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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728401/research-trends-in-outdoor-pig-production
#1
Hyun-Suk Park, Sang Hyon Oh
Since the industrialization of swine production in the late 1900s, swine farms in the United States, as well as in Europe, have largely become consolidated. Pig farms became larger in size but fewer in number, with 91% of market pigs being produced by large operations with 5,000 or more pigs on-site in the US, and only 3% of the total utilized agricultural land representing organic farming. Such change in the market made it difficult for small farmers to stay competitive, forcing them to find alternative ways to reduce the cost of production and increase profit using the outdoor production system...
July 17, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727969/fetal-dysmorphology-still-an-essential-art-analysis-of-the-limitations-of-microarray-in-a-fetal-population-and-a-look-toward-the-genome-sequencing-era
#2
E Fletcher, M Porteous, K J McKenzie, E J Maher, M J Evans
Cytogenomic microarray allows assessment of the genome at higher resolutions than traditional karyotyping. The objective of this study is to evaluate the utility of microarray in a routine fetal autopsy setting before the advent of routine fetal exome/genome sequencing and the issues these technologies may generate. A systematic review of fetal postmortems at 12-24 weeks gestation between January 2011 and December 2014 was undertaken. Cases where there was no consent for audit, research, or genetic testing were excluded as were cases referred to the Procurator Fiscal, stillbirths, and neonatal deaths...
July 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727944/computer-based-case-simulations-for-assessment-in-health-care-a-literature-review-of-validity-evidence
#3
Robyn C Ward, Timothy J Muckle, Michael J Kremer, Mary Anne Krogh
Simulation for education and training in health-care professions has been widely applied. However, its value as an assessment tool for competence is not fully known. Logistical barriers of simulation-based assessments have led some health-care organizations to utilize computer-based case simulations (CCSs) for assessment. This article provides a review of the literature on the identification of psychometrically sound, CCS instruments designed to measure decision-making competence in health-care professionals...
January 1, 2017: Evaluation & the Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727521/ethical-guidance-for-disaster-response-specifically-around-crisis-standards-of-care-a-systematic-review
#4
Jonathon P Leider, Debra DeBruin, Nicole Reynolds, Angelica Koch, Judy Seaberg
BACKGROUND: Terrorism, disease outbreaks, and other natural disasters and mass casualty events have pushed health care and public health systems to identify and refine emergency preparedness protocols for disaster response. Ethical guidance, alongside legal and medical frameworks, are increasingly common components of disaster response plans. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the prevalence and content of ethical guidance offered for disaster response, specifically around crisis standards of care (CSCs)...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727419/next-generation-lipids-in-rna-interference-therapeutics
#5
Stephanie Rietwyk, Dan Peer
RNA is emerging as a potential therapeutic modality for the treatment of incurable diseases. Despite intense research, the advent to clinical utility remains compromised by numerous biological barriers, hence there is a need for sophisticated delivery vehicles. In this aspect, lipid nanoparticles (LNP) are the most advanced platform among non-viral vectors for gene delivery. In this review, we critically review the literature and the reasons for ineffective delivery beyond the liver. We discuss the toxicity issues associated with permanently charged cationic lipids, and then turn our attention to next-generation ionizable cationic lipids...
July 20, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727105/analysis-of-the-gut-bacterial-communities-in-beef-cattle-and-their-association-with-feed-intake-growth-and-efficiency
#6
P R Myer, H C Freetly, J E Wells, T P L Smith, L A Kuehn
The impetus behind the global food security challenge is direct, with the necessity to feed almost 10 billion people by 2050. Developing a food-secure world, where people have access to a safe and sustainable food supply, is the principal goal of this challenge. To achieve this end, beef production enterprises must develop methods to produce more pounds of animal protein with less. Selection for feed-efficient beef cattle using genetic improvement technologies has helped to understand and improve the stayability and longevity of such traits within the herd...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726717/mini-review-of-controlled-cortical-impact-a-well-suited-device-for-concussion-research
#7
REVIEW
Nicole Osier, C Edward Dixon
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is increasingly recognized as a significant public health problem which warrants additional research. Part of the effort to understand mTBI and concussion includes modeling in animals. Controlled cortical impact (CCI) is a commonly employed and well-characterized model of experimental TBI that has been utilized for three decades. Today, several commercially available pneumatic- and electromagnetic-CCI devices exist as do a variety of standard and custom injury induction tips...
July 20, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726662/cytokines-as-the-predictors-of-severe-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia-in-children-review
#8
I Chkhaidze, N Kapanadze
In spite of many attempts to differentiate bacterial from viral disease and predict severity and outcome, the etiologic diagnosis of paediatric community acquired pneumonia and the estimation of potential outcomes remain unsolved problems in most cases. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of the major pathogens causing CAP in children. Although MP infection was traditionally thought to be a self-limited process, more and more severe cases even fatal cases of MP infections were reported in recent years. So it is essential for pediatricians to recognize severe or refractory or severe MP early, treat it promptly and prevent the progress of the disease...
June 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726574/rise-of-the-pigs-utilization-of-the-porcine-model-to-study-musculoskeletal-biomechanics-and-tissue-engineering-during-skeletal-growth
#9
Stephanie G Cone, Paul B Warren, Matthew B Fisher
Large animal models play an essential role in the study of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine as well as biomechanics.  The porcine model has been increasingly used to study the musculoskeletal system, including specific joints, such as the knee and temporomandibular joints, and tissues, such as bone, cartilage, and ligaments. In particular, pigs have been utilized to evaluate the role of skeletal growth on the biomechanics and engineered replacements of these joints and tissues. In this review, we explore the publication history of the use of pig models in biomechanics, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine studies, discuss inter-species comparative studies, highlight studies on the effect of skeletal growth and other biological considerations in the porcine model, and present challenges and emerging opportunities for using this model to study functional tissue engineering and regenerative medicine...
July 20, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726356/intrascleral-iol-fixation
#10
Soonsan Jacob
Intrascleral sutureless intraocular lens (IOL) fixation utilizes direct haptic fixation within the sclera in eyes with deficient capsular support. This has advantages of long-term stability, good control of tilt and decentration, and lesser pseudophakodonesis. This review summarizes various techniques for intrascleral haptic fixation, results, complications, adaptations in special situations, modifications of the technique, combination surgeries, and intrascleral capsular bag fixation techniques (glued capsular hook)...
July 18, 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726327/changing-metrics-of-organ-procurement-organization-performance-in-order-to-increase-organ-donation-rates-in-the-united-states
#11
D Goldberg, M J Kallan, L Fu, M Ciccarone, J Ramirez, P Rosenberg, J Arnold, G Segal, K P Moritsugu, H Nathan, R Hasz, P L Abt
The shortage of deceased-donor organs is compounded by donation metrics that fail to account for the total pool of possible donors, leading to ambiguous donor statistics. We sought to assess potential metrics of organ procurement organizations (OPOs) utilizing data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2009-2012 and State Inpatient Databases (SIDs) from 2008-2014. A possible donor was defined as a ventilated inpatient death ≤75 years of age, without multi-organ system failure, sepsis, or cancer, whose cause of death was consistent with organ donation...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726183/escalated-dose-somatostatin-analogues-for-antiproliferative-effect-in-gepnets-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
David L Chan, Diego Ferone, Manuela Albertelli, Nick Pavlakis, Eva Segelov, Simron Singh
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Somatostatin analogues are the cornerstone of systemic therapy for metastatic well-differentiated gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours for both hormonal control and antiproliferative effect. Dose escalation of somatostatin analogues is often utilized in clinical practice, but small studies have yielded mixed results. The aim of this study was to systematically determine the efficacy and safety of escalated-dose somatostatin analogues in the above setting. METHODS: Eligible trials (using more than 30 mg octreotide or 120 mg lanreotide/28 days) were identified from MEDLINE, EMBASE, other databases and conference proceedings...
July 19, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726154/use-of-continuous-glucose-monitoring-in-youth-onset-type-2-diabetes
#13
REVIEW
Christine L Chan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology has long been accepted as a tool for managing glycemia in type 1 diabetes (T1D) and is receiving increased attention as a tool for monitoring glucose patterns in patients with other forms of diabetes, in particular type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recent studies in adults with T2D have shown benefits of CGM in the investigation of glycemic variability, as well as utility as a tool for improving glycemic control. The literature on CGM use in youth-onset T2D, however, is sparse...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726147/stent-migration-following-endoscopic-suture-fixation-of-esophageal-self-expandable-metal-stents-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Ryan Law, Anoop Prabhu, Larissa Fujii-Lau, Carol Shannon, Siddharth Singh
BACKGROUND: Covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) are utilized for the management of benign and malignant esophageal conditions; however, covered SEMS are prone to migration. Endoscopic suture fixation may mitigate the migration risk of covered esophageal SEMS. Hence, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of endoscopic suture fixation for covered esophageal SEMS. METHODS: Following PRISMA guidelines, we performed a systematic review from 2011 to 2016 to identify studies (case control/case series) reporting the technical success and migration rate of covered esophageal SEMS following endoscopic suture fixation...
July 19, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726080/proteomic-approach-to-address-low-seed-germination-in-cyclobalnopsis-gilva
#15
REVIEW
Madiha Zaynab, Sonia Kanwal, Muhammad Furqan, Waqar Islam, Ali Noman, Ghulam Muhammad Ali, Nazia Rehman, Sara Zafar, Kalsoom Sughra, Muhammad Jahanzab
Seeds play essential roles in plant life cycle and germination is a complex process which is associated with different phases of water imbibition. Upon imbibition, seeds begin utilization of storage substances coupled with metabolic activity and biosynthesis of new proteins. Regeneration of organelles and emergence of radicals lead to the establishment of seedlings. All these activities are regulated in coordinated manners. Translation is the requirement of germination of seeds via involvements of several proteins like beta-amylase, starch phosphorylase...
July 19, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726063/gaze-based-assessments-of-vigilance-and-avoidance-in-social-anxiety-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Nigel T M Chen, Patrick J F Clarke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A broad base of research has sought to identify the biases in selective attention which characterize social anxiety, with the emergent use of eye tracking-based methods. This article seeks to provide a review of eye tracking studies examining selective attention biases in social anxiety. RECENT FINDINGS: Across a number of contexts, social anxiety may be associated with a mix of both vigilant and avoidant patterns of attention with respect to the processing of emotional social stimuli...
September 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725959/linked-color-imaging-improves-the-visibility-of-various-featured-colorectal-polyps-in-an-endoscopist-s-visibility-and-color-difference-value
#17
Naohisa Yoshida, Yuji Naito, Ritsu Yasuda, Takaaki Murakami, Ryohei Hirose, Kiyoshi Ogiso, Yutaka Inada, Osamu Dohi, Kazuhiro Kamada, Kazuhiko Uchiyama, Osamu Handa, Hideyuki Konishi, Rafiz Abdul Rani, Mitsuo Kishimoto, Eiichi Konishi, Yoshito Itoh
PURPOSE: Linked color imaging (LCI) by laser endoscopy is a novel narrow band light observation. In this study, we analyzed the efficacy of LCI for improving the various featured colorectal polyp's visibility utilizing a subjective endoscopist's visibility scoring and objective color difference (CD) value. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed two pictures both with white light (WL) and LCI for 54 consecutive neoplastic polyps 2-20 mm in size. All pictures were evaluated by four endoscopists according to a published polyp visibility score from four (excellent visibility) to one (poor visibility)...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725641/mechanisms-mediating-pediatric-severe-asthma-and-potential-novel-therapies
#18
REVIEW
Aldara Martin Alonso, Sejal Saglani
Although a rare disease, severe therapy-resistant asthma in children is a cause of significant morbidity and results in utilization of approximately 50% of health-care resources for asthma. Improving control for children with severe asthma is, therefore, an urgent unmet clinical need. As a group, children with severe asthma have severe and multiple allergies, steroid resistant airway eosinophilia, and significant structural changes of the airway wall (airway remodeling). Omalizumab is currently the only add-on therapy that is licensed for use in children with severe asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725612/vasectomy-reversal-for-post-vasectomy-pain-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
L I Smith-Harrison, Ryan P Smith
Post-vasectomy pain syndrome (PVPS) is a rare, but devastating outcome following vasectomy. Given the widespread utilization of vasectomy for permanent contraception, with more than 500,000 procedures performed annually in the United States, it can be a significant challenge for both patients and providers. Vasectomy reversal is a surgical option for men who fail conservative or medical management. Despite improvements in technique, vasectomy carries some inherent risks making pre-procedure counseling regarding the risks of PVPS paramount...
May 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725597/canine-prostate-models-in-preclinical-studies-of-minimally-invasive-interventions-part-i-canine-prostate-anatomy-and-prostate-cancer-models
#20
REVIEW
Fei Sun, Claudia Báez-Díaz, Francisco Miguel Sánchez-Margallo
The high prevalence of prostate cancer (PCa) in elderly men and technical advances in early detection of localized PCa have led to continued efforts to develop new therapeutic options of minimally invasive nature in current urologic oncology community. Increasing newly emerging therapies are undergoing preclinical tests on the technical feasibility, efficacy and safety in animal experiments. The dog is an ideal large animal because of its similar anatomy to human and the capability allowing the use of the same medical devices applied in future clinical trials...
June 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
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