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Molly D Savadelis, Cameon M Ohmes, Joe A Hostetler, Terry L Settje, Robert Zolynas, Michael T Dzimianski, Andrew R Moorhead
BACKGROUND: Anecdotal reports support the position that the adulticidal heartworm treatment utilizing doxycycline and Advantage Multi®/Advocate® for Dogs (10% imidacloprid + 2.5% moxidectin) has successfully converted antigen-positive dogs to antigen-negative. To date, no controlled experimental studies have demonstrated the adulticidal efficacy of this treatment regimen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the parasitological and clinical efficacy of Advantage Multi® for Dogs (IMD + MOX) and doxycycline in heartworm-infected beagles...
May 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Alexandre José Rodrigues Bendas, Flavya Mendes-de-Almeida, Cristiano Von Simson, Norma Labarthe
BACKGROUND: Considering the recent information on the increase of Dirofilaria immitis antigen detection by rapid assays in canine blood samples after heat treatment, the proposal that immune complexes block D. immitis antigen detection and that macrocyclic lactone + doxycycline (alternative protocol) might lead to increased production of those immune complexes, resulting in the erroneous diagnosis of adult worm elimination, and that there is no recommended adulticide marketed in Brazil, a study was performed to evaluate the interference of moxidectin + doxycycline (moxi-doxy) on diagnostic procedures when heartworm positive dogs are treated with this alternative protocol...
May 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Jessica A Griswold, Matthew A Horwitz, Leslie V Leiva, Jeffrey S Johnson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Akanksha Rajput, Manoj Kumar
LuxR solos are unexplored in Archaea, despite their vital role in the bacterial regulatory network. They assist bacteria in perceiving acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) and/or non-AHLs signaling molecules for establishing intraspecies, interspecies, and interkingdom communication. In this study, we explored the potential LuxR solos of Archaea from InterPro v62.0 meta-database employing taxonomic, probable function, distribution, and evolutionary aspects to decipher their role in quorum sensing (QS). Our bioinformatics analyses showed that putative LuxR solos of Archaea shared few conserved domains with bacterial LuxR despite having less similarity within proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Qiang Cao, Qing Yin, Qi Chen, Zhi-Bing Dong, Bao-Hang Han
Considering high reactivity of fluorinated Fe-porphyrin and good stability of porphyrin-based porous polymer, fluorinated Fe-porphyrin conjugated porous polymers (FPOP-3~6) were synthesized through direct C-H arylation polymerization and well characterized. The obtained materials are chemically and thermally stable, in which FPOP-3 exhibits the highest Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area (about 840 m<2> g<-1>). For function studies of the obtained polymers as heterogeneous catalyst, catalytic transformation of cycloketones to lactone by oxygen via Baeyer-Villiger oxidation was used as a model reaction...
May 17, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Zhenyu Tian, Avram Gold, Jun Nakamura, Zhenfa Zhang, Joaquim Vila, David R Singleton, Leonard Bruce Collins, Michael D Aitken
Bioremediation is an accepted technology for cleanup of soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but it can increase the genotoxicity of the soil despite removal of the regulated PAHs. Although polar biotransformation products have been implicated as causative genotoxic agents, no specific product has been identified. We pursued a non-target analytical approach combining effect-directed analysis (EDA) and metabolite profiling to compare extracts of PAH-contaminated soil from a former manufactured-gas plant site before and after treatment in a laboratory-scale aerobic bioreactor...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Mohd Syukri Baharudin, Muhammad Taha, Syahrul Imran, Nor Hadiani Ismail, Fazal Rahim, Muhammad Tariq Javid, Khalid Mohammed Khan, Muhammad Ali
Natural products are the main source of motivation to design and synthesize new molecules for drug development. Designing new molecules against β-glucuronidase inhibitory is utmost essential. In this study indole analogs (1-35) were synthesized, characterized using various spectroscopic techniques including (1)H NMR and EI-MS and evaluated for their β-glucuronidase inhibitory activity. Most compounds were identified as potent inhibitors for the enzyme with IC50 values ranging between 0.50 and 53.40μM, with reference to standard d-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (IC50=48...
May 7, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
Kathleen Balke, Marcus Bäumgen, Uwe Bornscheuer
Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) mediated regiodivergent conversions of asymmetric ketones can lead to the formation of "normal" or "abnormal" lactones. In a previous study we were able to change the regioselectivity of a BVMO by mutation of active site residues to smaller amino acids and thus creating more space. In this study we demonstrate, that this method can be used for other BVMO/substrate combinations as well. We investigated the regioselectivity of 2-oxo-Δ3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetyl-CoA monooxygenase from Pseudomonas putida (OTEMO) for cis-bicyclo[3...
May 15, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Jason E Schaffer, Margaret R Reck, Neha K Prasad, Timothy A Wencewicz
Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are multidomain modular biosynthetic assembly lines that polymerize amino acids into a myriad of biologically active nonribosomal peptides (NRPs). NRPS thioesterase (TE) domains employ diverse release strategies for off-loading thioester-tethered polymeric peptides from termination modules typically via hydrolysis, aminolysis, or cyclization to provide mature antibiotics as carboxylic acids/esters, amides, and lactams/lactones, respectively. Here we report the enzyme-catalyzed formation of a highly strained β-lactone ring during TE-mediated cyclization of a β-hydroxythioester to release the antibiotic obafluorin (Obi) from an NRPS assembly line...
May 15, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
Emily A Growney Kalaf, Meghana Pendyala, J Gary Bledsoe, Scott A Sell
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a naturally, irreparable process that causes loss in IVD hydration, cellularity, and, mechanical stability. Invasive surgical attempts to ease back pain and, radiculopathy have shown to cause increased degeneration along the rest, of the spine. Due to its highly tunable mechanical and degradation, properties, alginate is a viable option for a less-invasive injectable, repair for IVD degeneration. This study centers on the characterization, of in situ gelling alginate and subsequent injection into enzymatically, degraded motion segments...
May 7, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Thangadurai Mani, Catherine Bourguinat, Roger K Prichard
Dirofilaria immitis, a filarial nematode, causes dirofilariasis in dogs, cats and occasionally in humans. Prevention of the disease has been mainly by monthly use of the macrocyclic lactone (ML) endectocides during the mosquito transmission season. Recently, ML resistance has been confirmed in D. immitis and therefore, there is a need to find new classes of anthelmintics. One of the mechanisms associated with ML resistance in nematodes has been the possible role of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters in reducing drug concentrations at receptor sites...
April 29, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Xianglin Yin, Haroon Mohammad, Hassan E Eldesouky, Ahmed Abdelkhalek, Mohamed N Seleem, Mingji Dai
A novel and efficient palladium-catalyzed aminocarbonylative lactonization of amino propargylic alcohols has been developed to provide rapid access to various bicyclic lactones especially dihydropyrrole-fused furanones, which are novel structures and have not been explored in biological and medicinal settings. This method can also be used to access β-lactone products such as 16. Preliminary biological evaluations revealed that compounds 13h and 13s demonstrated promising activity against Clostridium difficile and compounds 13h, 13k, 13s, and 16b showed activity against several important fungal pathogens...
May 11, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Eva-Maria Kroener, Andrea Buettner
Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is a plant well known for its roots' spicy aroma. The present study investigates the main aroma constituents of horseradish roots in general by analysing the aroma profiles of six different horseradish varieties, with one variety grown in two different soils. Odorants were characterised by means of gas chromatography-olfactometry and identified via their mass spectra, retention indices on two columns with different polarity, and their characteristic odour. A series of new aroma compounds from different substance groups were identified that have hitherto not been described in horseradish...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Alexandre Pons, Lucile Allamy, Valérie Lavigne, Denis Dubourdieu, Philippe Darriet
Organic extracts of musts and red wines marked by dried fruit and cooked fruit aromas were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry and mass spectrometry. Thanks to this analytical approach we identified a fragrant lactone corresponding to an odorant zone reminiscent of coconut and dried figs as 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (C10 massoia lactone). Using chiral GC-GC-MS, we show that only the (R)-C10 massoia lactone is found in musts and wines. Its detection thresholds were 10µg/L and 11µg/L in must and wine model solution, respectively...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Sang Il Gum, Phuc Anh Nguyen, Jong Rok Lee, Yeong Hwan Han, Min Kyung Cho
Red yeast rice product (RYP) has been used as a food supplement because of its lipid lowering, and in food additives as a natural colorant. Lovastatin of RYP is a hypolipidemic commercial drug. To enhance the beneficial effects of RYP, we performed a bioconversion with Bacillus subtilis. This B. subtilis-fermentation process of RYP increased the ratio of the active open-hydroxyl acid form and the prodrug lactone form of lovastatin, which is a potent cholesterol synthesis inhibitor. 3(2H)-benzofuranone was newly produced in the fermented red yeast rice product (FRYP) as analyzed by GC-MS...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Denise Brentan Silva, Anna-Katharina Aschenbrenner, Norberto Peporine Lopes, Otmar Spring
Helianthus annuus (sunflower) displays non-glandular trichomes (NGT), capitate glandular trichomes (CGT), and linear glandular trichomes (LGT), which reveal different chemical compositions and locations in different plant tissues. With matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) techniques, efficient methods were developed to analyze the tissue distribution of secondary metabolites (flavonoids and sesquiterpenes) and proteins inside of trichomes...
May 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yi Dou, Fei Song, Feng Guo, Zengding Zhou, Cailian Zhu, Jun Xiang, Jingning Huan
Quorum-sensing signalling molecules such as N‑acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) enable certain Gram‑negative bacteria to respond to environmental changes through behaviours, such as biofilm formation and flagellar movement. The present study aimed to identify Acinetobacter baumannii AHLs and assess their influence on antibiotic resistance. A clinical isolate of A. baumannii strain S (AbS) was collected from the wound of a burn patient and high‑performance liquid chromatography and tandem quadrupole or quadrupole time‑of‑flight high‑resolution mass spectrometry was used to identify AbS AHLs...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Milica Ž Karadžić, Davor M Lončar, Goran Benedeković, Ivana Kovačević, Velimir Popsavin, Strahinja Z Kovačević, Lidija R Jevrić, Sanja O Podunavac-Kuzmanović
This study is based on the analyses of the retention behavior of selected natural styryl lactones and their synthetic analogues in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Chromatographic separations were achieved applying ZORBAX SB-C18 column and two different mobile phases: methanol-water and acetonitrile-water. Chromatographic lipophilicity of the analyzed compounds was defined by logk0 constant and correlated with in silico molecular descriptors. According to the statistical validation parameters, obtained results indicate that the presented linear and multiple quantitative structure-retention relationship models can successfully predict the chromatographic lipophilicity of structurally similar compounds...
May 6, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Ping Li, Xiao-Qiu Dou, Chuanliang Feng, Mareike Müller, Matthew Wook Chang, Martin Frettlöh, Holger Schönherr
The combination of supramolecular hydrogels formed by low molecular weight gelator self-assembly via non-covalent interactions within a scaffold derived from polyethylene glycol (PEG) affords an interesting approach to immobilize fully functional, isolated reporter bacteria in novel microwell arrays. The PEG-based scaffold serves as a stabilizing element and provides physical support for the self-assembly of C2-phenyl-derived gelator on the micrometer scale. Supramolecular hydrogel microwell arrays with various shapes and sizes were used to isolate single or small numbers of Escherichia coli (E...
May 9, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Hira Waheed, Yeyuan Xiao, Imran Hashmi, David Stuckey, Yan Zhou
A quorum quenching (QQ) consortium comprised of both acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs)- and autoinducer-2 (AI-2)-degrading bacteria, either immobilized in polymer-coated alginate beads or in liquid suspension, was examined for fouling control in lab-scale MBRs under both steady and changing organic loading rates (OLRs). Under steady conditions the QQ consortium retarded biofouling by a factor of 3. However, a continuous increase in OLR vastly reduced the effectiveness of QQ bacteria; the biofouling was retarded only by factors of 1...
May 3, 2017: Chemosphere
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