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Vitamin d adipocyte

Yovani Llamas Valle, Sami G Almalki, Devendra K Agrawal
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D, a hormone once thought to have a role limited to calcium homeostasis and bone mineralization, has pleiotropic effects on different types of cells. Vitamin D receptors are reported in vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and cardiomyocytes. Adipose-derived MSCs (ADMSCs) are multipotent cells with the capacity to differentiate into cells of different lineages. To our knowledge, the presence of vitamin D machinery on porcine ADMSCs has not yet been examined...
2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Manal A Abbas
Adipose tissue has long been identified as the major site of vitamin D storage. Recent studies have demonstrated that VDR and vitamin D metabolizing enzymes are expressed in adipocytes. Furthermore, it has been shown that vitamin D regulates adipogenic gene expression as well as adipocyte apoptosis. Vitamin D is active in adipocytes at all levels. It interacts with membrane receptors, adaptor molecules, and nuclear coregulator proteins. Several functions of unliganded nVDR were discovered by studying human samples from patients having hereditary vitamin D resistant rickets, transgenic mice overexpressing the VDR and VDR knockout mice...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Christopher J Pelham, Elizabeth M Drews, Devendra K Agrawal
Vitamin D deficiency in human subjects is associated with hypertension, metabolic syndrome and related risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels correlate inversely with adiposity in obese and lean individuals. Bioactive vitamin D, or calcitriol, exerts anti-inflammatory effects on adipocytes, preadipocytes and macrophages in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency alters the phenotype of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) leading to impaired function in resistance artery...
September 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
E P S Conceição, E G Moura, A C Manhães, J C Carvalho, J L Nobre, E Oliveira, P C Lisboa
Rats overfed during lactation show higher visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass and metabolic dysfunctions at adulthood. As both vitamin D and glucocorticoids change adipogenesis, parameters related to metabolism and action of these hormones in the adipocyte can be altered in rats raised in small litters (SL). We also studied the antiobesity effects of high calcium diet since it decreases visceral fat in obesity models. On postnatal day (PN) 3, litter size was adjusted to 3pups/dam (SL) to induce overfeeding. Control litters (NL) remained with 10pups/dam until weaning...
August 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Juliana Rodríguez, Patricia Mónica Mandalunis
Accumulation of cadmium (Cd), an extremely toxic metal, can cause renal failure, decreased vitamin D synthesis, and consequently osteoporosis. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of Cd on two types of bone in growing Wistar rats. Sixteen 21-day-old male Wistar rats were assigned to one of two groups. The Cd group subcutaneously received 0.5mg/kg of CdCl2 5 times weekly for 3 months. The control group similarly received bidistilled water. Following euthanasia, the mandibles and tibiae were resected, fixed, decalcified and processed histologically to obtain sections for H&E and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining...
August 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
Stéphanie O Morin, Marjorie Poggi, Marie-Christine Alessi, Jean-François Landrier, Jacques A Nunès
SIGNIFICANCE: Immune T cells are present in adipose tissues (AT), and the stoichiometry of the different T cell subsets is altered during diet-induced obesity (DIO). T cells contribute to the early steps of AT inflammation during DIO. RECENT ADVANCES: Many factors could potentially be responsible for this altered pro-inflammatory versus anti-inflammatory T cell balance. CRITICAL ISSUES: T cells are potentially activated in AT, which vitamin D might contribute to, as will be discussed in this article...
June 30, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Eugene Chang, Yangha Kim
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies suggest that low vitamin D status is associated with obesity characterized by excess lipid storage in adipocytes. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the most hormonally active form of vitamin D 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] on adipocyte fat storage and lipid metabolism in mature 3T3-L1 cells. METHODS: Differentiated 3T3-L1 cells were treated with various concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide cell proliferation, intracellular lipid content, and basal and isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis were measured to investigate the regulatory role of 1,25(OH)2D in adipocyte lipid metabolism...
June 2016: Nutrition
Jessica Lopes Nobre, Patricia C Lisboa, Nayara Peixoto-Silva, Fernanda Torres Quitete, Janaine C Carvalho, Egberto Gaspar de Moura, Elaine de Oliveira
SCOPE: Early weaning (EW) is associated with an impairment of offspring development and leads to overweight and higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in adulthood, which can be corrected by calcium supplementation, potentially via vitamin D regulation of adipogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined vitamin D status in adipose tissue in EW obese rats, treated with calcium. Dams were separated into: EW- dams were wrapped with a bandage to interrupt lactation (last 3 days), and C- pups with free access to milk...
April 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Igor N Sergeev
The vitamin D hormone 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3)-induced cellular Ca(2+) signals regulate apoptosis in adipocytes and insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, and low vitamin D status is considered a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. The anti-obesity effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 in mature adipocytes are determined by its activity to generate, via multiple Ca(2+) signaling pathways, a sustained increase in intracellular Ca(2+) followed by activation of the Ca(2+)-dependent initiators and effectors of apoptosis...
November 23, 2015: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Sunmin Park, Da Sol Kim, Suna Kang
Human studies have provided relatively strong associations of poor vitamin D status with Type 2 diabetes but do not explain the nature of the association. Here, we explored the physiological pathways that may explain how vitamin D status modulates energy, lipid and glucose metabolisms in nonobese Type 2 diabetic rats. Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were fed high-fat diets containing 25 (VD-low), 1000 (VD-normal) or 10,000 (VD-high) cholecalciferol-IU/kg diet for 8 weeks. Energy expenditure, insulin resistance, insulin secretory capacity and lipid metabolism were measured...
January 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Robert C Baxter
In addition to its actions outside the cell, cellular uptake and nuclear import of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) has been recognized for almost two decades, but knowledge of its nuclear actions has been slow to emerge. IGFBP-3 has a functional nuclear localization signal and interacts with the nuclear transport protein importin-β. Within the nucleus IGFBP-3 appears to have a role in transcriptional regulation. It can bind to the nuclear receptor, retinoid X receptor-α and several of its dimerization partners, including retinoic acid receptor, vitamin D receptor (VDR), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ)...
September 10, 2015: Gene
Ichiro Kaneko, Marya S Sabir, Christopher M Dussik, G Kerr Whitfield, Amitis Karrys, Jui-Cheng Hsieh, Mark R Haussler, Mark B Meyer, J Wesley Pike, Peter W Jurutka
To investigate vitamin D-related control of brain-expressed genes, candidate vitamin D responsive elements (VDREs) at -7/-10 kb in human tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH)2 were probed. Both VDREs bound the vitamin D receptor (VDR)-retinoid X receptor (RXR) complex and drove reporter gene transcription in response to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D). Brain TPH2 mRNA, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin synthesis, was induced 2.2-fold by 10 nM 1,25D in human U87 glioblastoma cells and 47.8-fold in rat serotonergic RN46A-B14 cells...
September 2015: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Shuhan Ji, Matthew E Doumit, Rodney A Hill
The functions of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1, 25-(OH)2D3) in regulating adipogenesis, adipocyte differentiation and key adipogenic gene expression were studied in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Five concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 nM) of 1, 25-(OH)2D3 were studied and lipid accumulation measured by Oil Red O staining and expression of adipogenic genes quantified using quantitative real-time PCR. Adipogenic responses to 1, 25-(OH)2D3 were determined on 6, and 12 h, and days 1-10 after induction of adipogenesis by a hormonal cocktail with or without 1, 25-(OH)2D3...
2015: PloS One
Arjuna B Medagama
BACKGROUND: Nearly 50% of diabetic patients worldwide use complementary medicines to treat or supplement their conventional diabetes treatment. Salacia reticulata (Kothala himbutu) is a woody climber used widely in the Ayurvedic system to treat diabetes and obesity. OBJECTIVE: In this review I critically analyze the evidence for using Salacia reticulata for treating type 2 diabetes and obesity. The available evidence is described in terms of in-vitro studies, animal studies and clinical trials...
2015: Nutrition Journal
Antonysunil Adaikalakoteswari, Sarah Finer, Philip D Voyias, Ciara M McCarthy, Manu Vatish, Jonathan Moore, Melissa Smart-Halajko, Nahla Bawazeer, Nasser M Al-Daghri, Philip G McTernan, Sudhesh Kumar, Graham A Hitman, Ponnusamy Saravanan, Gyanendra Tripathi
BACKGROUND: The dietary supply of methyl donors such as folate, vitamin B12, betaine, methionine, and choline is essential for normal growth, development, and physiological functions through the life course. Both human and animal studies have shown that vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with altered lipid profile and play an important role in the prediction of metabolic risk, however, as of yet, no direct mechanism has been investigated to confirm this. RESULTS: Three independent clinical studies of women (i) non-pregnant at child-bearing age, (ii) in early pregnancy, and (iii) at delivery showed that low vitamin B12 status was associated with higher total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and cholesterol-to-HDL ratio...
2015: Clinical Epigenetics
Esma Karkeni, Julie Marcotorchino, Franck Tourniaire, Julien Astier, Franck Peiretti, Patrice Darmon, Jean-François Landrier
Vitamin D (VD) displays immunoregulatory effects and reduces adipocyte inflammation, which may participate to a reduction of adipose tissue macrophage infiltration in the context of obesity-associated low-grade inflammation. These observations have been described mainly in vitro, through the evaluation of a limited number of inflammatory markers. Here, we studied the effects of 1,25 dihydroxy-VD on chemokine network expression in adipocytes (by transcriptomic approach), and we confirm the physiological relevance of these data in vivo, by demonstrating the effect of VD on cytokine and chemokine gene expression as well as on macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue...
May 2015: Endocrinology
Ian R Wallace, Helen J Wallace, Michelle C McKinley, Patrick M Bell, Steven J Hunter
Vitamin D is a steroid hormone, which in active form binds to the vitamin D receptor. Expression of the vitamin D receptor in diverse cell types (pancreatic islet cells, myocytes, hepatocytes and adipocytes) raises the suspicion that vitamin D may be involved in multiple cellular processes, including the response to insulin. Insulin resistance is a characteristic feature of type 2 DM, and its attenuation may reduce the incidence of type 2 DM and cardiovascular disease. In observational studies, low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentrations are associated with an increased risk of type 2 DM...
March 2, 2015: Clinical Endocrinology
N D Tron'ko, K P Zak
New literature data and the results of own researches concerning the role of excessive body weight and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans are presented in the analytical review. Inaccordance with current insights, obesity and type 2 diabetes are considered diseases of inflammatory nature, characterized by systemic chronic low-grade inflammation, where different kinds of cytokines are cardinally involved. Unfavourable life style, i.e. excessive, high-energy, and irrational nutrition--an excessive consumption of animal fats and foods containing the high amount of glucose and starch with an insufficient use of high fiber vegetables, fish and vitamin D, and also sedentary, inactive life style leads to adipocyte hypertrophy and migration of M1 macrophages into the adipose tissue (AT)...
December 2013: Likars'ka Sprava
J Brtko, Z Dvorak
We review trialkyltin and triaryltin compounds, representing a class of organometallic compounds that function as nuclear retinoid X receptors (RXR) agonists due to their capability to bind to the ligand-binding domain of RXR subtypes and function as transcriptional activators. RXRs act predominantly as heterodimers with other nuclear receptors as permissive heterodimers with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, liver X receptors, farnesoid X receptor, pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstan receptor or as non-permissive heterodimer with vitamin D receptor, and as conditional heterodimers with retinoid receptors, and thyroid hormone receptors...
April 2, 2015: Toxicology Letters
David Martins, Yuan-Xiang Meng, Naureen Tareen, Jorge Artaza, Jae Eun Lee, Caroline Farodolu, Gary Gibbons, Keith Norris
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated as a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The high rate of vitamin D deficiency (<30 ng/ml) exhibited by African Americans may account for some of the excess prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in this vulnerable US population. Vitamin D supplementation may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by ameliorating the onset and progression of arterial stiffness, a strong predictor of cardiovascular mortality, usually assessed by pulse wave velocity and augmentation index...
June 2014: Health
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