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"Brain plasticity" " exercise"

Tatiana García-Blanco, Alberto Dávalos, Francesco Visioli
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of psychiatric disorders is increasing worldwide, which underscores the importance of increasing research in this field, in terms of better detection, prevention based on improvement of lifestyle and diet, and effectiveness of treatment. Increasing evidence suggest that diet and exercise can affect proper neuronal development and physiology and protect the brain from neurological illnesses or injuries. Of note, cocoa, tea, and coffee are being actively investigated because they are rich in (poly)phenolic compounds that can modulate mental health, namely brain plasticity, behavior, mood, depression, and cognition...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Cathia Rossano, Philippe Terrier
BACKGROUND: After a lesion to the central nervous system, many patients suffer from reduced walking capability. In the first rehabilitation phase, repeated walking exercises facilitate muscular strength and stimulate brain plasticity and motor relearning. However, marked limping, an unsteady gait, and poor management of obstacle clearance may persist, which increases a patient's risk of falling. Gait training with augmented reality has been recommended to improve gait coordination. The objective of this study is to test whether a gait rehabilitation program using augmented reality is superior to a conventional treadmill training program of equivalent intensity...
October 27, 2016: Trials
Krister Håkansson, Aurélie Ledreux, Kirk Daffner, Yvonne Terjestam, Patrick Bergman, Roger Carlsson, Miia Kivipelto, Bengt Winblad, Ann-Charlotte Granholm, Abdul Kadir H Mohammed
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a central role in brain plasticity by mediating changes in cortical thickness and synaptic density in response to physical activity and environmental enrichment. Previous studies suggest that physical exercise can augment BDNF levels, both in serum and the brain, but no other study has examined how different types of activities compare with physical exercise in their ability to affect BDNF levels. By using a balanced cross over experimental design, we exposed nineteen healthy older adults to 35-minute sessions of physical exercise, cognitive training, and mindfulness practice, and compared the resulting changes in mature BDNF levels between the three activities...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Evgenia Kalogeraki, Justyna Pielecka-Fortuna, Janika M Hüppe, Siegrid Löwel
The primary visual cortex (V1) is widely used to study brain plasticity, which is not only crucial for normal brain function, such as learning and memory, but also for recovery after brain injuries such as stroke. In standard cage (SC) raised mice, experience-dependent ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in V1 declines with age and is compromised by a lesion in adjacent and distant cortical regions. In contrast, mice raised in an enriched environment (EE), exhibit lifelong OD plasticity and are protected from losing OD plasticity after a stroke-lesion in the somatosensory cortex...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Makoto Kondo
Experiences and environments have a variety of effects on brain plasticity at levels ranging from the molecular and cellular to the behavioral. Brain plasticity is one of the most important characteristics of animal survival. In particular, environmental enrichment and exercise induce many structural and functional changes in the brain, and it is noteworthy that these changes result in further beneficial effects at behavioral levels, such as improved learning behavior and antidepressant effects. The effects of enrichment and exercise, and the mechanisms involved in both, provide crucial evidence for the prevention and treatment of brain disorders...
January 2017: Anatomical Science International
Alita Soch, Steven Bradburn, Luba Sominsky, Simone De Luca, Christopher Murgatroyd, Sarah J Spencer
Adolescence is a period of significant brain plasticity that can be affected by environmental factors, including the degree of physical activity. Here we hypothesized that adolescent rats would be more sensitive to the beneficial metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects of voluntary exercise than adult rats, whose more mature brains have less capacity for plasticity. We tested this by giving adolescent and adult Wistar rats four weeks' voluntary access to running wheels. At the end of this period we assessed metabolic effects, including weight and circulating leptin and ghrelin, as well as performance in a novel object recognition test of memory and central changes in neuronal proliferation, survival, synaptic density, and inflammatory markers in hippocampus...
July 20, 2016: Hippocampus
Alessandro Ieraci, Alessandro I Madaio, Alessandra Mallei, Francis S Lee, Maurizio Popoli
Several studies have shown that exercise improves cognitive functions and emotional behaviors. Positive effects of exercise have been associated with enhanced brain plasticity, adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, a substantial variability of individual response to exercise has been described, which may be accounted for by individual genetic variants. Here, we have assessed whether and how the common human BDNF Val66Met polymorphism influences the neurobiological effects modulated by exercise in BDNF Val66Met knock-in male mice...
December 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
T C Bernardo, I Marques-Aleixo, J Beleza, P J Oliveira, A Ascensão, J Magalhães
Exercise is one of the most effective strategies to maintain a healthy body and mind, with particular beneficial effects of exercise on promoting brain plasticity, increasing cognition and reducing the risk of cognitive decline and dementia in later life. Moreover, the beneficial effects resulting from increased physical activity occur at different levels of cellular organization, mitochondria being preferential target organelles. The relevance of this review article relies on the need to integrate the current knowledge of proposed mechanisms, focus mitochondria, to explain the protective effects of exercise that might underlie neuroplasticity and seeks to synthesize these data in the context of exploring exercise as a feasible intervention to delay cognitive impairment associated with neurodegenerative conditions, particularly Alzheimer disease...
September 2016: Brain Pathology
Arne Herring, Yvonne Münster, Judith Metzdorf, Bastien Bolczek, Sarah Krüssel, David Krieter, Ilkay Yavuz, Fro Karim, Constanze Roggendorf, Anthony Stang, Yachao Wang, Dirk M Hermann, Sarah Teuber-Hanselmann, Kathy Keyvani
In the last decade a vast number of animal studies have produced overwhelming evidence that exercise not only compensates for memory loss by increasing brain plasticity and cognitive reserve but also directly counteracts Alzheimer-like pathology when provided before disease onset or in early disease stages. But so far, there is little knowledge about therapeutic effects of training when started in advanced disease stages. In the present study we show that following seven months of sedentary life style five months of wheel running, started four months after disease onset was still able to mitigate at least some aspects of the full-blown Alzheimer's pathology in TgCRND8 mice...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
K Krüger, J Bredehöft, F C Mooren, C Rummel
Acute endurance exercise has been shown to modulate cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression, which is suggested to affect neuronal plasticity and learning. Here, we investigated the effect of regular strength and endurance training on cerebral COX-2 expression, inflammatory markers in the brain, and circulating cytokines. Male C57BL/6N mice were assigned to either a sedentary control group (CG), an endurance training group (EG; treadmill running for 30 min/day, 5 times/wk, 10 wk), or a strength training group (SG; strength training by isometric holding, same duration as EG)...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Patrick Eggenberger, Martin Wolf, Martina Schumann, Eling D de Bruin
Different types of exercise training have the potential to induce structural and functional brain plasticity in the elderly. Thereby, functional brain adaptations were observed during cognitive tasks in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that correlated with improved cognitive performance. This study aimed to investigate if exercise training induces functional brain plasticity during challenging treadmill walking and elicits associated changes in cognitive executive functions. Forty-two elderly participants were recruited and randomly assigned to either interactive cognitive-motor video game dancing (DANCE) or balance and stretching training (BALANCE)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Renza Perini, Marta Bortoletto, Michela Capogrosso, Anna Fertonani, Carlo Miniussi
The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex...
2016: Scientific Reports
Sonya Kaur, Mitzi M Gonzales, Takashi Tarumi, Astrid Villalpando, Mohammed Alkatan, Martha Pyron, Hirofumi Tanaka, Andreana P Haley
OBJECTIVES: Excessive adipose tissue, especially in the abdominal area, is associated with increased risk of dementia in older adults. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood. As increased adiposity is also associated with lower circulating levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a key molecule modulating brain plasticity and neuronal regeneration, we hypothesized that the changes in cognition that occur as a result of excessive abdominal adiposity would be driven by lower levels of circulating BDNF...
May 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Jorge Valero, Iñaki Paris, Amanda Sierra
Lifestyle modulates brain function. Diet, stress levels, and physical exercise among other factors influence the "brain cognitive reserve", that is, the capacity of the brain to maintain a normal function when confronting neurodegenerative diseases, injury, and/or aging. This cognitive reserve relays on several cellular and molecular elements that contribute to brain plasticity allowing adaptive responses to cognitive demands, and one of its key components is the hippocampal neurogenic reserve. Hippocampal neural stem cells give rise to new neurons that integrate into the local circuitry and contribute to hippocampal functions such as memory and learning...
April 20, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Emrah Duzel, Henriette van Praag, Michael Sendtner
Physical exercise can convey a protective effect against cognitive decline in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. While the long-term health-promoting and protective effects of exercise are encouraging, it's potential to induce neuronal and vascular plasticity in the ageing brain is still poorly understood. It remains unclear whether exercise slows the trajectory of normal ageing by modifying vascular and metabolic risk factors and/or consistently boosts brain function by inducing structural and neurochemical changes in the hippocampus and related medial temporal lobe circuitry-brain areas that are important for learning and memory...
March 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Rocco Salvatore Calabrò, Margherita Russo, Antonino Naro, Demetrio Milardi, Tina Balletta, Antonino Leo, Serena Filoni, Placido Bramanti
BACKGROUND: The Armeo Power, a rehabilitation exoskeleton that allows early treatment of motor disabilities, provides intelligent arm support in a large 3-dimensional work space, thus enabling patients to perform intensive, repetitive, and goal-oriented exercises. This device could efficiently induce new connections and facilitate plasticity phenomena potentiation. Knowledge of the potential brain plasticity reservoir after brain damage constitutes a prerequisite for an optimal rehabilitation strategy...
February 20, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Traute Demirakca, Vita Cardinale, Sven Dehn, Matthias Ruf, Gabriele Ende
This study investigated the impact of "life kinetik" training on brain plasticity in terms of an increased functional connectivity during resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). The training is an integrated multimodal training that combines motor and cognitive aspects and challenges the brain by introducing new and unfamiliar coordinative tasks. Twenty-one subjects completed at least 11 one-hour-per-week "life kinetik" training sessions in 13 weeks as well as before and after rs-fMRI scans...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Sarah C McEwen, Anthony Hardy, Benjamin M Ellingson, Behnaz Jarrahi, Navjot Sandhu, Kenneth L Subotnik, Joseph Ventura, Keith H Nuechterlein
UNLABELLED: Our objective in the present study was to conduct the first empirical study of the effects of regular physical activity habits and their relationship with brain volume and cortical thickness in patients in the early phase of schizophrenia. Relationships between larger brain volumes and higher physical activity levels have been reported in samples of healthy and aging populations, but have never been explored in first-episode schizophrenia patients. METHOD: We collected MRI structural scans in 14 first-episode schizophrenia patients with either self-reported low or high physical activity levels...
November 2015: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Ti-Fei Yuan, Flávia Paes, Oscar Arias-Carrión, Nuno Barbosa Ferreira Rocha, Alberto Souza de Sá Filho, Sergio Machado
Depression is associated with decreased serotonin metabolism and functioning in the central nervous system, evidenced by both animal models of depression and clinical patient studies. Depression is also accompanied by decreased hippocampal neurogenesis in diverse animal models. Neurogenesis is mainly defined in dentate gyrus of hippocampus as well as subventricular zone. Moreover, hypothalamus, amygdala, olfactory tubercle, and piriform cortex are reported with evidences of adult neurogenesis. Physical exercise is found to modulate adult neurogenesis significantly, and results in mood improvement...
2015: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Anissa Cherif, Bart Roelands, Romain Meeusen, Karim Chamari
The aim of this review was to highlight the potent effects of intermittent fasting on the cognitive performance of athletes at rest and during exercise. Exercise interacts with dietary factors and has a positive effect on brain functioning. Furthermore, physical activity and exercise can favorably influence brain plasticity. Mounting evidence indicates that exercise, in combination with diet, affects the management of energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity by affecting molecular mechanisms through brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential neurotrophin that acts at the interface of metabolism and plasticity...
January 2016: Sports Medicine
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