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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533452/fluorescence-as-a-means-of-colour-signal-enhancement
#1
REVIEW
Justin Marshall, Sonke Johnsen
Fluorescence is a physico-chemical energy exchange where shorter-wavelength photons are absorbed by a molecule and are re-emitted as longer-wavelength photons. It has been suggested a means of communication in several taxa including flowers, pitcher plants, corals, algae, worms, squid, spiders, stomatopods, fish, reptiles, parrots and humans. The surface or object that the pigment molecule is part of appears to glow due to its setting rather than an actual production of light, and this may enhance both signals and, in some cases, camouflage...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529881/iso-seq-analysis-of-nepenthes-ampullaria-nepenthes-rafflesiana-and-nepenthes%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-hookeriana-for-hybridisation-study-in-pitcher-plants
#2
Muhammad Mu'izzuddin Zulkapli, Muhammad Aqil Fitri Rosli, Faris Imadi Mohd Salleh, Normah Mohd Noor, Wan Mohd Aizat, Hoe-Han Goh
Tropical pitcher plants in the species-rich Nepenthaceae family of carnivorous plants possess unique pitcher organs. Hybridisation, natural or artificial, in this family is extensive resulting in pitchers with diverse features. The pitcher functions as a passive insect trap with digestive fluid for nutrient acquisition in nitrogen-poor habitats. This organ shows specialisation according to the dietary habit of different Nepenthes species. In this study, we performed the first single-molecule real-time isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) analysis of full-length cDNA from Nepenthes ampullaria which can feed on leaf litter, compared to carnivorous Nepenthes rafflesiana, and their carnivorous hybrid Nepenthes × hookeriana...
June 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515886/aquatic-microfauna-alter-larval-food-resources-and-affect-development-and-biomass-of-west-nile-and-saint-louis-encephalitis-vector-culex-nigripalpus-diptera-culicidae
#3
Dagne Duguma, Michael G Kaufman, Arthur B Simas Domingos
Ciliate protists and rotifers are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats and can comprise a significant portion of the microbial food resources available to larval mosquitoes, often showing substantial declines in abundance in the presence of mosquito larvae. This top-down regulation of protists is reported to be strong for mosquitoes inhabiting small aquatic containers such as pitcher plants or tree holes, but the nature of these interactions with larval mosquitoes developing in other aquatic habitats is poorly understood...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401597/unidirectional-wetting-properties-on-multi-bioinspired-magnetocontrollable-slippery-microcilia
#4
Moyuan Cao, Xu Jin, Yun Peng, Cunming Yu, Kan Li, Kesong Liu, Lei Jiang
Here, a smart fluid-controlled surface is designed, via the rational integration of the unique properties of three natural examples, i.e., the unidirectional wetting behaviors of butterfly's wing, liquid-infused "slippery" surface of the pitcher plant, and the motile microcilia of micro-organisms. Anisotropic wettability, lubricated surfaces, and magnetoresponsive microstructures are assembled into one unified system. The as-prepared surface covered by tilted microcilia achieves significant unidirectional droplet adhesion and sliding...
April 12, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390087/do-ecological-communities-disperse-across-biogeographic-barriers-as-a-unit
#5
Jordan D Satler, Bryan C Carstens
Biogeographic barriers have long been implicated as drivers of biological diversification, but how these barriers influence co-occurring taxa can vary depending on factors intrinsic to the organism and in their relationships with other species. Due to the interdependence among taxa, ecological communities present a compelling opportunity to explore how interactions among species may lead to a shared response to historical events. Here we collect single nucleotide polymorphism data from five commensal arthropods associated with the Sarracenia alata carnivorous pitcher plant, and test for codiversification across the Mississippi River, a major biogeographic barrier in the southeastern United States...
April 8, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387789/evolution-of-wood-anatomical-characters-in-nepenthes-and-close-relatives-of-caryophyllales
#6
Rachel Schwallier, Barbara Gravendeel, Hugo de Boer, Stephan Nylinder, Bertie Joan van Heuven, Anton Sieder, Sukaibin Sumail, Rogier van Vugt, Frederic Lens
Background and Aims: Nepenthes attracts wide attention with its spectacularly shaped carnivorous pitchers, cultural value and horticultural curiosity. Despite the plant's iconic fascination, surprisingly little anatomical detail is known about the genus beyond its modified leaf tip traps. Here, the wood anatomical diversity of Nepenthes is explored. This diversity is further assessed with a phylogenetic framework to investigate whether the wood characters within the genus are relevant from an evolutionary or ecological perspective, or rather depend on differences in developmental stages, growth habits, substrates or precipitation...
April 6, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367985/oil-adsorption-ability-of-three-dimensional-epicuticular-wax-coverages-in-plants
#7
Elena V Gorb, Philipp Hofmann, Alexander E Filippov, Stanislav N Gorb
Primary aerial surfaces of terrestrial plants are very often covered with three-dimensional epicuticular waxes. Such wax coverages play an important role in insect-plant interactions. Wax blooms have been experimentally shown in numerous previous studies to be impeding locomotion and reducing attachment of insects. Among the mechanisms responsible for these effects, a possible adsorption of insect adhesive fluid by highly porous wax coverage has been proposed (adsorption hypothesis). Recently, a great decrease in insect attachment force on artificial adsorbing materials was revealed in a few studies...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250210/dipteran-larvae-and-microbes-facilitate-nutrient-sequestration-in-the-nepenthes-gracilis-pitcher-plant-host
#8
Weng Ngai Lam, Kwek Yan Chong, Ganesh S Anand, Hugh Tiang Wah Tan
The fluid-containing traps of Nepenthes carnivorous pitcher plants (Nepenthaceae) are often inhabited by organisms known as inquilines. Dipteran larvae are key components of such communities and are thought to facilitate pitcher nitrogen sequestration by converting prey protein into inorganic nitrogen, although this has never been demonstrated in Nepenthes Pitcher fluids are also inhabited by microbes, although the relationship(s) between these and the plant is still unclear. In this study, we examined the hypothesis of digestive mutualism between N...
March 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222171/metabolite-profiling-of-the-carnivorous-pitcher-plants-darlingtonia-and-sarracenia
#9
Hannu Hotti, Peddinti Gopalacharyulu, Tuulikki Seppänen-Laakso, Heiko Rischer
Sarraceniaceae is a New World carnivorous plant family comprising three genera: Darlingtonia, Heliamphora, and Sarracenia. The plants occur in nutrient-poor environments and have developed insectivorous capability in order to supplement their nutrient uptake. Sarracenia flava contains the alkaloid coniine, otherwise only found in Conium maculatum, in which its biosynthesis has been studied, and several Aloe species. Its ecological role and biosynthetic origin in S. flava is speculative. The aim of the current research was to investigate the occurrence of coniine in Sarracenia and Darlingtonia and to identify common constituents of both genera, unique compounds for individual variants and floral scent chemicals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143675/fabrication-techniques-for-bioinspired-mechanically-durable-superliquiphobic-surfaces-for-water-oil-and-surfactant-repellency
#10
REVIEW
Samuel Martin, Philip S Brown, Bharat Bhushan
Nature provides inspiration for liquid-repellant and low-adhesive surfaces, such as the lotus leaf and pitcher plant. While water-repellency is frequently found in nature, oil-repellency and surfactant-repellency are uncommon to nonexistent. To obtain oil- and surfactant-repellency, hierarchical, re-entrant, bioinspired surface structures along with low surface energy materials are needed. This overview presents wetting literature, common liquids and their composition, and fabrication techniques for superliquiphobic surfaces with repellency toward water, oil, and surfactant-containing liquids...
March 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018659/mutualists-or-parasites-context-dependent-influence-of-symbiotic-fly-larvae-on-carnivorous-investment-in-the-albany-pitcher-plant
#11
Samuel J Lymbery, Raphael K Didham, Stephen D Hopper, Leigh W Simmons
Carnivorous plants allocate more resources to carnivorous structures under nutrient-limited conditions, and relative investment can also be influenced by animals (infauna) that live in association with these plants and feed on their prey. We investigated these effects within a population of the pitcher plant Cephalotus follicularis containing varying densities of larvae of the fly Badisis ambulans. For plants with a relatively high proportion of adult pitchers, increasing larval density was associated with lower relative leaf allocation to new pitcher buds...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982472/a-switchable-cross-species-liquid-repellent-surface
#12
Yu Huang, Birgitt Boschitsch Stogin, Nan Sun, Jing Wang, Shikuan Yang, Tak-Sing Wong
A switchable cross-species liquid-repellent surface is developed that can rapidly switch between two distinct liquid-repellent modes: i) the superhydrophobic mode, modeled after lotus leaves, and ii) the slippery mode, modeled after the pitcher-plant peristome. Adaptive liquid repellency and programmable fog harvesting are demonstrated as application examples for the new switchable surface.
February 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974494/correction-to-bacteria-facilitate-prey-retention-by-the-pitcher-plant-darlingtonia-californica
#13
David W Armitage
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881762/bacteria-facilitate-prey-retention-by-the-pitcher-plant-darlingtonia-californica
#14
David W Armitage
Bacteria are hypothesized to provide a variety of beneficial functions to plants. Many carnivorous pitcher plants, for example, rely on bacteria for digestion of captured prey. This bacterial community may also be responsible for the low surface tensions commonly observed in pitcher plant digestive fluids, which might facilitate prey capture. I tested this hypothesis by comparing the physical properties of natural pitcher fluid from the pitcher plant Darlingtonia californica and cultured 'artificial' pitcher fluids and tested these fluids' prey retention capabilities...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825067/cells-walls-and-endless-forms
#15
REVIEW
Marie Monniaux, Angela Hay
A key question in biology is how the endless diversity of forms found in nature evolved. Understanding the cellular basis of this diversity has been aided by advances in non-model experimental systems, quantitative image analysis tools, and modeling approaches. Recent work in plants highlights the importance of cell wall and cuticle modifications for the emergence of diverse forms and functions. For example, explosive seed dispersal in Cardamine hirsuta depends on the asymmetric localization of lignified cell wall thickenings in the fruit valve...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662461/controllable-broadband-optical-transparency-and-wettability-switching-of-temperature-activated-solid-liquid-infused-nanofibrous-membranes
#16
Kengo Manabe, Takeshi Matsubayashi, Mizuki Tenjimbayashi, Takeo Moriya, Yousuke Tsuge, KyuHong Kyung, Seimei Shiratori
Inspired by biointerfaces, such as the surfaces of lotus leaves and pitcher plants, researchers have developed innovative strategies for controlling surface wettability and transparency. In particular, great success has been achieved in obtaining low adhesion and high transmittance via the introduction of a liquid layer to form liquid-infused surfaces (LISs). Furthermore, smart surfaces that can change their surface properties according to external stimuli have recently attracted substantial interest. As some of the best-performing smart surface materials, slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPSs), which are super-repellent, demonstrate the successful achievement of switchable adhesion and tunable transparency that can be controlled by a graded mechanical stimulus...
September 23, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629035/time-variant-species-pools-shape-competitive-dynamics-and-biodiversity-ecosystem-function-relationships
#17
David W Armitage
Biodiversity-ecosystem function (BEF) experiments routinely employ common garden designs, drawing samples from a local biota. The communities from which taxa are sampled may not, however, be at equilibrium. To test for temporal changes in BEF relationships, I assembled the pools of aquatic bacterial strains isolated at different time points from leaves on the pitcher plant Darlingtonia californica in order to evaluate the strength, direction and drivers of the BEF relationship across a natural host-associated successional gradient...
September 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498537/mycobacterium-sarraceniae-sp-nov-and-mycobacterium-helvum-sp-nov-isolated-from-the-pitcher-plant-sarracenia-purpurea
#18
Phuong M Tran, John L Dahl
Several fast- to intermediate-growing, acid-fast, scotochromogenic bacteria were isolated from Sarracenia purpurea pitcher waters in Minnesota sphagnum peat bogs. Two strains (DL734T and DL739T) were among these isolates. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, the phylogenetic positions of both strains is in the genus Mycobacterium with no obvious relation to any characterized type strains of mycobacteria. Phenotypic characterization revealed that neither strain was similar to the type strains of known species of the genus Mycobacterium in the collective properties of growth, pigmentation or fatty acid composition...
November 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471226/the-olfactory-neuroecology-of-herbivory-hostplant-selection-and-plant-pollinator-interactions
#19
Winnie W Ho, Jeffrey A Riffell
Plants experience often opposing energetic demands and selective pressures-for instance, where plants need to attract an insect that is both the pollinator and herbivore, or alternately, where plants attract prey (due to limited resources) and pollinators. Together, these selective pressures can modify the volatile signals available to the plant's mutualistic and antagonistic partners. Nevertheless, it remains an open question how changes in the information content of volatile signals modify behavioral responses in mutualists and antagonists, and what the underlying neural bases of these behaviors are...
November 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436081/carnivorous-nutrition-in-pitcher-plants-nepenthes-spp-via-an-unusual-complement-of-endogenous-enzymes
#20
Linda Lee, Ye Zhang, Brittany Ozar, Christoph W Sensen, David C Schriemer
Plants belonging to the genus Nepenthes are carnivorous, using specialized pitfall traps called "pitchers" that attract, capture, and digest insects as a primary source of nutrients. We have used RNA sequencing to generate a cDNA library from the Nepenthes pitchers and applied it to mass spectrometry-based identification of the enzymes secreted into the pitcher fluid using a nonspecific digestion strategy superior to trypsin in this application. This first complete catalog of the pitcher fluid subproteome includes enzymes across a variety of functional classes...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
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