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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548281/adverse-effects-of-fructose-on-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-and-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-in-subjects-with-abdominal-obesity
#1
Marja-Riitta Taskinen, Sanni Söderlund, Leonie H Bogl, Antti Hakkarainen, Niina Matikainen, Kirsi H Pietiläinen, Sari Räsänen, Nina Lundbom, Elias Björnson, Björn Eliasson, Rosellina M Mancina, Stefano Romeo, Natalie Alméras, Giuseppe Della Pepa, Claudia Vetrani, Anna Prinster, Giovanni Annuzzi, Angela Rivellese, Jean-Pierre Després, Jan Borén
BACKGROUND: Overconsumption of dietary sugars, fructose in particular, is linked to cardiovascular risk factors such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, clinical studies have to date not clarified whether these adverse cardiometabolic effects are induced directly by dietary sugars, or if they are secondary to weight gain. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of fructose (75 g/day), served with their habitual diet over 12 weeks, on liver fat content and other cardiometabolic risk factors in a large cohort (n=71) of abdominally obese men...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548095/metabolic-engineering-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-for-production-of-very-long-chain-fatty-acid-derived-chemicals
#2
Tao Yu, Yongjin J Zhou, Leonie Wenning, Quanli Liu, Anastasia Krivoruchko, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen, Florian David
Production of chemicals and biofuels through microbial fermentation is an economical and sustainable alternative for traditional chemical synthesis. Here we present the construction of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae platform strain for high-level production of very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA)-derived chemicals. Through rewiring the native fatty acid elongation system and implementing a heterologous Mycobacteria FAS I system, we establish an increased biosynthesis of VLCFAs in S. cerevisiae. VLCFAs can be selectively modified towards the fatty alcohol docosanol (C22H46O) by expressing a specific fatty acid reductase...
May 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546081/targeting-nuclear-receptors-for-the-treatment-of-fatty-liver-disease
#3
REVIEW
Naoki Tanaka, Toshifumi Aoyama, Shioko Kimura, Frank J Gonzalez
Ligand-activated nuclear receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), pregnane X receptor, and constitutive androstane receptor, were first identified as key regulators of the responses against chemical toxicants. However, numerous studies using mouse disease models and human samples have revealed critical roles for these receptors and others, such as PPARβ/δ, PPARγ, farn esoid X receptor (FXR), and liver X receptor (LXR), in maintaining nutrient/energy homeostasis in part through modulation of the gut-liver-adipose axis...
May 22, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544608/screening-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-do-guidelines-provide-enough-guidance
#4
REVIEW
B G P Koot, V Nobili
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the industrialized world in children. Its high prevalence and important health risks make NAFLD highly suitable for screening. In practice, screening is widely, albeit not consistently, performed. AIM: To review the recommendations on screening for NAFLD in children. METHOD: Recommendations on screening were reviewed from major paediatric obesity guidelines and NAFLD guidelines...
May 25, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544258/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-7-year-follow-up-study-among-urban-adult-sri-lankans
#5
Madunil Anuk Niriella, Arunasalam Pathmeswaran, Shamila Thivanshi De Silva, Anuradhani Kasturiratna, Ruwan Perera, Chamila Erandaka Subasinghe, Kuleesha Kodisinghe, Chathura Piyaratna, Vithiya Rishikesawan, Anuradha Supun Dassanayaka, Arjuna Priyadarshin De Silva, Rajitha Wickramasinghe, Fumihiko Takeuchi, Norihiro Kato, Hithanadura Janaka de Silva
BACKGROUND: This study investigated incidence and risk factors for NAFLD among an adult cohort with 7-years follow-up. METHODS: The study population (age-stratified random sampling, Ragama MOH area) was screened initially in 2007 (aged 35-64 years) and re-evaluated in 2014 (aged 42-71 years). On both occasions assessed by structured interview, anthropometric measurements, liver ultrasound, biochemical and serological tests. NAFLD was diagnosed on ultrasound criteria, safe alcohol consumption and absence of hepatitis B/C markers...
May 19, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544208/ultra-high-field-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-novel-mechanistic-and-diagnostic-insights-of-energy-metabolism-in-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-advanced-fibrosis
#6
Stefan Traussnigg, Christian Kienbacher, Martin Gajdošík, Ladislav Valkovič, Emina Halilbasic, Judith Stift, Christian Rechling, Harald Hofer, Petra Steindl-Munda, Peter Ferenci, Fritz Wrba, Siegfried Trattnig, Martin Krššák, Michael Trauner
BACKGROUND & AIMS: With the rising prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and steatohepatitis (NASH) non-invasive tools obtaining pathomechanistic insights to improve risk stratification are urgently needed. We therefore explored high- and ultra-high-field magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to obtain novel mechanistic and diagnostic insights into alterations of hepatic lipid, cell membrane and energy metabolism across the spectrum of NAFLD. METHODS: MRS and liver biopsy were performed in 30 NAFLD patients with NAFL (n=8) or NASH (n=22)...
April 24, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543186/clinical-biochemical-and-genetic-aspects-of-sj%C3%A3-gren-larsson-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
Kye Hee Cho, Sung Han Shim, MinYoung Kim
Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is caused by an autosomal recessive mutation in ALDH3A2, which encodes the fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase responsible for the metabolism of long-chain aliphatic aldehydes and alcohols. The pathophysiologic accumulation of aldehydes in various organs, including the skin, brain, and eyes, leads to characteristic features of ichthyosis, intellectual disability, spastic di-/quadriplegia, and low visual acuity with photophobia. The severity of the clinical manifestations thereof can vary greatly, although most patients are bound to a wheelchair due to contractures...
May 23, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542544/development-and-characterization-of-an-experimental-model-of-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-rabbit
#8
Oscar Julián Arias-Mutis, Vannina G Marrachelli, Amparo Ruiz-Saurí, Antonio Alberola, Jose Manuel Morales, Luis Such-Miquel, Daniel Monleon, Francisco J Chorro, Luis Such, Manuel Zarzoso
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become one of the main concerns for public health because of its link to cardiovascular disease. Murine models have been used to study the effect of MetS on the cardiovascular system, but they have limitations for studying cardiac electrophysiology. In contrast, the rabbit cardiac electrophysiology is similar to human, but a detailed characterization of the different components of MetS in this animal is still needed. Our objective was to develop and characterize a diet-induced experimental model of MetS that allows the study of cardiovascular remodeling and arrhythmogenesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540988/pathologic-impact-of-insulin-resistance-and-sensitivity-on-the-severity-of-liver-histopathology-in-pediatric-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#9
Byung Han Park, Jung Min Yoon, Ja Hye Kim, Jin Hwa Moon, Young Ho Lee, Se Min Jang, Yong Joo Kim
PURPOSE: Insulin resistance (IR) has an important role in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We aimed to analyze the association between liver histopathology and IR in pediatric patients with NASH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 24 children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we investigated whether the hepatic pathologic characteristics have relations with following three biochemical indices; IR index including homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and insulin sensitivity indices-free fatty acid (ISI-FFA)...
July 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539915/the-possible-role-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#10
REVIEW
Dan-Dan Cheng, Cong He, Hong-Hui Ai, Ying Huang, Nong-Hua Lu
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) which colonizes the stomach can cause a wide array of gastric disorders, including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Recently, accumulating evidence has implicated H. pylori infection in extragastrointestinal diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases. At the same time, many scholars have noted the relationship between H. pylori infection and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Despite the positive association between H...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539716/prevention-mechanism-of-2-3-5-4-tetrahydroxy-stilbene-2-o-%C3%AE-d-glucoside-on-lipid-accumulation-in-steatosis-hepatic-l-02-cell
#11
Pei Lin, Jian-Mei Lu, Yan-Fang Wang, Wen Gu, Rong-Hua Zhao, Jie Yu
AIM: 2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxy-stilbene-2-O-β-d-glucoside (TSG), a natural stilbene, shows great activities in hepatic lipid regulation, especially for hepatic triglyceride lowering. However, information about its mechanisms on biosynthesis and degradation of triglyceride is still limited. This research pays close attention to clarify the mechanism of TSG on prevention of hepatic lipid accumulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TSG was given to steatosis hepatocyte L-02 cell induced by fat emulsion incubation...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539530/active-form-of-vitamin-d-ameliorates-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-alleviating-oxidative-stress-in-a-high-fat-diet-rat-model
#12
Chong-Gui Zhu, Ya-Xin Liu, Hao Wang, Bao-Ping Wang, Hui-Qi Qu, Bao-Li Wang, Mei Zhu
The purpose of this study was to determine whether treatment using the active form of vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3) could protect against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats and ameliorate oxidative stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and treated with standard chow, HFD, or HFD plus intraperitoneal injection of 1,25(OH)2D3 (5 μg/kg body weight, twice per week), respectively, for 16 weeks. Serum lipid profiles, hepatic function, intrahepatic lipid, and calcium levels were determined...
May 23, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538268/etiological-factors-of-chronic-hepatitis-in-italy-a-2014-national-survey
#13
Tommaso Stroffolini, Evangelista Sagnelli, Piero L Almasio, Angelo Andriulli, Antonina Smedile, Mario Pirisi, Caterina Sagnelli, Maurizio Russello, Nicola Coppola, Massimo de Luca, Mariantonietta Pisaturo, Floriano Rosina, Giovanni B Gaeta
BACKGROUND: The last Italian prevalence survey on chronic hepatitis (CH) conducted in 2001 showed that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) was the main agent associated with CH. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate epidemiological changes in CH occurring after 13 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Enrollment of 1392 CH consecutive patients referred to 16 Italian liver units in 2014 scattered all over the country (four in the North, four in the Center, four in the South, and four in the Islands) was performed...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537562/impact-of-bariatric-surgery-on-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
Piotr Major, Michał Pędziwiatr, Mateusz Rubinkiewicz, Maciej Stanek, Anna Głuszewska, Magdalena Pisarska, Piotr Małczak, Andrzej Budzyński, Piotr Budzyński
Introduction; p to 300 million people have the body mass index (BMI) greater than 30 kg/m2. Obesity is the cause of many serious diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Bariatric surgery is the only effective method of achieving weight loss in patients with morbid obesity. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of bariatric surgery on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients operated on due to morbid obesity...
April 30, 2017: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537561/prediction-of-acute-pancreatitis-in-the-earliest-stages-role-of-biochemical-parameters-and-histopathological-changes
#15
Jacek Baj, Elżbieta Radzikowska, Marcin Maciejewski, Andrzej Dąbrowski, Kamil Torres
For many years, there has been a search for a set of biochemical parameters that could facilitate the assessment of severity, prognosis, and administration of early and appropriate treatment in acute pancreatitis. Administration of treatment within the first 48 hours since admission is associated with many problems of distinguishing patients with a mild form of acute pancreatitis (AP) from those with a severe form of acute pancreatitis. STUDY AIM: To assess the relationship between the extent of change in the concentration of 10 selected biochemical indicators: amylase, lipase, total bilirubin, creatinine, uric acid, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, glucose, magnesium, and iron and histopathological lesions in the pancreas within 2 and 6 hours since induction of AP...
April 30, 2017: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536987/sexual-deception-in-the-eucera-pollinated-ophrys-leochroma-a-chemical-intermediate-between-wasp-and-andrena-pollinated-species
#16
Monica Cuervo, Demetra Rakosy, Carlos Martel, Stefan Schulz, Manfred Ayasse
Ophrys flowers mimic sex pheromones of attractive females of their pollinators and attract males, which attempt to copulate with the flower and thereby pollinate it. Virgin females and orchid flowers are known to use the same chemical compounds in order to attract males. The composition of the sex pheromone and its floral analogue, however, vary between pollinator genera. Wasp-pollinated Ophrys species attract their pollinators by using polar hydroxy acids, whereas Andrena-pollinated species use a mixture of non-polar hydrocarbons...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536524/mitotherapy-for-fatty-liver-by-intravenous-administration-of-exogenous-mitochondria-in-male-mice
#17
Ailing Fu, Xianxun Shi, Huajing Zhang, Bin Fu
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a major and common mechanism in developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Replacement of dysfunctional mitochondria by functional exogenous mitochondria may attenuate intrahepatic excessive lipid and recover hepatocyte function. However, no data shows that mitochondria can be systemically administrated to animals to date. Here we suggest that mitochondria isolated from hepatoma cells are used as a mitotherapy agent to treat mouse fatty liver induced by high-fat diets...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536464/the-protective-effect-of-human-renal-sinus-fat-on-glomerular-cells-is-reversed-by-the-hepatokine-fetuin-a
#18
R Wagner, J Machann, M Guthoff, P P Nawroth, S Nadalin, M A Saleem, N Heyne, A Königsrainer, F Fend, F Schick, A Fritsche, N Stefan, H-U Häring, E Schleicher, D I Siegel-Axel
Renal sinus fat (RSF) is a perivascular fat compartment located around renal arteries. In this in vitro and in vivo study we hypothesized that the hepatokine fetuin-A may impair renal function in non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by altering inflammatory signalling in RSF. To study effects of the crosstalk between fetuin-A, RSF and kidney, human renal sinus fat cells (RSFC) were isolated and cocultured with human endothelial cells (EC) or podocytes (PO). RSFC caused downregulation of proinflammatory and upregulation of regenerative factors in cocultured EC and PO, indicating a protective influence of RFSC...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536109/effect-of-iron-on-cholesterol-7-alpha-hydroxylase-expression-in-alcohol-induced-hepatic-steatosis-in-mouse
#19
Huan Liang, Hui Huang, Pei-Zhu Tan, Ying Liu, Jun-Hui Nie, Yi-Tong Zhang, Kai-Li Zhang, Yan Diao, Qi He, Bao-Yu Hou, Ting-Ting Zhao, Yan-Ze Li, Gui-Xiang Lv, Ki-Yong Lee, Xu Gao, Ling-Yun Zhou
Both iron and lipids are involved in the progression of alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD), but the interaction between iron and lipids in AFLD is unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that iron regulates the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism through iron regulatory proteins (IRPs), which interact with the iron-responsive elements (IREs) in the UTRs of genes, resulting in lipid accumulation. Using the "RNA structure software", we predicted the mRNA secondary structures of more than 100 genes involved in lipid metabolism to investigate whether the IRE structure exists in novel mRNAs...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536060/continuous-supply-of-glucose-and-glycerol-enhances-biotransformation-of-ricinoleic-acid-to-e-11-heptanoyloxy-undec-9-enoic-acid-in-recombinant-escherichia-coli
#20
Yong-Han Cho, Soo-Jung Kim, Hyun-Woo Kim, Ji Young Kim, Jun Seok Gwak, Donghwa Chung, Kyoung Heon Kim, Kyungmoon Park, Yong-Cheol Park
This study aimed at the development of biotransformation strategies with feeding of energy sources for bioconversion of ricinoleic acid to (E)-11-(heptanoyloxy) undec-9-enoic acid (11-HOUA), a key intermediate of brassylic acid, by recombinant Escherichia coli overexpressing an alcohol dehydrogenase from Micrococcus luteus and a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase from Pseudomonas putida KT2440. Feeding of glucose or glycerol facilitated both the preparation of high-density cell biocatalyst and supply of the NAD(+) and NADPH cofactors...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
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