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R Guyton

John R Guyton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
James D Otvos, John R Guyton, Margery A Connelly, Sydney Akapame, Vera Bittner, Steven L Kopecky, Megan Lacy, Santica M Marcovina, Joseph B Muhlestein, William E Boden
BACKGROUND: The Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes trial showed no incremental benefit of extended-release niacin (ERN) therapy added to simvastatin in subjects with cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of ERN treatment on lipoprotein particles and GlycA, a new marker of systemic inflammation, and their relations with incident CVD events including mortality...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
John R Guyton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Stephen M Amrock, P Barton Duell, Thomas Knickelbine, Seth S Martin, Emily C O'Brien, Karol E Watson, Joanna Mitri, Iris Kindt, Peter Shrader, Seth J Baum, Linda C Hemphill, Catherine D Ahmed, Rolf L Andersen, Iftikhar J Kullo, Dervilla McCann, John A Larry, Michael F Murray, Robert Fishberg, John R Guyton, Katherine Wilemon, Matthew T Roe, Daniel J Rader, Christie M Ballantyne, James A Underberg, Paul Thompson, Dannielle Duffy, MacRae F Linton, Michael D Shapiro, Patrick M Moriarty, Joshua W Knowles, Zahid S Ahmad
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Most familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients remain undertreated, and it is unclear what role health disparities may play for FH patients in the US. We sought to describe sex and racial/ethnic disparities in a national registry of US FH patients. METHODS: We analyzed data from 3167 adults enrolled in the CAscade SCreening for Awareness and DEtection of Familial Hypercholesterolemia (CASCADE-FH) registry. Logistic regression was used to evaluate for disparities in LDL-C goals and statin use, with adjustments for covariates including age, cardiovascular risk factors, and statin intolerance...
December 2017: Atherosclerosis
John R Guyton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Harold Robert Superko, Xue-Qiao Zhao, Howard N Hodis, John R Guyton
Niacin (nicotinic acid) has been used for primary and secondary coronary heart disease prevention for over 40 years. Until recently clinical trials incorporating niacin as part of an intervention strategy consistently demonstrated reduction in clinical events and lesion improvement, including ≥6% absolute mortality reduction. Two large clinical event trials in 2011 (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome With Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes) and 2014 (Heart Protection Study 2-Treatment of HDL to Reduce the Incidence of Vascular Events) concluded that niacin added to statin therapy did not provide clinical event benefit over statin alone...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
John R Guyton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Theodore W Kurtz, Stephen E DiCarlo, R Curtis Morris
The term "abnormal pressure natriuresis" refers to a subnormal effect of a given level of blood pressure (BP) on sodium excretion. It is widely believed that abnormal pressure natriuresis causes an initial increase in BP to be sustained. We refer to this view as the "pressure natriuresis theory of chronic hypertension." The proponents of the theory contend that all forms of chronic hypertension are sustained by abnormal pressure natriuresis, irrespective of how hypertension is initiated...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Hypertension
Gregory P Guyton, Kenneth DeFontes, Cameron R Barr, Brent G Parks, Lyn M Camire
BACKGROUND: Arthroscopic criteria for identifying syndesmotic disruption have been variable and subjective. We aimed to quantify syndesmotic disruption arthroscopically using a standardized measurement device. METHODS: Ten cadaveric lower extremity specimens were tested in intact state and after serial sectioning of the syndesmotic structures (anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament [AiTFL], interosseous ligament [IOL], posterior inferior tibiofibular ligament [PiTFL], deltoid)...
May 2017: Foot & Ankle International
Theodore W Kurtz, Stephen E DiCarlo, R Curtis Morris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
B A Shakhsheer, B Lec, A Zaborin, K Guyton, A M Defnet, N Bagrodia, J J Kandel, O Zaborina, S L Hernandez, J Alverdy
PURPOSE: Current surgical dogma dictates that tissue ischemia and hypoxia are major contributing factors in anastomotic leak despite scant evidence. The aim of this study was to determine if tissue hypoxia is a feature of anastomotic leakage in rats following colon resection and segmental devascularization. METHODS: Rats were randomly assigned to undergo sham operation, segmental colon devascularization alone, colectomy alone, or segmental devascularization plus colectomy...
April 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Lori Mosca, Christie M Ballantyne, Harold E Bays, John R Guyton, Sephy Philip, Ralph T Doyle, Rebecca A Juliano
There are limited data on the efficacy and safety of triglyceride (TG)-lowering agents in women. We conducted subgroup analyses of the effects of icosapent ethyl (a high-purity prescription form of the ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid) on TG levels (primary efficacy variable) and other atherogenic and inflammatory parameters in a total of 215 women with a broad range of TG levels (200-2000 mg/dl) enrolled in two 12-week placebo-controlled trials: MARINE (n = 18; placebo, n = 18) and ANCHOR (n = 91; placebo, n = 88)...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
Erik Stroes, John R Guyton, Norman Lepor, Fernando Civeira, Daniel Gaudet, Gerald F Watts, Marie T Baccara-Dinet, Guillaume Lecorps, Garen Manvelian, Michel Farnier
BACKGROUND: The PCSK9 antibody alirocumab (75 mg every 2 weeks; Q2W) as monotherapy reduced low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by 47%. Because the option of a monthly dosing regimen is convenient, ODYSSEY CHOICE II evaluated alirocumab 150 mg Q4W in patients with inadequately controlled hypercholesterolemia and not on statin (majority with statin-associated muscle symptoms), receiving treatment with fenofibrate, ezetimibe, or diet alone. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients were randomly assigned to placebo, alirocumab 150 mg Q4W or 75 mg Q2W (calibrator arm), with dose adjustment to 150 mg Q2W at week (W) 12 if W8 predefined LDL-C target levels were not met...
September 13, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Henry N Ginsberg, Daniel J Rader, Frederick J Raal, John R Guyton, Marie T Baccara-Dinet, Christelle Lorenzato, Robert Pordy, Erik Stroes
PURPOSE: Even with statins and other lipid-lowering therapy (LLT), many patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (heFH) continue to have elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. ODYSSEY HIGH FH (NCT01617655) assessed the efficacy and safety of alirocumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 monoclonal antibody, versus placebo in patients with heFH and LDL-C ≥ 160 mg/dl despite maximally tolerated statin ± other LLT. METHODS: Patients were randomized to subcutaneous alirocumab 150 mg or placebo every 2 weeks (Q2W) for 78 weeks...
October 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Kevin C Maki, John R Guyton, Carl E Orringer, Ian Hamilton-Craig, Dominik D Alexander, Michael H Davidson
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular outcomes trials of fibrates, niacin, or omega-3 fatty acids alone, or added to a statin, have not consistently demonstrated reduced risk, but larger, statistically significant clinical benefits have been reported in subgroups with elevated triglycerides (TG) and/or elevated TG plus low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). OBJECTIVE: To perform a meta-analysis of the effects of therapies targeting TG and TG-rich lipoprotein cholesterol on cardiovascular disease event risk in subjects with elevated TG or elevated TG paired with low HDL-C...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Wanda C Lakey, Nicole G Greyshock, Carly E Kelley, Mohammad A Siddiqui, Umar Ahmad, Yuliya V Lokhnygina, John R Guyton
BACKGROUND: Statins effectively prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, but rates of statin discontinuation after adverse events are high. OBJECTIVE: Describe the range and relative frequencies of adverse events potentially attributable to statins in lipid referral practice and assess statin rechallenge outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 642 patients with statin-associated adverse events evaluated in a referral lipid clinic between January 1, 2004 and January 27, 2011...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Baddr A Shakhsheer, Luke A Versten, James N Luo, Jennifer R Defazio, Robin Klabbers, Scott Christley, Alexander Zaborin, Kristina L Guyton, Monika Krezalek, Daniel P Smith, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Irma D Fleming, Natalia Belogortseva, Olga Zaborina, John C Alverdy
BACKGROUND: Despite ever more powerful antibiotics, newer surgical techniques, and enhanced recovery programs, anastomotic leaks remain a clear and present danger to patients. Previous work from our laboratory suggests that anastomotic leakage may be caused by Enterococcus faecalis strains that express a high collagenase phenotype (i.e., collagenolytic). Yet the mechanisms by which the practice of surgery shifts or selects for collagenolytic phenotypes to colonize anastomotic tissues remain unknown...
October 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Laura N Vandenberg, Marlene Ågerstrand, Anna Beronius, Claire Beausoleil, Åke Bergman, Lisa A Bero, Carl-Gustaf Bornehag, C Scott Boyer, Glinda S Cooper, Ian Cotgreave, David Gee, Philippe Grandjean, Kathryn Z Guyton, Ulla Hass, Jerrold J Heindel, Susan Jobling, Karen A Kidd, Andreas Kortenkamp, Malcolm R Macleod, Olwenn V Martin, Ulf Norinder, Martin Scheringer, Kristina A Thayer, Jorma Toppari, Paul Whaley, Tracey J Woodruff, Christina Rudén
BACKGROUND: The issue of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is receiving wide attention from both the scientific and regulatory communities. Recent analyses of the EDC literature have been criticized for failing to use transparent and objective approaches to draw conclusions about the strength of evidence linking EDC exposures to adverse health or environmental outcomes. Systematic review methodologies are ideal for addressing this issue as they provide transparent and consistent approaches to study selection and evaluation...
July 14, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Ila Cote, Melvin E Andersen, Gerald T Ankley, Stanley Barone, Linda S Birnbaum, Kim Boekelheide, Frederic Y Bois, Lyle D Burgoon, Weihsueh A Chiu, Douglas Crawford-Brown, Kevin M Crofton, Michael DeVito, Robert B Devlin, Stephen W Edwards, Kathryn Z Guyton, Dale Hattis, Richard S Judson, Derek Knight, Daniel Krewski, Jason Lambert, Elizabeth Anne Maull, Donna Mendrick, Gregory M Paoli, Chirag Jagdish Patel, Edward J Perkins, Gerald Poje, Christopher J Portier, Ivan Rusyn, Paul A Schulte, Anton Simeonov, Martyn T Smith, Kristina A Thayer, Russell S Thomas, Reuben Thomas, Raymond R Tice, John J Vandenberg, Daniel L Villeneuve, Scott Wesselkamper, Maurice Whelan, Christine Whittaker, Ronald White, Menghang Xia, Carole Yauk, Lauren Zeise, Jay Zhao, Robert S DeWoskin
BACKGROUND: The Next Generation (NexGen) of Risk Assessment effort is a multi-year collaboration among several organizations evaluating new, potentially more efficient molecular, computational, and systems biology approaches to risk assessment. This article summarizes our findings, suggests applications to risk assessment, and identifies strategic research directions. OBJECTIVE: Our specific objectives were to test whether advanced biological data and methods could better inform our understanding of public health risks posed by environmental exposures...
November 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Ronald B Goldberg, Vera A Bittner, Richard L Dunbar, Jerome L Fleg, George Grunberger, John R Guyton, Lawrence A Leiter, Ruth McBride, Jennifer G Robinson, Debra L Simmons, Carol Wysham, Ping Xu, William E Boden
BACKGROUND: Niacin is an antidyslipidemic agent that may cause blood sugar elevation in patients with diabetes, but its effects on glucose and insulin values in nondiabetic statin-treated subjects with cardiovascular disease and at high risk for diabetes are less well known. METHODS: This was a prespecified, intent-to-treat analysis of the Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic syndrome with low high-density lipoprotein/high triglycerides: Impact on Global Health outcomes trial which randomized 3,414 participants at 92 centers in the US and Canada to extended-release niacin (ERN) plus simvastatin/ezetimibe (ERN) or simvastatin/ezetimibe plus placebo (Placebo)...
July 2016: American Journal of Medicine
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