neurocognitive effects of extract Sceletium tortuosum (Zembrin) and to assess the safety and tolerability of Zembrin in cognitively healthy control subjects. Method. We chose the randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design in our study...
2014: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Timothy S Murbach, Gábor Hirka, Ilona Pasics Szakonyiné, Nigel Gericke, John R Endres
A well-characterized standardized hydroethanolic extract of a traditionally recognized mak (mild) variety of Sceletium tortuosum, a South African plant with a long history of traditional ingestion, is marketed under the trade name Zembrin(®) as an ingredient for use in functional foods and dietary supplements. It is standardized to contain 0.35-0.45% total alkaloids (mesembrenone and mesembrenol ≥60%, and mesembrine <20%). A 14-day repeated oral toxicity study was conducted at 0, 250, 750, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg bw/day...
December 2014: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Golo M J Meyer, Carina S D Wink, Josef Zapp, Hans H Maurer
Mesembrine and mesembrenone are the main alkaloids of Sceletium tortuosum, a plant species that was used for sedation and analgesia by the KhoiSan, previously known as Hottentots, a tribe in South Africa. After fermentation, the obtained preparation called "Kanna" or "Kougoed" was used by chewing, smoking, or sniffing. Today, Kanna gains popularity by drug users as legal high. For monitoring such consumption, metabolism studies are mandatory because the metabolites are mostly the analytical targets, especially in urine...
January 2015: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Melissa J Loria, Zulfiqar Ali, Naohito Abe, Kenneth J Sufka, Ikhlas A Khan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Broad historical and current uses in addition to diverse activity on CNS targets may make Sceletium tortuosum a useful therapeutic in a variety of clinical settings. This study sought to more broadly characterize activity of Sceletium tortuosum and mesembrine in a number of common, rodent-based assays that model nociception, depression, anxiety, ataxia, and abuse liability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley were administered Sceletium tortuosum extract products and behavioral responses were evaluated in the conditioned place preference (CPP), hot plate, forced swim, elevated plus, and rotarod tests...
August 8, 2014: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
David Terburg, Supriya Syal, Lisa A Rosenberger, Sarah Heany, Nicole Phillips, Nigel Gericke, Dan J Stein, Jack van Honk
The South African endemic plant Sceletium tortuosum has a long history of traditional use as a masticatory and medicine by San and Khoikhoi people and subsequently by European colonial farmers as a psychotropic in tincture form. Over the past decade, the plant has attracted increasing attention for its possible applications in promoting a sense of wellbeing and relieving stress in healthy individuals and for treating clinical anxiety and depression. The pharmacological actions of a standardized extract of the plant (Zembrin) have been reported to be dual PDE4 inhibition and 5-HT reuptake inhibition, a combination that has been argued to offer potential therapeutic advantages...
December 2013: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Emmanuel Amukohe Shikanga, Alvaro M Viljoen, Ilze Vermaak, Sandra Combrinck
INTRODUCTION: Sceletium tortuosum is the most sought after species of the genus Sceletium and is commonly included in commercial products for the treatment of psychiatric conditions and neurodegenerative diseases. However, this species exhibits several morphological and phytochemical similarities to S. crassicaule. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this investigation was to use ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and hyperspectral imaging, in combination with chemometrics, to distinguish between S...
November 2013: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Haylene Nell, Mirna Siebert, Pashini Chellan, Nigel Gericke
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of two doses (8 mg and 25 mg once daily) of a 2:1 standardized extract of the South African medicinal plant Sceletium tortuosum (L.) N.E. Br., trademarked Zembrin,(®) in healthy adult volunteers over a three-month period. DESIGN: This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled single center study. SETTING: Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Bellville, Cape Town, South Africa...
November 2013: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Itumeleng I Setshedi, Gerda Fouche, John Dewar, Vinesh Maharaj, Martin S Myer
Malaria is a major health care problem in tropical regions due to the increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum against widely available antimalarial drugs. Traditional societies relied on medicinal plants to treat parasitic infections. As a result, drugs like quinine and artemisinin were isolated from herbs and barks (Varughese et al. 2010). Sceletium tortuosum has been used as medicine for social and spiritual purposes by San hunter gatherers and Khoi pastoralists. Sceletium tortuosum is rich in alkaloids, one of the important classes of natural product producing treatment for parasitic infections (Kayser et al...
2012: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
Jörg Roscher, Tjorben Nils Posch, Michael Pütz, Carolin Huhn
The consumption of legal and illegal drugs follows an organic trend comparable to the current trend in food consumption. The investigation of such drugs is therefore of interest to characterize the active ingredients of plants and drug preparations. A new method of nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (NACE-MS) as a powerful tool for the separation of complex alkaloid mixtures in difficult matrices is presented in this study for the analysis of samples of Sceletium tortuosum and drug products called Kanna made thereof...
June 2012: Electrophoresis
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"