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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422706/adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-an-important-target-associated-with-antidepressant-effects-of-exercise
#1
Lina Sun, Qingshan Sun, Jinshun Qi
Depression is a prevalent devastating mental disorder that affects the normal life of patients and brings a heavy burden to whole society. Although many efforts have been made to attenuate depressive/anxiety symptoms, the current clinic antidepressants have limited effects. Scientists have long been making attempts to find some new strategies that can be applied as the alternative antidepressant therapy. Exercise, a widely recognized healthy lifestyle, has been suggested as a therapy that can relieve psychiatric stress...
April 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390878/protective-effects-of-different-exercise-modalities-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-like-model
#2
Dilek Özbeyli, Gülce Sarı, Naziye Özkan, Betül Karademir, Meral Yüksel, Özlem Tuğçe Çilingir Kaya, Özgür Kasımay Çakır
Our aim was to investigate the probable protective effects of aerobic, resistance and combined exercise methods on ovariectomy and d-galactose induced Alzheimer's Disease (AD)-like model. d-galactose (100mg/kg) or saline were administered intraperitoneally for 6 weeks to ovariectomized or sham-operated rats (n=8/group). Aerobic (AE), resistance (RE) and combined exercises (CE) (aerobic+resistance) were performed for 3 times a week for 6 weeks. Anxiety level and cognitive functions were evaluated via hole-board and object recognition tests...
April 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315455/7-8-dihydroxyflavone-facilitates-the-action-exercise-to-restore-plasticity-and-functionality-implications-for-early-brain-trauma-recovery
#3
Gokul Krishna, Rahul Agrawal, Yumei Zhuang, Zhe Ying, Afshin Paydar, Neil G Harris, Luiz Fernando F Royes, Fernando Gomez-Pinilla
Metabolic dysfunction accompanying traumatic brain injury (TBI) severely impairs the ability of injured neurons to comply with functional demands. This limits the success of rehabilitative strategies by compromising brain plasticity and function, and highlights the need for early interventions to promote energy homeostasis. We sought to examine whether the TrkB agonist, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) normalizes brain energy deficits and restablishes more normal patterns of functional connectivity, while enhancing the effects of exercise during post-TBI period...
March 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314519/after-effects-of-peripheral-neurostimulation-on-brain-plasticity-and-ankle-function-in-chronic-stroke-the-role-of-afferents-recruited
#4
Louis-David Beaulieu, Hugo Massé-Alarie, Samuel Camiré-Bernier, Édith Ribot-Ciscar, Cyril Schneider
AIMS OF THE STUDY: This study tested the after-effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rPMS) and muscle tendon vibration (VIB) on brain plasticity and sensorimotor impairments in chronic stroke to investigate whether different results could depend on the nature of afferents recruited by each technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen people with chronic stroke participated in five sessions (one per week)...
March 14, 2017: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299206/nonpharmacological-interventions-in-targeting-pain-related-brain-plasticity
#5
REVIEW
Maral Tajerian, J David Clark
Chronic pain is a highly prevalent and debilitating condition that is frequently associated with multiple comorbid psychiatric conditions and functional, biochemical, and anatomical alterations in various brain centers. Due to its widespread and diverse manifestations, chronic pain is often resistant to classical pharmacological treatment paradigms, prompting the search for alternative treatment approaches that are safe and efficacious. The current review will focus on the following themes: attentional and cognitive interventions, the role of global environmental factors, and the effects of exercise and physical rehabilitation in both chronic pain patients and preclinical pain models...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291539/the-role-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-its-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-stroke-patients
#6
REVIEW
Dariusz Kotlęga, Barbara Peda, Agnieszka Zembroń-Łacny, Monika Gołąb-Janowska, Przemysław Nowacki
Stroke is the main cause of motoric and neuropsychological disability in adults. Recent advances in research into the role of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor in neuroplasticity, neuroprotection and neurogenesis might provide important information for the development of new poststroke-rehabilitation strategies. It plays a role as a mediator in motor learning and rehabilitation after stroke. Concentrations of BDNF are lower in acute ischemic-stroke patients compared to controls. Lower levels of BDNF are correlated with an increased risk of stroke, worse functional outcomes and higher mortality...
March 6, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078981/resilience-to-alzheimer-s-disease-the-role-of-physical-activity
#7
Anna Pedrinolla, Federico Schena, Massimo Venturelli
BACKGROUND: Although Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative pathology characterized by accumulation of β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles at cerebral level, recent studies highlighted that AD might be the result of many altered physiological processes occurring at whole-organism level. The ability to adapt to stressors by "bending" but not "breaking" can be considered as "resilience". Individuals incline to withstand such pathophysiological challenges, can be considered more resilient than those that do not...
January 11, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984020/physical-exercise-reverses-spatial-memory-deficit-and-induces-hippocampal-astrocyte-plasticity-in-diabetic-rats
#8
Priscylla Nunes de Senna, Pamela Brambilla Bagatini, Fabiana Galland, Larissa Bobermin, Patrícia Severo do Nascimento, Patrícia Nardin, Ana Carolina Tramontina, Carlos Alberto Gonçalves, Matilde Achaval, Léder Leal Xavier
Physical exercise can induce brain plasticity and reduce the cognitive decline observed in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). We investigated the effects of physical exercise to prevent or reverse spatial memory deficits produced by diabetes and some biochemical and immunohistochemical changes in hippocampal astrocytes of T1DM model. In this study, 56 male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: trained control (TC), non-trained control (NTC), trained diabetic (TD) and non-trained diabetic (NTD). 27 days after streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetes, the exercise groups were submitted to 5 weeks of aerobic exercise...
January 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956050/the-exercise-glucocorticoid-paradox-how-exercise-is-beneficial-to-cognition-mood-and-the-brain-while-increasing-glucocorticoid-levels
#9
REVIEW
Chong Chen, Shin Nakagawa, Yan An, Koki Ito, Yuji Kitaichi, Ichiro Kusumi
Exercise is known to have beneficial effects on cognition, mood, and the brain. However, exercise also activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increases levels of the glucocorticoid cortisol (CORT). CORT, also known as the "stress hormone," is considered a mediator between chronic stress and depression and to link various cognitive deficits. Here, we review the evidence that shows that while both chronic stress and exercise elevate basal CORT levels leading to increased secretion of CORT, the former is detrimental to cognition/memory, mood/stress coping, and brain plasticity, while the latter is beneficial...
January 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916427/tea-cocoa-coffee-and-affective-disorders-vicious-or-virtuous-cycle
#10
REVIEW
Tatiana García-Blanco, Alberto Dávalos, Francesco Visioli
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of psychiatric disorders is increasing worldwide, which underscores the importance of increasing research in this field, in terms of better detection, prevention based on improvement of lifestyle and diet, and effectiveness of treatment. Increasing evidence suggest that diet and exercise can affect proper neuronal development and physiology and protect the brain from neurological illnesses or injuries. Of note, cocoa, tea, and coffee are being actively investigated because they are rich in (poly)phenolic compounds that can modulate mental health, namely brain plasticity, behavior, mood, depression, and cognition...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788679/visually-guided-gait-training-in-paretic-patients-during-the-first-rehabilitation-phase-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Cathia Rossano, Philippe Terrier
BACKGROUND: After a lesion to the central nervous system, many patients suffer from reduced walking capability. In the first rehabilitation phase, repeated walking exercises facilitate muscular strength and stimulate brain plasticity and motor relearning. However, marked limping, an unsteady gait, and poor management of obstacle clearance may persist, which increases a patient's risk of falling. Gait training with augmented reality has been recommended to improve gait coordination. The objective of this study is to test whether a gait rehabilitation program using augmented reality is superior to a conventional treadmill training program of equivalent intensity...
October 27, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716670/bdnf-responses-in-healthy-older-persons%C3%A2-to-35-minutes-of-physical-exercise-%C3%A2-cognitive-training-and%C3%A2-mindfulness-associations-with%C3%A2-working-memory-function
#12
Krister Håkansson, Aurélie Ledreux, Kirk Daffner, Yvonne Terjestam, Patrick Bergman, Roger Carlsson, Miia Kivipelto, Bengt Winblad, Ann-Charlotte Granholm, Abdul Kadir H Mohammed
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a central role in brain plasticity by mediating changes in cortical thickness and synaptic density in response to physical activity and environmental enrichment. Previous studies suggest that physical exercise can augment BDNF levels, both in serum and the brain, but no other study has examined how different types of activities compare with physical exercise in their ability to affect BDNF levels. By using a balanced cross over experimental design, we exposed nineteen healthy older adults to 35-minute sessions of physical exercise, cognitive training, and mindfulness practice, and compared the resulting changes in mature BDNF levels between the three activities...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708575/physical-exercise-preserves-adult-visual-plasticity-in-mice-and-restores-it-after-a-stroke-in-the-somatosensory-cortex
#13
Evgenia Kalogeraki, Justyna Pielecka-Fortuna, Janika M Hüppe, Siegrid Löwel
The primary visual cortex (V1) is widely used to study brain plasticity, which is not only crucial for normal brain function, such as learning and memory, but also for recovery after brain injuries such as stroke. In standard cage (SC) raised mice, experience-dependent ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in V1 declines with age and is compromised by a lesion in adjacent and distant cortical regions. In contrast, mice raised in an enriched environment (EE), exhibit lifelong OD plasticity and are protected from losing OD plasticity after a stroke-lesion in the somatosensory cortex...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484433/molecular-mechanisms-of-experience-dependent-structural-and-functional-plasticity-in-the-brain
#14
REVIEW
Makoto Kondo
Experiences and environments have a variety of effects on brain plasticity at levels ranging from the molecular and cellular to the behavioral. Brain plasticity is one of the most important characteristics of animal survival. In particular, environmental enrichment and exercise induce many structural and functional changes in the brain, and it is noteworthy that these changes result in further beneficial effects at behavioral levels, such as improved learning behavior and antidepressant effects. The effects of enrichment and exercise, and the mechanisms involved in both, provide crucial evidence for the prevention and treatment of brain disorders...
January 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27438996/effects-of-exercise-on-adolescent-and-adult-hypothalamic-and-hippocampal-neuroinflammation
#15
Alita Soch, Steven Bradburn, Luba Sominsky, Simone N De Luca, Christopher Murgatroyd, Sarah J Spencer
Adolescence is a period of significant brain plasticity that can be affected by environmental factors, including the degree of physical activity. Here we hypothesized that adolescent rats would be more sensitive to the beneficial metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects of voluntary exercise than adult rats, whose more mature brains have less capacity for plasticity. We tested this by giving adolescent and adult Wistar rats four weeks' voluntary access to running wheels. At the end of this period we assessed metabolic effects, including weight and circulating leptin and ghrelin, as well as performance in a novel object recognition test of memory and central changes in neuronal proliferation, survival, synaptic density, and inflammatory markers in hippocampus...
November 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388329/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-val66met-human-polymorphism-impairs-the-beneficial-exercise-induced-neurobiological-changes-in-mice
#16
Alessandro Ieraci, Alessandro I Madaio, Alessandra Mallei, Francis S Lee, Maurizio Popoli
Several studies have shown that exercise improves cognitive functions and emotional behaviors. Positive effects of exercise have been associated with enhanced brain plasticity, adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, a substantial variability of individual response to exercise has been described, which may be accounted for by individual genetic variants. Here, we have assessed whether and how the common human BDNF Val66Met polymorphism influences the neurobiological effects modulated by exercise in BDNF Val66Met knock-in male mice...
December 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328058/physical-exercise-and-brain-mitochondrial-fitness-the-possible-role-against-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
T C Bernardo, I Marques-Aleixo, J Beleza, P J Oliveira, A Ascensão, J Magalhães
Exercise is one of the most effective strategies to maintain a healthy body and mind, with particular beneficial effects of exercise on promoting brain plasticity, increasing cognition and reducing the risk of cognitive decline and dementia in later life. Moreover, the beneficial effects resulting from increased physical activity occur at different levels of cellular organization, mitochondria being preferential target organelles. The relevance of this review article relies on the need to integrate the current knowledge of proposed mechanisms, focus mitochondria, to explain the protective effects of exercise that might underlie neuroplasticity and seeks to synthesize these data in the context of exploring exercise as a feasible intervention to delay cognitive impairment associated with neurodegenerative conditions, particularly Alzheimer disease...
September 2016: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312772/late-running-is-not-too-late-against-alzheimer-s-pathology
#18
Arne Herring, Yvonne Münster, Judith Metzdorf, Bastien Bolczek, Sarah Krüssel, David Krieter, Ilkay Yavuz, Fro Karim, Constanze Roggendorf, Anthony Stang, Yachao Wang, Dirk M Hermann, Sarah Teuber-Hanselmann, Kathy Keyvani
In the last decade a vast number of animal studies have produced overwhelming evidence that exercise not only compensates for memory loss by increasing brain plasticity and cognitive reserve but also directly counteracts Alzheimer-like pathology when provided before disease onset or in early disease stages. But so far, there is little knowledge about therapeutic effects of training when started in advanced disease stages. In the present study we show that following seven months of sedentary life style five months of wheel running, started four months after disease onset was still able to mitigate at least some aspects of the full-blown Alzheimer's pathology in TgCRND8 mice...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27283912/different-effects-of-strength-and-endurance-exercise-training-on-cox-2-and-mpges-expression-in-mouse-brain-are-independent-of-peripheral-inflammation
#19
K Krüger, J Bredehöft, F C Mooren, C Rummel
Acute endurance exercise has been shown to modulate cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression, which is suggested to affect neuronal plasticity and learning. Here, we investigated the effect of regular strength and endurance training on cerebral COX-2 expression, inflammatory markers in the brain, and circulating cytokines. Male C57BL/6N mice were assigned to either a sedentary control group (CG), an endurance training group (EG; treadmill running for 30 min/day, 5 times/wk, 10 wk), or a strength training group (SG; strength training by isometric holding, same duration as EG)...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148041/exergame-and-balance-training-modulate-prefrontal-brain-activity-during-walking-and-enhance-executive-function-in-older-adults
#20
Patrick Eggenberger, Martin Wolf, Martina Schumann, Eling D de Bruin
Different types of exercise training have the potential to induce structural and functional brain plasticity in the elderly. Thereby, functional brain adaptations were observed during cognitive tasks in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that correlated with improved cognitive performance. This study aimed to investigate if exercise training induces functional brain plasticity during challenging treadmill walking and elicits associated changes in cognitive executive functions. Forty-two elderly participants were recruited and randomly assigned to either interactive cognitive-motor video game dancing (DANCE) or balance and stretching training (BALANCE)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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