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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544655/3d-bioprinting-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-constructs-for-in-situ-cell-proliferation-and-successive-multilineage-differentiation
#1
Qi Gu, Eva Tomaskovic-Crook, Gordon G Wallace, Jeremy M Crook
The ability to create 3D tissues from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is poised to revolutionize stem cell research and regenerative medicine, including individualized, patient-specific stem cell-based treatments. There are, however, few examples of tissue engineering using iPSCs. Their culture and differentiation is predominantly planar for monolayer cell support or induction of self-organizing embryoids (EBs) and organoids. Bioprinting iPSCs with advanced biomaterials promises to augment efforts to develop 3D tissues, ideally comprising direct-write printing of cells for encapsulation, proliferation, and differentiation...
May 24, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544328/acetylcholine-related-proteins-in-non-neoplastic-appearing-colonic-mucosa-from-patients-with-colorectal-neoplasia
#2
Morten Matthiesen Bach Damm, Thorbjørn Søren Rønn Jensen, Badar Mahmood, Morten Lundh, Steen Seier Poulsen, Niels Bindslev, Mark Berner Hansen
The pathogenesis of colorectal neoplasia (CRN) has been associated with altered non-neuronal acetylcholine (ACh) metabolism. The aim of this study was to characterize expression, function and cellular location of ACh-related proteins in biopsies obtained from endoscopic normal appearing sigmoid colon in patients with and without CRN. Messenger-RNA (mRNA) levels of 17 ACh-related proteins were quantified by rt-qPCR. Functional responses to ACh, measured as electrogenic transepithelial short circuit current (SCC), were recorded using the Ussing chamber technique...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542929/the-immune-response-to-prevotella-bacteria-in-chronic-inflammatory-disease
#3
REVIEW
Jeppe Madura Larsen
The microbiota plays a central role in human health and disease by shaping immune development, immune responses, metabolism, and protecting from invading pathogens. Technical advances that allow comprehensive characterization of microbial communities by genetic sequencing have sparked the hunt for disease modulating bacteria. Emerging studies in humans have linked increased abundance of Prevotella species at mucosal sites to localized and systemic disease, including periodontitis, bacterial vaginosis, rheumatoid arthritis, metabolic disorders, and low-grade systemic inflammation...
May 19, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542576/ebola-virus-glycoprotein-directly-triggers-t-lymphocyte-death-despite-of-the-lack-of-infection
#4
Mathieu Iampietro, Patrick Younan, Andrew Nishida, Mukta Dutta, Ndongala Michel Lubaki, Rodrigo I Santos, Richard A Koup, Michael G Katze, Alexander Bukreyev
Fatal outcomes of Ebola virus (EBOV) infections are typically preceded by a 'sepsis-like' syndrome and lymphopenia despite T cells being resistant to Ebola infection. The mechanisms that lead to T lymphocytes death remain largely unknown; however, the degree of lymphopenia is highly correlative with fatalities. Here we investigated whether the addition of EBOV or its envelope glycoprotein (GP) to isolated primary human CD4+ T cells induced cell death. We observed a significant decrease in cell viability in a GP-dependent manner, which is suggestive of a direct role of GP in T cell death...
May 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542419/in-vivo-oxidized-albumin-a-pro-inflammatory-agent-in-hypoalbuminemia
#5
Faiga Magzal, Shifra Sela, Andrea Szuchman-Sapir, Snait Tamir, Regina Michelis, Batya Kristal
Hypoalbuminemia of Hemodialysis (HD) patients is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, however, there is no mechanistic explanation between hypoalbuminemia and vascular injury. In the event of oxidative stress and inflammation to which HD patients are exposed, albumin is oxidized and undetected by common laboratory methods, rendering an apparent hypoalbuminemia. We wanted to show that these circulating modified oxidized albumin molecules cause direct vascular damage, mediating inflammation. Once these in-vivo albumin modifications were reduced in- vitro, the apparent hypoalbuminemia concomitantly with its inflammatory effects, were eliminated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542292/development-of-a-versatile-oncolytic-virus-platform-for-local-intra-tumoural-expression-of-therapeutic-transgenes
#6
Nalini Marino, Sam Illingworth, Prithvi Kodialbail, Ashvin Patel, Hugo Calderon, Rochelle Lear, Kerry D Fisher, Brian R Champion, Alice C N Brown
Oncolytic viruses which infect and kill tumour cells can also be genetically modified to express therapeutic genes that augment their anti-cancer activities. Modifying oncolytic viruses to produce effective cancer therapies is challenging as encoding transgenes often attenuates virus activity or prevents systemic delivery in patients due to the risk of off-target expression of transgenes in healthy tissues. To overcome these issues we aimed to generate a readily modifiable virus platform using the oncolytic adenovirus, enadenotucirev...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542132/inhibition-of-sdf-1-receptors-cxcr4-and-cxcr7-attenuates-acute-pulmonary-inflammation-via-the-adenosine-a2b-receptor-on-blood-cells
#7
Franziska Magdalena Konrad, Nadine Meichssner, Annette Bury, Kristian-Christos Ngamsri, Jörg Reutershan
Acute pulmonary inflammation is characterized by migration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils into the different compartments of the lung. Recent studies showed evidence that the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 and its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 influence migration of immune cells and their activity was linked to adenosine concentrations. We investigated the particular role of CXCR4- and CXCR7-inhibition and the potential link to the adenosine A2B-receptor, which plays an important anti-inflammatory role in the lung...
May 25, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540933/the-effect-of-high-altitude-on-central-blood-pressure-and-arterial-stiffness
#8
C J Boos, E Vincent, A Mellor, D R Woods, C New, R Cruttenden, M Barlow, M Cooke, K Deighton, P Scott, S Clarke, J O'Hara
Central arterial systolic blood pressure (SBP) and arterial stiffness are known to be better predictors of adverse cardiovascular outcomes than brachial SBP. The effect of progressive high altitude (HA) on these parameters has not been examined. Ninety healthy adults were included. Central BP and the augmentation index (AI) were measured at the level of the brachial artery (Uscom BP(+) device) at <200 m and at 3619, 4600 and 5140 m. The average age of the subjects (70% men) were 32.2±8.7 years. Compared with central arterial pressures, brachial SBP (+8...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539453/epigenetic-metabolite-acetate-inhibits-class-i-ii-histone-deacetylases-promotes-histone-acetylation-and-increases-hiv-1-integration-in-cd4-t-cells
#9
Jean-François Bolduc, Laurent Hany, Corinne Barat, Michel Ouellet, Michel J Tremblay
In this study, we investigated the effect of acetate, the most concentrated short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) in the gut and bloodstream, on the susceptibility of primary human CD4(+) T cells to HIV-1 infection. We report that HIV-1 replication is increased in CD3/CD28-costimulated CD4(+) T cells upon acetate treatment. This enhancing effect correlates with an increased expression of the early activation marker CD69 and impaired class I/II histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. In addition, acetate enhances acetylation of histones H3 and H4 and augments HIV-1 integration in the genome of CD4(+) T cells...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539444/improved-prefusion-stability-optimized-codon-usage-and-augmented-virion-packaging-enhance-the-immunogenicity-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-fusion-protein-in-a-vectored-vaccine-candidate
#10
Bo Liang, Joan O Ngwuta, Sonja Surman, Barbora Kabatova, Xiang Liu, Matthias Lingemann, Xueqiao Liu, Lijuan Yang, Richard Herbert, Joanna Swerczek, Man Chen, Syed M Moin, Azad Kumar, Jason S McLellan, Peter D Kwong, Barney S Graham, Peter L Collins, Shirin Munir
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral agent of severe pediatric respiratory tract disease worldwide, but lacks a licensed vaccine or suitable antiviral drug. A live-attenuated chimeric bovine/human parainfluenza virus type-3 (rB/HPIV3) was developed previously as a vector expressing RSV fusion (F) protein to confer bivalent protection against RSV and HPIV3. In a previous clinical trial in virus-naïve children, rB/HPIV3 was well-tolerated but the immunogenicity of wildtype RSV F was unsatisfactory...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539365/functional-analysis-of-human-cytochrome-p450-21a2-variants-involved-in-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#11
Chunxue Wang, Pradeep S Pallan, Wei Zhang, Li Lei, Francis K Yoshimoto, Michael R Waterman, Martin Egli, F Peter Guengerich
Cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) 21A2 is the major steroid 21-hydroxylase, converting progesterone to 11-deoxycorticosterone and 17α-hydroxy(OH)progesterone to 11-deoxycortisol. More than 100 CYP21A2 variants give rise to congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We previously reported a structure of wild-type (WT) human P450 21A2 with bound progesterone and now present a structure bound to the other substrate (17α-OH progesterone). We found that the 17α-OH progesterone- and progesterone-bound complex structures are highly similar, with only some minor differences in surface loop regions...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539244/manganese-exposure-induces-neuroinflammation-by-impairing-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-astrocytes
#12
Souvarish Sarkar, Emir Malovic, Dilshan S Harischandra, Hilary A Ngwa, Anamitra Ghosh, Colleen Hogan, Dharmin Rokad, Gary Zenitsky, Huajun Jin, Vellareddy Anantharam, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Arthi Kanthasamy
Chronic manganese (Mn) exposure induces neurotoxicity, which is characterized by Parkinsonian symptoms resulting from impairment in the extrapyramidal motor system of the basal ganglia. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are considered key pathophysiological features of Mn neurotoxicity. Recent evidence suggests astrocytes as a major target of Mn neurotoxicity since Mn accumulates predominantly in astrocytes. However, the primary mechanisms underlying Mn-induced astroglial dysfunction and its role in metal neurotoxicity are not completely understood...
May 21, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538249/norovirus-and-clostridium-difficile-outbreaks-squelching-the-wildfire
#13
Ann Fisher, Louise M Dembry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastrointestinal outbreaks in the healthcare setting cause increased morbidity and mortality in an already vulnerable population. Optimization of infection prevention measures can be a challenge in healthcare settings. This review describes new literature that may change the traditional infection prevention approach to such outbreaks. RECENT FINDINGS: Asymptomatic carriers of both norovirus and Clostridium difficile can pose risk of transmission to others and the environment...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536502/lost-in-translation-defects-in-transfer-rna-modifications-and-neurological-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Andrea Bednářová, Marley Hanna, Isabella Durham, Tara VanCleave, Alexis England, Anathbandhu Chaudhuri, Natraj Krishnan
Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are key molecules participating in protein synthesis. To augment their functionality they undergo extensive post-transcriptional modifications and, as such, are subject to regulation at multiple levels including transcription, transcript processing, localization and ribonucleoside base modification. Post-transcriptional enzyme-catalyzed modification of tRNA occurs at a number of base and sugar positions and influences specific anticodon-codon interactions and regulates translation, its efficiency and fidelity...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536385/from-benchtop-to-bedside-a-review-of-oncolytic-virotherapy
#15
REVIEW
Audrey H Choi, Michael P O'Leary, Yuman Fong, Nanhai G Chen
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) demonstrate the ability to replicate selectively in cancer cells, resulting in antitumor effects by a variety of mechanisms, including direct cell lysis and indirect cell death through immune-mediate host responses. Although the mechanisms of action of OVs are still not fully understood, major advances have been made in our understanding of how OVs function and interact with the host immune system, resulting in the recent FDA approval of the first OV for cancer therapy in the USA. This review provides an overview of the history of OVs, their selectivity for cancer cells, and their multifaceted mechanism of antitumor action, as well as strategies employed to augment selectivity and efficacy of OVs...
August 2, 2016: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534077/white-matter-injury-in-the-preterm-infant-pathology-and-mechanisms
#16
REVIEW
Stephen A Back
The human preterm brain is particularly susceptible to cerebral white matter injury (WMI) that disrupts the normal progression of developmental myelination. Advances in the care of preterm infants have resulted in a sustained reduction in the severity of WMI that has shifted from more severe focal necrotic lesions to milder diffuse WMI. Nevertheless, WMI remains a global health problem and the most common cause of chronic neurological morbidity from cerebral palsy and diverse neurobehavioral disabilities. Diffuse WMI involves maturation-dependent vulnerability of the oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage with selective degeneration of late oligodendrocyte progenitors (preOLs) triggered by oxidative stress and other insults...
May 22, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534068/trust-in-haptic-assistance-weighting-visual-and-haptic-cues-based-on-error-history
#17
Tricia L Gibo, Winfred Mugge, David A Abbink
To effectively interpret and interact with the world, humans weight redundant estimates from different sensory cues to form one coherent, integrated estimate. Recent advancements in physical assistance systems, where guiding forces are computed by an intelligent agent, enable the presentation of augmented cues. It is unknown, however, if cue weighting can be extended to augmented cues. Previous research has shown that cue weighting is determined by the reliability (inversely related to uncertainty) of cues within a trial, yet augmented cues may also be affected by errors that vary over trials...
May 22, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531221/human-paleodiet-and-animal-utilization-strategies-during-the-bronze-age-in-northwest-yunnan-province-southwest-china
#18
Lele Ren, Xin Li, Lihong Kang, Katherine Brunson, Honggao Liu, Weimiao Dong, Haiming Li, Rui Min, Xu Liu, Guanghui Dong
Reconstructing ancient diets and the use of animals and plants augment our understanding of how humans adapted to different environments. Yunnan Province in southwest China is ecologically and environmentally diverse. During the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods, this region was occupied by a variety of local culture groups with diverse subsistence systems and material culture. In this paper, we obtained carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic ratios from human and faunal remains in order to reconstruct human paleodiets and strategies for animal exploitation at the Bronze Age site of Shilinggang (ca...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530246/short-single-stranded-dna-degradation-products-augment-the-activation-of-toll-like-receptor-9
#19
Jelka Pohar, Duško Lainšček, Karolina Ivičak-Kocjan, Miša-Mojca Cajnko, Roman Jerala, Mojca Benčina
Toll-like receptors encounter a diversity of degradation products in endosomes. TLR7 and TLR8 have been shown to be activated by RNA degradation products. Here we show that although TLR9 requires single-stranded DNA longer than 20 nucleotides for a robust response, TLR9 activation is augmented by CpG-containing oligodeoxyribonucleotides (sODNs) as short as 2 nucleotides, which, by themselves, do not induce activation in cell cultures, as well as in mice. sODNs also activate human TLR9 in combination with ODNs containing a single CpG motif that by themselves do not activate human TLR9...
May 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530130/injectable-graft-substitute-active-on-bone-tissue-regeneration
#20
Michela Bosetti, Alessia Borrone, Massimiliano Leigheb, Prasad Shastri, Mario Cannas
With the aim to obtain an injectable bioactive scaffold that can accelerate bone formation in sinus lift augmentation, in bony void and in fracture repair, we have developed a three-dimensional (3D) jelly collagen containing Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3). Using an in vitro 3D culture model of bone fracture we show that the contraction of the collagen gel is mediated by Rho-kinase activation in osteoblasts. This contraction was cell concentration dependent and was increased by LPA which favored apposition and fastening of bone fragments approach...
May 20, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
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