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Lucia Mastrototaro, Gerhard Sponder, Behnam Saremi, Jörg R Aschenbach
Methionine (Met) is a neutral, sulfur-containing, essential amino acid with biological functions in the initiation and prolongation step of protein synthesis, transmethylation reactions, the synthesis of cysteine and cystine, and as a component of antioxidant systems. Its key importance is reflected by the fact that it is usually absorbed from the diet with highest efficiency among all proteinogenic amino acids but may yet not optimally support metabolism and health. As such, crystalline Met supplements are partly used in man and heavily used in production of animal species (poultry, fish, shrimps, pigs and cattle) to provide improved health and performance...
October 17, 2016: IUBMB Life
Yang Liu, Anniwaer Yasheng, Kang Chen, Chuangxin Lan, Hamulati Tusong, Lili Ou, Yeping Liang, Hans-Göran Tiselius, Guohua Zeng, Wenqi Wu
The Objective of this study is to analyze the difference in renal stone composition between Uyghur and Han children with urolithiasis in China and possible reasons. From May 2011 to September 2013, we analyzed the stone compositions of 274 Chinese children with urolithiasis, including 151 Uyghur children from Xinjiang Province and 123 Han children from Guangdong Province. All the stone components were determined by Infrared spectroscopy and the main components were recorded. We also evaluated the data, including age, gender and geographic region of the patients...
October 15, 2016: Urolithiasis
F H Matsubara, G O Meissner, V Herzig, H C Justa, B C L Dias, D Trevisan-Silva, L H Gremski, W Gremski, A Senff-Ribeiro, O M Chaim, G F King, S S Veiga
Loxosceles intermedia venom comprises a complex mixture of proteins, glycoproteins and low molecular mass peptides that act synergistically to immobilize envenomed prey. Analysis of a venom-gland transcriptome from L. intermedia revealed that knottins, also known as inhibitor cystine knot peptides, are the most abundant class of toxins expressed in this species. Knottin peptides contain a particular arrangement of intramolecular disulphide bonds, and these peptides typically act upon ion channels or receptors in the insect nervous system, triggering paralysis or other lethal effects...
October 15, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
Albert R Jones Iv, Tova Meshulam, Marcus F Oliveira, Nathan Burritt, Barbara E Corkey
BACKGROUND: Many tissues play an important role in metabolic homeostasis and the development of diabetes and obesity. We hypothesized that the circulating redox metabolome is a master metabolic regulatory system that impacts all organs and modulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation, energy production and changes in lipid turnover in many cells including adipocytes. METHODS: Differentiated human preadipocytes were exposed to the redox couples, lactate (L) and pyruvate (P), β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) and acetoacetate (Acoc), and the thiol-disulfides cysteine/ cystine (Cys/CySS) and GSH/GSSG for 1...
2016: PloS One
L Buntinx, T Voets, B Morlion, L Vangeel, M Janssen, E Cornelissen, J Vriens, J de Hoon, E Levtchenko
Cystinosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by lysosomal cystine accumulation due to loss of function of the lysosomal cystine transporter (CTNS). The most common mutation in cystinosis patients of Northern Europe consists of a 57-kb deletion. This deletion not only inactivates the CTNS gene but also extends into the non-coding region upstream of the start codon of the TRPV1 gene, encoding the capsaicin- and heat-sensitive ion channel TRPV1. To evaluate the consequences of the 57-kb deletion on functional TRPV1 expression, we compared thermal, mechanical and chemical sensitivity of cystinosis patients with matched healthy controls...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xinxin Gao, Karen Stanger, Harini Kaluarachchi, Till Maurer, Paulina Ciepla, Cecile Chalouni, Yvonne Franke, Rami N Hannoush
Cyclotides or cyclic cystine-knot peptides have emerged as a promising class of pharmacological ligands that modulate protein function. Interestingly, very few cyclotides have been shown to enter into cells. Yet, it remains unknown whether backbone cyclization is required for their cellular internalization. In this report, we studied the cellular behavior of EETI-II, a model acyclic cystine-knot peptide. Even though synthetic methods have been used to generate EETI-II, recombinant methods that allow efficient large scale biosynthesis of EETI-II have been lagging...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Katherine V Oliver, Annalisa Vilasi, Amandine Maréchal, Shabbir H Moochhala, Robert J Unwin, Peter R Rich
Cystinuria is the commonest inherited cause of nephrolithiasis (~1% in adults; ~6% in children) and is the result of impaired cystine reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule. Cystine is poorly soluble in urine with a solubility of ~1 mM and can readily form microcrystals that lead to cystine stone formation, especially at low urine pH. Diagnosis of cystinuria is made typically by ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) detection and quantitation, which is slow, laboursome and costly. More rapid and frequent monitoring of urinary cystine concentration would significantly improve the diagnosis and clinical management of cystinuria...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Li Wang, Hongzhi Liu, Li Liu, Qiang Wang, Shurong Li, Qizhai Li
Supervised principal component regression (SPCR) analysis was adopted to establish the evaluation model of peanut protein solubility. Sixty-six peanut varieties were analysed in the present study. Results showed there was intimate correlation between protein solubility and other indexes. At 0.05 level, these 11 indexes, namely crude fat, crude protein, total sugar, cystine, arginine, conarachin I, 37.5kDa, 23.5kDa, 15.5kDa, protein extraction rate, and kernel ratio, were correlated with protein solubility and were extracted to for establishing the SPCR model...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Necole M Streeper, Margaret Wertheim, Stephen Y Nakada, Kristina L Penniston
INTRODUCTION: Cystinuria is a rare cause of urolithiasis. Affected patients have an earlier onset and more aggressive disease than patients with other stone etiologies. We assessed the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of cystine stone-forming patients using the disease-specific Wisconsin Stone Quality of Life (WISQOL) questionnaire. METHODS: Cystine patients treated in our stone clinics (n=12) completed the WISQOL questionnaire; information about medical and stone histories were gathered...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Endourology
Krishnappa Jagadish, Julio A Camarero
Cyclotides are fascinating microproteins (≈30 residues long) present in several families of plants that share a unique head-to-tail circular knotted topology of three disulfide bridges, with one disulfide penetrating through a macrocycle formed by the two other disulfides and inter-connecting peptide backbones, forming what is called a cystine knot topology. Naturally occurring cyclotides have shown to posses various pharmacologically relevant activities and have been reported to cross cell membranes. Altogether, these features make the cyclotide scaffold an excellent molecular framework for the design of novel peptide-based therapeutics, making them ideal substrates for molecular grafting of biological peptide epitopes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yusuf S Althobaiti, Fahad S Alshehri, Atiah H Almalki, Youssef Sari
Methamphetamine (METH) is one of the psychostimulants that is co-abused with ethanol. Repeated exposure to high dose of METH has been shown to cause increases in extracellular glutamate concentration. We have recently reported that ethanol exposure can also increase the extracellular glutamate concentration and downregulate the expression of glutamate transporter subtype 1 (GLT-1). GLT-1 is a glial transporter that regulates the majority of extracellular glutamate. A Wistar rat model of METH and ethanol co-abuse was used to examine the expression of GLT-1 as well as other glutamate transporters such as cystine/glutamate exchanger (xCT) and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
M Sanchez-Arenillas, E Mateo-Marti
We have demonstrated that the annealing process for cleaning pyrite surfaces is a critical parameter in promoting ordering on the surface and driving surface reactivity. Furthermore, we describe a spectroscopic surface characterization of the presence or absence of the surface ordering, as indicated by the Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) pattern, as a function of the surface annealing process. Complementary X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) results provide evidence that longer annealing processes of over 3 hours repair the sulfur vacancies in the pyrite, making FeS species partially disappear in favor of FeS2 species...
October 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Douglas I Walker, Karan Uppal, Luoping Zhang, Roel Vermeulen, Martyn Smith, Wei Hu, Mark P Purdue, Xiaojiang Tang, Boris Reiss, Sungkyoon Kim, Laiyu Li, Hanlin Huang, Kurt D Pennell, Dean P Jones, Nathaniel Rothman, Qing Lan
BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) has been linked to adverse health outcomes including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and kidney and liver cancer; however, TCE's mode of action for development of these diseases in humans is not well understood. METHODS: Non-targeted metabolomics analysis of plasma obtained from 80 TCE-exposed workers [full shift exposure range of 0.4 to 230 parts-per-million of air (ppma)] and 95 matched controls were completed by ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
B Gerber, F Brandenberger-Schenk, E Rothenanger, C Müller
In this study data on composition of uroliths collected from cats and epidemiologic data of affected cats in Switzerland from 2002 to 2009 are summarised. Of 884 stones analysed 50% (n=441) were composed of calcium oxalate, 45% (n=398) of struvite, 3% (n=18) of ammonium urate, 1% (n=12) were mixed stones, 1% (n=9) were composed of silica, 3 stones were solidified blood, 2 consisted of cystine and 1of xanthine. 40% of the ureteral stones were composed of struvite. Domestic cats had significantly less calcium oxalate stones compared to British Shorthair or Persian cats...
October 2016: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Caroline M Cremonez, Mohitosh Maiti, Steve Peigneur, Juliana Silva Cassoli, Alexandre A A Dutra, Etienne Waelkens, Eveline Lescrinier, Piet Herdewijn, Maria Elena de Lima, Adriano M C Pimenta, Eliane C Arantes, Jan Tytgat
To date, several families of peptide toxins specifically interacting with ion channels in scorpion venom have been described. One of these families comprise peptide toxins (called KTxs), known to modulate potassium channels. Thus far, 202 KTxs have been reported, belonging to several subfamilies of KTxs (called α, β, γ, κ, δ, and λ-KTxs). Here we report on a previously described orphan toxin from Tityus serrulatus venom, named Ts11. We carried out an in-depth structure-function analysis combining 3D structure elucidation of Ts11 and electrophysiological characterization of the toxin...
September 30, 2016: Toxins
Dainan Zhang, Baozhe Jin, Tomas Ondrejcak, Michael J Rowan
Aggregated amyloid ß-protein (Aß) is pathognomonic of Alzheimer's disease and certain assemblies of Aß are synaptotoxic. Excess glutamate or diminished glutathione reserve are both implicated in mediating or modulating Aß-induced disruption of synaptic plasticity. The system xc- antiporter promotes Na(+) -independent exchange of cystine with glutamate thereby providing a major source of extracellular glutamate and intracellular glutathione concentrations. Here we probed the ability of two drugs with opposite effects on system xc-, the inhibitor sulfasalazine and facilitator N-acetylcysteine, to modulate the ability of Aß1-42 to inhibit long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 area of the anaesthetized rat...
October 4, 2016: Hippocampus
Clara L Garcia-Rodenas, Michael Affolter, Gerard Vinyes-Pares, Carlos A De Castro, Leonidas G Karagounis, Yumei Zhang, Peiyu Wang, Sagar K Thakkar
Human breast milk (BM) amino acid (AA) composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present cross-sectional study is aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BMAA over lactation stages in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. Four hundred fifty BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities covering eight months of lactation were analyzed for free (FAA) and total (TAA) AA by o-phthalaldehyde/ fluorenylmethylchloroformate (OPA/FMOC) derivatization. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports...
2016: Nutrients
Susanna Monti, Vincenzo Carravetta, Hans Ågren
The adsorption and dynamics of cystine, which is the oxidized dimer of cysteine where the monomers are connected through a disulfide bond, on the Au(110) surface, in water solution, is characterized by means of classical molecular dynamics simulations based on a recently developed reactive force field (ReaxFF). The adopted computational procedure and the force field description are able to give a complete and reliable picture, in line with experiments, of the molecule behavior in solution and in close contact with the metal support...
September 27, 2016: Small
Tuo Li, Zhenwen Zhao, Quan Wang, Pengfei Xie, Jiahai Ma
Quinone-hydroquinone analogues have been proven to be efficient promoters of Fenton reactions by accelerating the Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox cycle along with self-destruction. However, so far there is little information on non-quinone-hydroquinone cocatalyst for Fenton reactions. This study found that cysteine, a common aliphatic amino acid, can strongly enhance Fenton degradation of organic pollutants by accelerating Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox cycle, as quinone-hydroquinone analogues do. Further, cysteine is superior to quinone-hydroquinone analogues in catalytic activity, H2O2 utilization and atmospheric limits...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
Edwin T Moran
The small intestinal mucosa acts to recover nutrients from the lumen while providing a barrier against potential hazards. Its unstirred water layer (USWL) at the lumen interface involves membrane associated mucin linearly protruding from underlying microvilli that entangles secretory mucin released from local goblet cells. Both mucin sources are dominated by repetitive O-glycosylated areas dependant on threonine, serine, glycine, and proline. Secretory mucin differs from membrane attached mucin by further employing multiple cystines that interconnect these areas into a net-like molecular sieve...
September 24, 2016: Poultry Science
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