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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531552/the-role-of-next-generation-sequencing-in-infection-prevention-in-human-parainfluenza-virus-3-infections-in-immunocompromised-patients
#1
Atul Kothari, Mary J Burgess, Juan Carlos Rico Crescencio, Joshua L Kennedy, Jesse L Denson, Kurt C Schwalm, Ashley N Stoner, John C Kincaid, Faith E Davies, Darrell L Dinwiddie
BACKGROUND: Respiratory viral infections are a significant problem in patients with hematologic malignancies. We report a cluster of HPIV 3 infections in our myeloma patients, and describe the utility of next generation sequencing (NGS) to identify transmission linkages which can assist in infection prevention. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the utility of NGS to track respiratory viral infection outbreaks and delineate between community acquired and nosocomial infections in our cancer units...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531265/utility-of-nonhuman-primates-in-substance-use-disorders-research
#2
Matthew L Banks, Paul W Czoty, Sidney S Negus
Substance use disorders (i.e., drug addiction) constitute a global and insidious public health issue. Preclinical biomedical research has been invaluable in elucidating the environmental, biological, and pharmacological determinants of drug abuse and in the process of developing innovative pharmacological and behavioral treatment strategies. For more than 70 years, nonhuman primates have been utilized as research subjects in biomedical research related to drug addiction. There are already several excellent published reviews highlighting species differences in both pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics between rodents and nonhuman primates in preclinical substance abuse research...
May 20, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531145/the-occurrence-biosynthesis-and-molecular-structure-of-proanthocyanidins-and-their-effects-on-legume-forage-protein-precipitation-digestion-and-absorption-in-the-ruminant-digestive-tract
#3
REVIEW
Arjan Jonker, Peiqiang Yu
Forages grown in temperate regions, such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and white clover (Trefolium repens L.), typically have a high nutritional value when fed to ruminants. Their high protein content and degradation rate result, however, in poor utilization of protein from the forage resulting in excessive excretion of nitrogen into the environment by the animal. Proanthocyanindins (also known as condensed tannins) found in some forage legumes such as birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), bind to dietary protein and can improve protein utilization in the animal...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531109/physical-activity-and-quality-of-life-in-cancer-survivors-a-meta-synthesis-of-qualitative-research
#4
REVIEW
Shaunna Burke, Amanda Wurz, Andrew Bradshaw, Stephanie Saunders, Malcolm A West, Jennifer Brunet
Qualitative research on the impact of physical activity on quality of life (QoL) in adults diagnosed with cancer is accumulating. However, the field of physical activity and cancer survivorship lack a synthesis of this research to reliably understand the implications for future research and practice. The aim of this meta-synthesis was to identify, appraise, and synthesize qualitative research on cancer survivors' perspectives of the impact of physical activity on their QoL. Seven electronic databases were searched for original studies published in English, and reference lists of relevant studies were hand-searched to identify additional studies...
May 20, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530765/perioperative-physiotherapy-in-total-knee-arthroplasty
#5
Melvin G Joice, Subhrojyoti Bhowmick, Derek F Amanatullah
Total knee arthroplasty has a high success rate. In the interest of enhancing patient outcomes, numerous perioperative interventions have been studied, including preoperative education, preoperative rehabilitation, postoperative inpatient rehabilitation, continuous passive motion, postoperative outpatient rehabilitation, unsupervised in-home exercises, telerehabilitation, and various combinations of these. This comprehensive review analyzes the existing body of evidence on these perioperative interventions and examines some burgeoning opportunities in rehabilitation after total knee arthroplasty in the interest of improving patient outcomes and ensuring sustainable health care utilization for the future of total knee arthroplasty...
May 20, 2017: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530520/cardiovascular-disease-and-gout-real-world-experience-evaluating-patient-characteristics-treatment-patterns-and-health-care-utilization
#6
Michael H Pillinger, Sripal Bangalore, Alyssa B Klein, Scott Baumgartner, Robert Morlock
BACKGROUND: Gout, hyperuricemia, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are prevalent conditions in the United States, and while they share common risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, relatively little is known about what patient and disease characteristics may link CVD with hyperuricemia and gout and how the presence of both diseases affects management decisions differently than for patients with gout alone. OBJECTIVE: To identify differences in patient characteristics, patterns of urate-lowering therapy (ULT) use, and gout control in gout patients with and without cardiovascular comorbidity...
June 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530492/3d-printing-in-liver-surgery-a-systematic-review
#7
Jan Sylwester Witowski, Jasamine Coles-Black, Tomasz Zbigniew Zuzak, Michał Pędziwiatr, Jason Chuen, Piotr Major, Andrzej Budzyński
BACKGROUND: Rapid growth of three-dimensional (3D) printing in recent years has led to new applications of this technology across all medical fields. This review article presents a broad range of examples on how 3D printing is facilitating liver surgery, including models for preoperative planning, education, and simulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have performed an extensive search of the medical databases Ovid/MEDLINE and PubMed/EMBASE and screened articles fitting the scope of review, following previously established exclusion criteria...
May 22, 2017: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530316/-radiosurgery-for-pituitary-adenomas
#8
REVIEW
Or Cohen-Inbar
Pituitary adenomas represent one of the most common types of intracranial tumors, accounting for 10-20% of intracranial tumors. While their macroscopic appearance and anatomical location are relatively homogeneous, pituitary tumors differ widely, generating a variety of neurological and endocrine clinical sequelae. Treatment options include hormone suppressive medical therapy, microscopic or endoscopic neurosurgical resection, radiosurgery, radiation therapy, or observation depending on the biochemical profile and the clinical status of the patient...
January 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529939/naturally-engineered-maturation-of-cardiomyocytes
#9
REVIEW
Gaetano J Scuderi, Jonathan Butcher
Ischemic heart disease remains one of the most prominent causes of mortalities worldwide with heart transplantation being the gold-standard treatment option. However, due to the major limitations associated with heart transplants, such as an inadequate supply and heart rejection, there remains a significant clinical need for a viable cardiac regenerative therapy to restore native myocardial function. Over the course of the previous several decades, researchers have made prominent advances in the field of cardiac regeneration with the creation of in vitro human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte tissue engineered constructs...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529926/manipulation-of-host-cholesterol-by-obligate-intracellular-bacteria
#10
REVIEW
Dhritiman Samanta, Minal Mulye, Tatiana M Clemente, Anna V Justis, Stacey D Gilk
Cholesterol is a multifunctional lipid that plays important metabolic and structural roles in the eukaryotic cell. Despite having diverse lifestyles, the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens Chlamydia, Coxiella, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia all target cholesterol during host cell colonization as a potential source of membrane, as well as a means to manipulate host cell signaling and trafficking. To promote host cell entry, these pathogens utilize cholesterol-rich microdomains known as lipid rafts, which serve as organizational and functional platforms for host signaling pathways involved in phagocytosis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529914/characteristics-of-postintensive-care-syndrome-in-survivors-of-pediatric-critical-illness-a-systematic-review
#11
Elizabeth A Herrup, Beth Wieczorek, Sapna R Kudchadkar
AIM: To synthesize the available evidence focusing on morbidities in pediatric survivors of critical illness that fall within the defined construct of postintensive care syndrome (PICS) in adults, including physical, neurocognitive and psychological morbidities. METHODS: A comprehensive search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and CINAHL using controlled vocabulary and key word terms to identify studies reporting characteristics of PICS in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients...
May 4, 2017: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529824/to-cough-or-not-to-cough-examining-the-potential-utility-of-cough-testing-in-the-clinical-evaluation-of-swallowing
#12
Stephanie A Watts, Lauren Tabor, Emily K Plowman
PURPOSE: The clinical swallowing evaluation (CSE) represents a critical component of a comprehensive assessment of deglutition. Although universally utilized across clinical settings, the CSE demonstrates limitations in its ability to accurately identify all individuals with dysphagia. There exists a need to improve assessment and screening techniques to improve health outcomes, treatment recommendations and ultimately mortality in individuals at risk for dysphagia. The following narrative review provides a summary of currently used validated CSE's and examines the potential role of cough testing and screening in the CSE...
December 2016: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529805/physical-activity-modulates-common-neuroplasticity-substrates-in-major-depressive-and-bipolar-disorder
#13
REVIEW
Cristy Phillips
Mood disorders (MDs) are chronic, recurrent mental diseases that affect millions of individuals worldwide. Although the biogenic amine model has provided some clinical utility, a need remains to better understand the interrelated mechanisms that contribute to neuroplasticity deficits in MDs and the means by which various therapeutics mitigate them. Of those therapeutics being investigated, physical activity (PA) has shown clear and consistent promise. Accordingly, the aims of this review are to (1) explicate key modulators, processes, and interactions that impinge upon multiple susceptibility points to effectuate neuroplasticity deficits in MDs; (2) explore the putative mechanisms by which PA mitigates these features; (3) review protocols used to induce the positive effects of PA in MDs; and (4) highlight implications for clinicians and researchers...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529756/a-socioecological-framework-for-research-on-work-and-obesity-in-diverse-urban-transit-operators-based-on-gender-race-and-ethnicity
#14
REVIEW
BongKyoo Choi, Peter Schnall, Marnie Dobson, Haiou Yang, Dean Baker, YoungJu Seo
Urban transit (bus and rail) operators, totaling nearly 700,000 persons, are one of the heaviest occupational groups in the United States (US). Little is known about occupational risk factors for weight gain and obesity and their interrelationship with health-related behaviors, particularly among female minority (African Americans and Hispanics) transit operators who are at greater risk for obesity. As a step towards developing successful obesity interventions among urban transit operators, this paper aims to present a new socioecological framework for studying working conditions, chronic strain, health-related behaviors, weight gain/obesity, and obesity disparity in diverse urban transit operators based on gender, race, and ethnicity...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529553/progress-in-the-application-and-mechanism-of-metformin-in-treating-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#15
Chan Li, Yang Xue, Yu-Rong Xi, Ke Xie
At present, the incidence and mortality of lung cancer demonstrate an increasing trend. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for ~80-85% of all lung cancer cases. Therefore, developing novel and more effective treatments is of great importance. The use of combination therapies, where several anticancer agents are used together, is a promising strategy. Recent studies demonstrate that metformin, which has been utilized for treating diabetes mellitus for >50 years, has antitumor effects in numerous types of cancer including NSCLC...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529527/skeletal-muscle-cell-induction-from-pluripotent-stem-cells
#16
REVIEW
Yusaku Kodaka, Gemachu Rabu, Atsushi Asakura
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have the potential to differentiate into various types of cells including skeletal muscle cells. The approach of converting ESCs/iPSCs into skeletal muscle cells offers hope for patients afflicted with the skeletal muscle diseases such as the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Patient-derived iPSCs are an especially ideal cell source to obtain an unlimited number of myogenic cells that escape immune rejection after engraftment. Currently, there are several approaches to induce differentiation of ESCs and iPSCs to skeletal muscle...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529512/toll-interacting-protein-in-resolving-and-non-resolving-inflammation
#17
REVIEW
Elizabeth J A Kowalski, Liwu Li
Innate leukocytes manifest dynamic and distinct inflammatory responses upon challenges with rising dosages of pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To differentiate signal strengths, innate leukocytes may utilize distinct intracellular signaling circuitries modulated by adaptor molecules. Toll-interacting protein (Tollip) is one of the critical adaptor molecules potentially playing key roles in modulating the dynamic adaptation of innate leukocytes to varying dosages of external stimulants...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529411/the-electronically-activated-recorder-ear-a-method-for-the-naturalistic-observation-of-daily-social-behavior
#18
Matthias R Mehl
This article reviews the Electronically Activated Recorder or EAR as an ambulatory ecological momentary assessment tool for the real-world observation of daily behavior. Technically, the EAR is an audio recorder that intermittently records snippets of ambient sounds while participants go about their lives. Conceptually, it is a naturalistic observation method that yields an acoustic log of a person's day as it unfolds. The power of the EAR lies in unobtrusively collecting authentic real-life observational data...
April 2017: Current Directions in Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529169/caregiver-burden-in-adults-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#19
Richa Shukla, Elyse Thakur, Andrea Bradford, Jason K Hou
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic condition which has a relapsing and remitting disease course. There is high degree of inpatient and outpatient health care utilization by IBD patients along with a great deal of psychosocial stress associated with the condition. Patients frequently rely on family, friends and other informal caregivers to provide medical, instrumental and emotional support. The role of caregiving for adult IBD patients can lead to significant caregiver burden. At present, there are limited data on the existence of caregiver burden in adult IBD patients...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529168/opioids-in-gastroenterology-treating-adverse-effects-and-creating-therapeutic-benefits
#20
Michael Camilleri, Anthony Lembo, David A Katzka
The use of opioid medications on both an acute and chronic basis is ubiquitous in the U.S. As opioid receptors densely populate the gastrointestinal tract, symptoms and side effects can be expected in these patients. In the esophagus, dysmotility may result manifesting with dysphagia and a syndrome indistinguishable from primary achalasia. In the stomach, a marked delay in gastric emptying may ensue with postprandial nausea and early satiety. Postoperatively, particularly with abdominal surgery, opioid induced ileus may ensue...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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