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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878808/interventions-for-tobacco-use-cessation-in-people-in-treatment-for-or-recovery-from-substance-use-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Dorie Apollonio, Rose Philipps, Lisa Bero
BACKGROUND: Smoking rates in people with alcohol and other drug dependencies are two to four times those of the general population. Concurrent treatment of tobacco dependence has been limited due to concern that these interventions are not successful in this population or that recovery from other addictions could be compromised if tobacco cessation was combined with other drug dependency treatment. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether interventions for tobacco cessation are associated with tobacco abstinence for people in concurrent treatment for or in recovery from alcohol and other drug dependence...
November 23, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862172/investigation-of-brain-electrophysiological-properties-among-heroin-addicts-quantitative-eeg-and-event-related-potentials
#2
Farid Motlagh, Fatimah Ibrahim, Rusdi Rashid, Tahereh Seghatoleslam, Hussain Habil
This study aims to introduce a new approach of a comprehensive paradigm to evaluate brain electrophysiological properties among addicts. Electroencephalographic spectral power as well as amplitudes and latencies of mismatch negativity (MMN), P300, and P600 components were evaluated among 19 male heroin addicts and 19 healthy nonsmoker subjects using a paradigm consisting of three subparadigms, namely (1) digit span Wechsler test, (2) auditory oddball, and (3) visual cue-reactivity oddball paradigms. Task 1 provided auditory P300 and P600 in association with working memory...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646845/pharmacological-neuroenhancement-teachers-knowledge-and-attitudes-results-from-a-survey-study-among-teachers-in-germany
#3
Andreas G Franke, Sophie Lehmberg, Michael Soyka
BACKGROUND: Pharmacological neuroenhancement (PN) is a topic of increasing importance. Its prevalence rates range from 1 % to more than 20 %. Students are a group that shows exceptionally high prevalence rates. However, little is known about teachers' knowledge, management, attitudes and ethical judgements regarding PN. METHODS: A web-based survey containing 40 closed questions was developed. All teachers working at all private and public schools in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, a state in northeastern Germany, were invited to participate after their respective school offices were contacted by telephone, email and mail...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595147/effect-of-the-crf1-receptor-antagonist-pexacerfont-on-stress-induced-eating-and-food-craving
#4
David H Epstein, Ashley P Kennedy, Melody Furnari, Markus Heilig, Yavin Shaham, Karran A Phillips, Kenzie L Preston
RATIONALE: In rodents, antagonism of receptors for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) blocks stress-induced reinstatement of drug or palatable food seeking. OBJECTIVE: To test anticraving properties of the CRF1 antagonist pexacerfont in humans. METHODS: We studied stress-induced eating in people scoring high on dietary restraint (food preoccupation and chronic unsuccessful dieting) with body-mass index (BMI) >22. In a double-blind, between-groups trial, 31 "restrained" eaters were stabilized on either pexacerfont (300 mg/day for 7 days, then 100 mg/day for 21 days) or placebo...
September 5, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421133/ceacam6-is-upregulated-by-helicobacter-pylori-caga-and-is-a-biomarker-for-early-gastric-cancer
#5
Rony K Roy, Michal M Hoppe, Supriya Srivastava, Animesh Samanta, Neel Sharma, Kar Tong Tan, Henry Yang, Dominic C Voon, Brendan Pang, Ming Teh, Naoko Murata-Kamiya, Masanori Hatakeyama, Young-Tae Chang, Wei Peng Yong, Yoshiaki Ito, Khek Yu Ho, Patrick Tan, Richie Soong, Phillip H Koeffler, Khay Guan Yeoh, Anand D Jeyasekharan
Early detection of gastric cancers saves lives, but remains a diagnostic challenge. In this study, we aimed to identify cell-surface biomarkers of early gastric cancer. We hypothesized that a subset of plasma membrane proteins induced by the Helicobacter pylori oncoprotein CagA will be retained in early gastric cancers through non-oncogene addiction. An inducible system for expression of CagA was used to identify differentially upregulated membrane protein transcripts in vitro. The top hits were then analyzed in gene expression datasets comparing transcriptome of gastric cancer with normal tissue, to focus on markers retained in cancer...
July 11, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391780/digital-image-modification-detection-using-color-information-and-its-histograms
#6
Haoyu Zhou, Yue Shen, Xinghui Zhu, Bo Liu, Zigang Fu, Na Fan
The rapid development of many open source and commercial image editing software makes the authenticity of the digital images questionable. Copy-move forgery is one of the most widely used tampering techniques to create desirable objects or conceal undesirable objects in a scene. Existing techniques reported in the literature to detect such tampering aim to improve the robustness of these methods against the use of JPEG compression, blurring, noise, or other types of post processing operations. These post processing operations are frequently used with the intention to conceal tampering and reduce tampering clues...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27370064/-digital-game-addiction-among-adolescents-and-younger-adults-a-current-overview
#7
Aylin Yalçın Irmak, Semra Erdoğan
The games that adolescents and young people used to play in the play grounds and on the streets have been replaced in recent years with cyber games played in front of the computer on the internet or in game arcades. This changing culture has particularly brought up the concept of "digital game addiction", a condition that stems from the steadily growing passion for digital games and their excessived and uncontrolled usage among adolescents and young people. Game addiction in the psychiatry literature has been described as an impulse control disorder characterized by the symptoms such as "the inability to control the time spent on game-playing", "a loss of interest in other activities", "continuing to play despite the adverse effects" and "feeling psychologically deprived when not being able to play"...
2016: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27138172/the-dark-side-of-internet-use-two-longitudinal-studies-of-excessive-internet-use-depressive-symptoms-school-burnout-and-engagement-among-finnish-early-and-late-adolescents
#8
Katariina Salmela-Aro, Katja Upadyaya, Kai Hakkarainen, Kirsti Lonka, Kimmo Alho
Recent research shows an increased concern with well-being at school and potential problems associated with students' use of socio-digital technologies, i.e., the mobile devices, computers, social media, and the Internet. Simultaneously with supporting creative social activities, socio-digital participation may also lead to compulsive and addictive behavioral patterns affecting both general and school-related mental health problems. Using two longitudinal data waves gathered among 1702 (53 % female) early (age 12-14) and 1636 (64 % female) late (age 16-18) Finnish adolescents, we examined cross-lagged paths between excessive internet use, school engagement and burnout, and depressive symptoms...
May 2, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27099958/differences-in-the-relationship-of-marijuana-and-tobacco-by-frequency-of-use-a-qualitative-study-with-adults-aged-18-34-years
#9
Gillian L Schauer, Casey D Hall, Carla J Berg, Dennis M Donovan, Michael Windle, Michelle C Kegler
Co-use of marijuana and tobacco is increasing among adults in the United States, but little research exists examining why co-use occurs. Changing marijuana policies make understanding the relationship between marijuana and tobacco critical. This study aimed to assess how adult co-users of marijuana and tobacco qualitatively conceptualize and describe their use and whether variation exists by frequency of use. Forty-eight past-month co-users aged 18-34 years completed semistructured, 1-on-1 qualitative interviews in Washington State (United States) in 2014...
May 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26828642/exposure-to-and-engagement-with-gambling-marketing-in-social-media-reported-impacts-on-moderate-risk-and-problem-gamblers
#10
Sally M Gainsbury, Daniel L King, Alex M T Russell, Paul Delfabbro, Jeffrey Derevensky, Nerilee Hing
Digital advertising for gambling and specifically marketing via social media have increased in recent years, and the impact on vulnerable consumers, including moderate-risk and problem gamblers, is unknown. Social media promotions often fall outside of advertising restrictions and codes of conduct and may have an inequitable effect on susceptible gamblers. This study aimed to investigate recall of exposure to, and reported impact on gamblers of, gambling promotions and marketing content on social media, with a focus on vulnerable users currently experiencing gambling problems...
March 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26816883/impact-of-quantified-smoking-status-on-cognition-in-young-adults
#11
Hemamalini Ramasamy Vajravelu, Thilip Kumar Gnanadurai, Prabhavathi Krishnan, Saravanan Ayyavoo
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking is an addictive behaviour which continues to rise among young adults. It has been associated with various health hazards. Effect of smoking on cognitive function has been contradicting. Thus our aim was to compare cognitive performances between smokers and non smokers and also to observe the effect of varying intensity of smoking on cognition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Thirty non smokers, 30 mild smokers, 30 moderate smokers, 30 heavy smokers within the age group of 25-35 years were involved in the study...
December 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26725686/a-microfluidic-method-for-dopamine-uptake-measurements-in-dopaminergic-neurons
#12
Yue Yu, Mohtashim H Shamsi, Dimitar L Krastev, Michael D M Dryden, Yen Leung, Aaron R Wheeler
Dopamine (DA) is a classical neurotransmitter and dysfunction in its synaptic handling underlies many neurological disorders, including addiction, depression, and neurodegeneration. A key to understanding DA dysfunction is the accurate measurement of dopamine uptake by dopaminergic neurons. Current methods that allow for the analysis of dopamine uptake rely on standard multiwell-plate based ELISA, or on carbon-fibre microelectrodes used in in vivo recording techniques. The former suffers from challenges associated with automation and analyte degradation, while the latter has low throughput and is not ideal for laboratory screening...
February 7, 2016: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26690623/problematic-digital-gaming-behavior-and-its-relation-to-the-psychological-social-and-physical-health-of-finnish-adolescents-and-young-adults
#13
Niko Männikkö, Joël Billieux, Maria Kääriäinen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of this study was to identify problematic gaming behavior among Finnish adolescents and young adults, and evaluate its connection to a variety of psychological, social, and physical health symptoms. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 293 respondents aged from 13 to 24 years. Participants completed an online survey. Problematic gaming behavior was measured with the Game Addiction Scale (GAS). Self-reports covered health measures such as psychological health (psychopathological symptoms, satisfaction with life), social health (preferences for social interaction), and physical health (general health, Body Mass Index [BMI], body discomfort, physical activity)...
December 2015: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26690615/distinguishing-between-gaming-and-gambling-activities-in-addiction-research
#14
REVIEW
Daniel L King, Sally M Gainsbury, Paul H Delfabbro, Nerilee Hing, Brett Abarbanel
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gambling and gaming activities have become increasingly recognised as sharing many common features at a structural and aesthetic level. Both have also been implicated as contributing to harm through excessive involvement. Despite this, relatively little attention has been given to the fundamental characteristics that differentiate these two classes of activity, especially in situations where the boundaries between them may be particularly hard to distinguish. This is evident, for example, in digital games that incorporate free and paid virtual currencies or items, as well as the capacity for wagering...
December 2015: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26274977/refining-measures-for-assessing-problematic-addictive-digital-gaming-use-in-clinical-and-research-settings
#15
Kyle Faust, David Faust
Problematic or addictive digital gaming (including all types of electronic devices) can and has had extremely adverse impacts on the lives of many individuals across the world. The understanding of this phenomenon, and the effectiveness of treatment design and monitoring, can be improved considerably by continuing refinement of assessment tools. The present article briefly overviews tools designed to measure problematic or addictive use of digital gaming, the vast majority of which are founded on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria for other addictive disorders, such as pathological gambling...
2015: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26270548/positive-selection-on-loci-associated-with-drug-and-alcohol-dependence
#16
Brooke Sadler, Gabe Haller, Howard Edenberg, Jay Tischfield, Andy Brooks, John Kramer, Marc Schuckit, John Nurnberger, Alison Goate
Much of the evolution of human behavior remains a mystery, including how certain disadvantageous behaviors are so prevalent. Nicotine addiction is one such phenotype. Several loci have been implicated in nicotine related phenotypes including the nicotinic receptor gene clusters (CHRNs) on chromosomes 8 and 15. Here we use 1000 Genomes sequence data from 3 populations (Africans, Asians and Europeans) to examine whether natural selection has occurred at these loci. We used Tajima's D and the integrated haplotype score (iHS) to test for evidence of natural selection...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26170005/how-has-the-internet-reshaped-human-cognition
#17
REVIEW
Kep Kee Loh, Ryota Kanai
Throughout our evolutionary history, our cognitive systems have been altered by the advent of technological inventions such as primitive tools, spoken language, writing, and arithmetic systems. Thirty years ago, the Internet surfaced as the latest technological invention poised to deeply reshape human cognition. With its multifaceted affordances, the Internet environment has profoundly transformed our thoughts and behaviors. Growing up with Internet technologies, "Digital Natives" gravitate toward "shallow" information processing behaviors characterized by rapid attention shifting and reduced deliberations...
October 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26150093/beyond-the-ask-and-advise-implementation-of-a-computer-tablet-intervention-to-enhance-provider-adherence-to-the-5as-for-smoking-cessation
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sara Kalkhoran, Nicole A Appelle, Anna M Napoles, Ricardo F Munoz, Paula J Lum, Nicholas Alvarado, Steven E Gregorich, Jason M Satterfield
BACKGROUND: The 5As for smoking cessation is an evidence-based intervention to aid providers in counseling patients to quit smoking. While most providers "ask" patients about their tobacco use patterns and "advise" them to quit, fewer patients report being "assessed" for their interest in quitting, and even fewer report subsequent "assistance" in a quit attempt and having follow-up "arranged". PURPOSE: This article describes the design of an implementation study testing a computer tablet intervention to improve provider adherence to the 5As for smoking cessation...
January 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26133517/taking-a-paws-to-reflect-on-how-the-work-of-a-therapy-dog-supports-a-trauma-informed-approach-to-prisoner-health
#19
Colleen Anne Dell, Nancy Poole
Canada's Correctional Investigator has found that mental health disorders, alone or in combination with alcohol and drug abuse, challenge public health and safety. Trauma is a key contributor among Canada's inmate population. Therapy dogs can assist in supporting individuals with mental health, addiction, and trauma concerns. This case report presents the work of a St. John Ambulance therapy dog in a trauma-informed approach to prisoner health. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration articulates six evidence-based trauma principles for service providers; safety; trustworthiness and transparency; peer support; collaboration and mutuality; empowerment, voice, and choice; and cultural, historical, and gender issues...
July 2015: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26107639/from-abstinence-to-relapse-a-preliminary-qualitative-study-of-drug-users-in-a-compulsory-drug-rehabilitation-center-in-changsha-china
#20
Mei Yang, Jules Mamy, Pengcheng Gao, Shuiyuan Xiao
BACKGROUND: Relapse among abstinent drug users is normal. Several factors are related to relapse, but it remains unclear what individuals' actual life circumstances are during periods of abstinence, and how these circumstances facilitate or prevent relapse. OBJECTIVE: To illuminate drug users' experiences during abstinence periods and explore the real-life catalysts and inhibitors contributing to drug use relapse. METHOD: Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 drug users recruited from a compulsory isolated drug rehabilitation center in Changsha...
2015: PloS One
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