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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938793/effects-of-protein-or-amino-acid-supplementation-on-the-physical-growth-of-young-children-in-low-income-countries
#1
Joanne E Arsenault, Kenneth H Brown
Child growth stunting is common in low-income countries, possibly due to insufficient protein intakes. Most previous studies have concluded that children's protein intakes are adequate in relation to estimated requirements, but these studies did not consider issues of protein digestibility and effects of infection on dietary protein utilization. Using an alternative approach to assess the possible role of protein inadequacy in children's growth restriction, the results of 18 intervention trials in which supplementary protein or amino acids were provided to children ages 6-35 months and growth outcomes were reviewed...
September 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938748/random-start-ovarian-stimulation-for-fertility-preservation-appears-unlikely-to-delay-initiation-of-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-for-breast-cancer
#2
Joseph M Letourneau, Nikita Sinha, Kaitlyn Wald, Eve Harris, Molly Quinn, Tal Imbar, Evelyn Mok-Lin, A Jo Chien, Mitchell Rosen
STUDY QUESTION: Is random start ovarian stimulation associated with delays in initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer? SUMMARY ANSWER: Among women who complete fertility preservation (FP) consultation, random start ovarian stimulation is unlikely to delay time to initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy start. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is now a widely accepted treatment modality for operable breast cancer and random start ovarian stimulation is an increasingly-utilized modality for FP...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938477/growth-hormone-and-the-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#3
Alison L Brittain, Reetobrata Basu, Yanrong Qian, John J Kopchick
Context: Previous studies have implicated growth hormone (GH) in the progression of several cancers, including breast, colorectal and pancreatic. A mechanism by which GH may play this role in cancer is through the induction of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). During the EMT process, epithelial cells lose their defining phenotypes causing loss of cellular adhesion and increased cell migration. This review aims to carefully summarize the previous two decades of research that points to GH as an initiator of EMT, in both cancerous and non-cancerous tissues...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938365/why-the-p-value-alone-is-not-enough-the-need-for-confidence-intervals-in-plastic-surgery-research
#4
Osama A Samargandi, Mona Al-Taha, Kit Moran, Sarah Al Youha, Michael Bezuhly
BACKGROUND: The p-value is one of the most utilized descriptors in statistical analysis; however, when reported in isolation, it does not convey the effect size of a treatment. The reporting of confidence intervals (CIs) is an essential adjunct to determine the clinical value of treatment, as it permits an assessment of the effect size. The authors assessed the reporting of CIs in clinical trials within the plastic surgery literature. METHODS: The seven highest impact plastic surgery journals were screened using MEDLINE for clinical trials in the years 2006, 2009, 2012, and 2015...
September 15, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938361/columellar-reconstruction-following-nasal-cpap-injury
#5
Catherine S Chang, Jordan W Swanson, Anthony Wilson, David W Low, Scott P Bartlett
Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is utilized increasingly to treat pulmonary immaturity in premature neonates. Nasal injury is common with nCPAP use, with full thickness tissue loss at the columella among the most devastating complications.Columellar necrosis often imparts a full thickness injury to the overlying columellar skin, the medial crura of the lower lateral nasal cartilages, as well as the anteromedial inner nasal mucosal lining, and potentially the anterior septal cartilage. Consequently, the columella can become scarred and shortened...
September 15, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938079/comparing-climate-sensitivity-past-and-present
#6
Eelco J Rohling, Gianluca Marino, Gavin L Foster, Philip A Goodwin, Anna S von der Heydt, Peter Köhler
Climate sensitivity represents the global mean temperature change caused by changes in the radiative balance of climate; it is studied for both present/future (actuo) and past (paleo) climate variations, with the former based on instrumental records and/or various types of model simulations. Paleo-estimates are often considered informative for assessments of actuo-climate change caused by anthropogenic greenhouse forcing, but this utility remains debated because of concerns about the impacts of uncertainties, assumptions, and incomplete knowledge about controlling mechanisms in the dynamic climate system, with its multiple interacting feedbacks and their potential dependence on the climate background state...
September 22, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937870/student-led-screening-of-school-children-for-refractive-error-correction
#7
Dipesh Bhattarai, Subodh Gnyawali, Arpan Silwal, Sudan Puri, Anita Shrestha, Man Bahadur Kunwar, Madan Prasad Upadhyay
PURPOSE: Detection and correction of uncorrected refractive errors among 12 million children is an overwhelming task for the 500 currently available eye-care professionals in Nepal. A mid-term review of VISION 2020 goals in Nepal has recommended utilizing alternative human resources that could screen children for visual impairment. This study was conducted to assess the validity of vision screening of school children by trained high school students when compared to optometrist testing as the gold standard...
September 22, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937805/laparoscopic-partial-nephrectomy-a-narrative-review-and-comparison-with-open-and-robotic-partial-nephrectomy
#8
Andrew M Ng, Paras H Shah, Louis R Kavoussi
INTRODUCTION: Kidney cancer ranks among the top 10 most prevalent cancers in Western society, ∼90% of which are renal cell carcinomas. There has been a paradigm shift in the management of small renal masses with strong emphasis now placed on nephron-sparing surgery and increased utilization of laparoscopic approaches to partial nephrectomy. In this review, the current state of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) is discussed. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The PubMed database was queried using the MeSH terms "laparoscopy" and "nephrectomy," as well as the search term "partial...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937707/meta-analysis-of-the-antidepressant-effects-of-acute-sleep-deprivation
#9
Elaine M Boland, Hengyi Rao, David F Dinges, Rachel V Smith, Namni Goel, John A Detre, Mathias Basner, Yvette I Sheline, Michael E Thase, Philip R Gehrman
OBJECTIVE: To provide a quantitative meta-analysis of the antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation to complement qualitative reviews addressing response rates. DATA SOURCES: English-language studies from 1974 to 2016 using the keywords sleep deprivation and depression searched through PubMed and PsycINFO databases. STUDY SELECTION: A total of 66 independent studies met criteria for inclusion: conducted experimental sleep deprivation, reported the percentage of the sample that responded to sleep deprivation, provided a priori definition of antidepressant response, and did not seamlessly combine sleep deprivation with other therapies (eg, chronotherapeutics, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation)...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937460/utility-of-the-surgical-apgar-score-for-patients-who-undergo-surgery-for-spinal-metastasis
#10
Darryl Lau, Timothy J Yee, Frank La Marca, Rakesh Patel, Paul Park
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of patients who underwent surgery for spinal metastasis between 2005 and 2011. OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of the surgical Apgar score (SAS) in patients who underwent surgery for spinal metastasis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Surgery for spinal metastasis can be associated with relatively high morbidity and mortality. Consequently, identifying patients at risk for major postoperative complications is important...
October 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937268/real-time-intra-procedural-18f-fdg-pet-ct-guided-biopsy-using-automated-robotic-biopsy-arm-ara-in-the-evaluation-of-thoracic-lesions-with-prior-inconclusive-biopsy-results
#11
Renjith Kalathoorakathu Radhakrishnan, Bhagwant Rai Mittal, Arun Kumar Reddy Gorla, Rajender Kumar Basher, Ashwani Sood, Amanjit Bal, Naveen Kalra, Niranjan Khandelwal, Navneet Singh, Digambar Behera
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and appraise the diagnostic utility of real time 18F-FDG PET/CT guided biopsy under automated robotic biopsy arm (ARA) guidance for the evaluation of thoracic lesions with prior inconclusive biopsy results. METHODS: PET/CT guided biopsy of thoracic lesions was performed in patients who had at least one previous inconclusive biopsy. A total of 25 patients (Male: Female- 18 males, 7 females; Age: Range- 13-75; mean- 53...
September 20, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936896/fat-fraction-mapping-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging-insight-into-pathophysiology
#12
Timothy J P Bray, Manil D Chouhan, Shonit Punwani, Alan Bainbridge, Margaret A Hall-Craggs
Adipose cells have traditionally been viewed as a simple, passive energy storage depot for triglycerides. However, in recent years it has become clear that adipose cells are highly physiologically active and have a multitude of endocrine, metabolic, haematological and immune functions. Changes in the number or size of adipose cells may be directly implicated in disease (for example, in the metabolic syndrome), but may also be linked to other pathological processes such as inflammation, malignant infiltration or infarction...
September 22, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936889/t2-relaxometry-mapping-in-demonstrating-layered-uterine-architecture-parameter-optimisation-and-utility-in-endometrial-carcinoma-and-adenomyosis-a-feasibility-study
#13
Adarsh Ghosh, Tulika Singh, Rashmi Bagga, Radhika Srinivasan, Veenu Singhla, Niranjan Khandelwal
OBJECTIVE: We evaluate the feasibility of t2 mapping of the uterus and demonstrate its diagnostic utility in endometrial carcinoma and adenomyosis and discuss the optimum imaging parameters as used in our institute. METHOD: Institute review board approval was obtained and multi spin echo imaging of the pelvic was done with variable time to echo in three patients, two with endometrial carcinoma and one with adenomyosis. T2 parametric maps and curves were plotted and the T2 times of the disease endometrium, superficial and deep myometrium were established...
September 22, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936744/cardiac-telocyte-derived-exosomes-and-their-possible-implications-in-cardiovascular-pathophysiology
#14
Mirca Marini, Lidia Ibba-Manneschi, Mirko Manetti
Among cardiac interstitial cells, the recently described telocytes (TCs) display the unique ability to build a supportive three-dimensional network formed by their very long and thin prolongations named telopodes. Cardiac TCs are increasingly regarded as pivotal regulators in intercellular signaling with multiple cell types, such as cardiomyocytes, stem/progenitor cells, microvessels, nerve endings, fibroblasts and immune cells, thus converting the cardiac stromal compartment into an integrated system that may drive either heart development or maintenance of cardiac homeostasis in post-natal life...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936624/dermal-epidermal-separation-methods-research-implications
#15
REVIEW
Ying Zou, Howard I Maibach
Dermal-epidermal separation is an important basic investigation technique for pharmacology, toxicology and biology. To choose the optimal method for a given research need, we reviewed studies on epidermal separation. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were utilized. Different separation systems have been compared, including chemical, enzyme, heat and mechanical separation; each has advantages and disadvantages. Heat is simple but causes thermal damage. Chemical reagents are effective but disturb cellular electrolyte equilibrium...
September 21, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936618/defining-and-measuring-diagnostic-uncertainty-in-medicine-a-systematic-review
#16
Viraj Bhise, Suja S Rajan, Dean F Sittig, Robert O Morgan, Pooja Chaudhary, Hardeep Singh
BACKGROUND: Physicians routinely encounter diagnostic uncertainty in practice. Despite its impact on health care utilization, costs and error, measurement of diagnostic uncertainty is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review to describe how diagnostic uncertainty is defined and measured in medical practice. METHODS: We searched OVID Medline and PsycINFO databases from inception until May 2017 using a combination of keywords and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936205/homologous-recombination-in-protozoan-parasites-and-recombinase-inhibitors
#17
REVIEW
Andrew A Kelso, Sarah M Waldvogel, Adam J Luthman, Michael G Sehorn
Homologous recombination (HR) is a DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway that utilizes a homologous template to fully repair the damaged DNA. HR is critical to maintain genome stability and to ensure genetic diversity during meiosis. A specialized class of enzymes known as recombinases facilitate the exchange of genetic information between sister chromatids or homologous chromosomes with the help of numerous protein accessory factors. The majority of the HR machinery is highly conserved among eukaryotes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936141/social-frailty-in-older-adults-a-scoping-review
#18
REVIEW
S Bunt, N Steverink, J Olthof, C P van der Schans, J S M Hobbelen
Social frailty is a rather unexplored concept. In this paper, the concept of social frailty among older people is explored utilizing a scoping review. In the first stage, 42 studies related to social frailty of older people were compiled from scientific databases and analyzed. In the second stage, the findings of this literature were structured using the social needs concept of Social Production Function theory. As a result, it was concluded that social frailty can be defined as a continuum of being at risk of losing, or having lost, resources that are important for fulfilling one or more basic social needs during the life span...
September 2017: European Journal of Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936111/agile-development-of-a-smartphone-app-for-perinatal-monitoring-in-a-resource-constrained-setting
#19
Boris Martinez, Rachel Hall-Clifford, Enma Coyote, Lisa Stroux, Camilo E Valderrama, Christopher Aaron, Aaron Francis, Cate Hendren, Peter Rohloff, Gari D Clifford
Technology provides the potential to empower frontline healthcare workers with low levels of training and literacy, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. An obvious platform for achieving this aim is the smartphone, a low cost, almost ubiquitous device with good supply chain infrastructure and a general cultural acceptance for its use. In particular, the smartphone offers the opportunity to provide augmented or procedural information through active audiovisual aids to illiterate or untrained users, as described in this article...
2017: Journal of Health Informatics in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935774/immunotherapy-a-new-and-old-approach-to-treatment-of-soft-tissue-and-bone-sarcomas
#20
REVIEW
Michael J Nathenson, Anthony P Conley, Edward Sausville
Soft tissue and bone sarcomas are a rare and heterogeneous form of cancer. With standard of care treatment options including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, the long-term survival is still low for high-risk soft tissue sarcoma patients. New treatment strategies are needed. Immunotherapy offers a new potential treatment paradigm with great promise. Immunotherapy of soft tissue sarcomas dates back to Dr. Coley's first use of toxins in the late 1800s. A variety of strategies of immunotherapy have been tried in soft tissue and bone sarcomas, including various vaccines and cytokines, with limited success...
September 21, 2017: Oncologist
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