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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102305/structure-and-membrane-interactions-of-the-homodimeric-antibiotic-peptide-homotarsinin
#1
Rodrigo M Verly, Jarbas M Resende, Eduardo F C Junior, Mariana T Q de Magalhães, Carlos F C R Guimarães, Victor H O Munhoz, Marcelo Porto Bemquerer, Fábio C L Almeida, Marcelo M Santoro, Dorila Piló-Veloso, Burkhard Bechinger
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from amphibian skin are valuable template structures to find new treatments against bacterial infections. This work describes for the first time the structure and membrane interactions of a homodimeric AMP. Homotarsinin, which was found in Phyllomedusa tarsius anurans, consists of two identical cystine-linked polypeptide chains each of 24 amino acid residues. The high-resolution structures of the monomeric and dimeric peptides were determined in aqueous buffers. The dimer exhibits a tightly packed coiled coil three-dimensional structure, keeping the hydrophobic residues screened from the aqueous environment...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086920/absence-of-system-xc-on-immune-cells-invading-the-central-nervous-system-alleviates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalitis
#2
Ellen Merckx, Giulia Albertini, Magdalena Paterka, Cathy Jensen, Philipp Albrecht, Michael Dietrich, Joeri Van Liefferinge, Eduard Bentea, Lise Verbruggen, Thomas Demuyser, Lauren Deneyer, Jan Lewerenz, Geert van Loo, Jacques De Keyser, Hideyo Sato, Pamela Maher, Axel Methner, Ann Massie
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS), leading to neurodegeneration and chronic disability. Accumulating evidence points to a key role for neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and excitotoxicity in this degenerative process. System xc(-) or the cystine/glutamate antiporter could tie these pathological mechanisms together: its activity is enhanced by reactive oxygen species and inflammatory stimuli, and its enhancement might lead to the release of toxic amounts of glutamate, thereby triggering excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070834/resveratrol-modulates-gsh-system-in-c6-astroglial-cells-through-heme-oxygenase-1-pathway
#3
Bernardo Assein Arús, Débora Guerini Souza, Bruna Bellaver, Diogo Onofre Souza, Carlos-Alberto Gonçalves, André Quincozes-Santos, Larissa Daniele Bobermin
Resveratrol is a dietary polyphenol that displays neuroprotective properties in several in vivo and in vitro experimental models, by modulating oxidative and inflammatory responses. Glutathione (GSH) is a key antioxidant in the central nervous system (CNS) that modulates several cellular processes, and its depletion is associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the protective effects of resveratrol against GSH depletion pharmacologically induced by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) in C6 astroglial cells, as well as its underlying cellular mechanisms...
January 9, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070668/what-happens-to-asymptomatic-lower-pole-kidney-stones-smaller-than-10%C3%A2-mm-in-children-during-watchful-waiting
#4
Onur Telli, Nurullah Hamidi, Uygar Bagci, Arif Demirbas, Ahmet Metin Hascicek, Tarkan Soygur, Berk Burgu
BACKGROUND: The optimal management of lower pole kidney (LPK) stones in children is controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the outcomes of children with asymptomatic isolated LPK stones smaller than 10 mm during follow-up. METHODS: A total of 242 patients with 284 stones presenting at our institution between June 2004 and December 2014 with an asymptomatic, single LPK stone with a diameter of <10 mm were enrolled in the study. All children were assigned to receive first-line therapy and then categorized according to the need for medical intervention...
January 9, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070112/selenium-uptake-through-cystine-transporter-mediated-by-glutathione-conjugation
#5
Takao Tobe, Koji Ueda, Akira Aoki, Yoshinori Okamoto, Nakao Kojima, Hideto Jinno
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element and is regarded as a protective agent against cancer. In particular, antioxidant effects of selenoenzymes contribute to cancer prevention. Se can also produce reactive oxygen species and, thereby, exert cancer-selective cytotoxicity. Selenodiglutathione (SDG) is a primary Se metabolite conjugated to two glutathione (GSH) moieties. SDG increases intracellular Se accumulation and is more toxic than selenous acid (H2SeO3), but the mechanisms for importing Se compounds into cells are not fully understood...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062300/positively-charged-polypeptide-nanogel-enhances-mucoadhesion-and-penetrability-of-10-hydroxycamptothecin-in-orthotopic-bladder-carcinoma
#6
Hui Guo, Weiguo Xu, Jinjin Chen, Lesan Yan, Jianxun Ding, Yuchuan Hou, Xuesi Chen
Bladder cancer (BC) has become a serious public health problem due to its continuously rising incidence, high recurrence rate, and poor quality of life. Intravesical instillation of chemotherapy, one of common and important treatment strategy for BC, is restricted partially due to the short residence time and the low penetration ability of current antineoplastic agent formulations in clinic. Herein, a positively charged disulfide-core-crosslinked polypeptide nanogel of poly(l-lysine)-poly(l-phenylalanine-co-l-cystine) (PLL-P(LP-co-LC)) was synthesized...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057802/cfs1p-a-novel-membrane-protein-in-the-pq-loop-family-is-involved-in-phospholipid-flippase-functions-in-yeast
#7
Takaharu Yamamoto, Konomi Fujimura-Kamada, Eno Shioji, Risa Suzuki, Kazuma Tanaka
Type 4 P-type ATPases (P4-ATPases) function as phospholipid flippases, which translocate phospholipids from the exoplasmic leaflet to the cytoplasmic leaflet of the lipid bilayer, to generate and maintain asymmetric distribution of phospholipids at the plasma membrane and endosomal/Golgi membranes. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has four heteromeric flippases (Drs2p, Dnf1p, Dnf2p, and Dnf3p), associated with the Cdc50p family noncatalytic subunit, and one monomeric flippase, Neo1p They have been suggested to function in vesicle formation in membrane trafficking pathways, but details of their mechanisms remain to be clarified...
January 5, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057644/efficacy-of-topical-cysteamine-in-nephropathic-cystinosis
#8
Amal Al-Hemidan, Samir S Shoughy, Igor Kozak, Khalid F Tabbara
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of topical cysteamine 0.55% eye drops in the treatment of corneal cystine crystal deposits in patients with nephropathic cystinosis. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with nephropathic cystinosis were prospectively included in the study. Patients with corneal cystinosis were treated with topical cysteamine 0.55% eye drops. They were examined before treatment, on each monthly visit and after treatment at the last follow-up...
January 5, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057599/aspirin-plus-sorafenib-potentiates-cisplatin-cytotoxicity-in-resistant-head-and-neck-cancer-cells-through-xct-inhibition
#9
Jong-Lyel Roh, Eun Hye Kim, Hyejin Jang, Daiha Shin
The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug aspirin and the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib have both shown experimental and clinical anticancer activities. The present study investigated whether aspirin and sorafenib synergize to potentiate cisplatin treatment in resistant head and neck cancer (HNC) cells. The effects of aspirin, sorafenib and cisplatin, and combinations thereof were assessed by measuring cell viability, death, glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, protein and mRNA expression, genetic inhibition and overexpression of cystine-glutamate antiporter (xCT) and tumor xenograft mouse models...
January 3, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049243/genotype-and-phenotype-analysis-in-pediatric-patients-with-cystinuria
#10
Ji Hyun Kim, Eujin Park, Hye Sun Hyun, Beom Hee Lee, Gu Hwan Kim, Joo Hoon Lee, Young Seo Park, Hee Gyung Kang, Il Soo Ha, Hae Il Cheong
Cystinuria is an inherited disorder characterized by defective renal reabsorption of cystine and dibasic amino acids leading to nephrolithiasis. This study was conducted to analyze the genotypes and phenotypes of pediatric patients with cystinuria. Eight children from Seoul National University Hospital and Asan Medical Center presenting with cystinuria from January 2003 to June 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Mutational studies were performed by direct sequencing. Two of the 8 were male and 6 were female...
February 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042154/analysis-of-canine-urolith-submissions-to-the-canadian-veterinary-urolith-centre-1998-2014
#11
Doreen M Houston, Heather E Weese, Nick P Vanstone, Andrew E P Moore, J Scott Weese
Understanding urolith trends and risk factors is important for understanding urolithiasis, which is a common problem in dogs. This study evaluated 75 674 canine cystolith submissions to the Canadian Veterinary Urolith Centre between 1998 and 2014. Struvite and calcium oxalate uroliths comprised 80.8% of all uroliths, with calcium oxalate outnumbering struvite. There were significant increases in the proportions of calcium oxalate, mixed and cystine uroliths, and significant decreases in struvite, urate, silica, and calcium phosphate carbonate over the study period...
January 2017: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039937/quantitative-evaluation-of-the-effects-of-urinary-stone-composition-and-size-on-color-doppler-twinkling-artifact-a-phantom-study
#12
Mengmeng Shang, Xiao Sun, Qing Liu, Jie Li, Dandan Shi, Song Ning, Lin Cheng
OBJECTIVES: The present study was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the influence of urinary stone composition and size on color Doppler twinkling artifact. METHODS: Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), apatite, L-cystine, and uric acid (UA) stone phantoms with 10 different sizes were prepared artificially and embedded in the renal sinus of porcine kidneys in vitro. Color Doppler ultrasound scanning was performed on the phantoms and TA pictures were recorded. The length of the twinkling artifact (TAL) and width of twinkling artifact (TAW) were measured...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036059/methionine-and-choline-supply-during-the-periparturient-period-alter-plasma-amino-acid-and-one-carbon-metabolism-profiles-to-various-extents-potential-role-in-hepatic-metabolism-and-antioxidant-status
#13
Zheng Zhou, Mario Vailati-Riboni, Daniel N Luchini, Juan J Loor
The objective of this study was to profile plasma amino acids (AA) and derivatives of their metabolism during the periparturient period in response to supplemental rumen-protected methionine (MET) or rumen-protected choline (CHOL). Forty cows were fed from -21 through 30 days around parturition in a 2 × 2 factorial design a diet containing MET or CHOL. MET supply led to greater circulating methionine and proportion of methionine in the essential AA pool, total AA, and total sulfur-containing compounds. Lysine in total AA also was greater in these cows, indicating a better overall AA profile...
December 29, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033491/evaluation-of-carbohydrate-cysteamine-thiazolidines-as-pro-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-cystinosis
#14
Yasaman Ramazani, Elena N Levtchenko, Lambertus Van Den Heuvel, Ann Van Schepdael, Prasanta Paul, Ekaterina A Ivanova, Anna Pastore, Trina M Hartman, Neil P J Price
Cystinosis is a genetic disorder caused by malfunction of cystinosin and is characterized by accumulation of cystine. Cysteamine, the medication used in cystinosis, causes halitosis resulting in poor patient compliance. Halitosis is mainly caused by the formation of dimethylsulfide as the final product in the cysteamine metabolism pathway. We have synthesized carbohydrate-cysteamine thiazolidines, and hypothesized that the hydrolytic breakdown of cysteamine-thiazolidines can result in free cysteamine being released in target organs...
December 18, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030637/quality-matters-influences-of-citrus-flush-physicochemical-characteristics-on-population-dynamics-of-the-asian-citrus-psyllid-hemiptera-liviidae
#15
Mamoudou Sétamou, Catherine R Simpson, Olufemi J Alabi, Shad D Nelson, Srilakshmi Telagamsetty, John L Jifon
Studies were conducted to relate the influence of the physical characteristics, leaf nutrient content and phloem sap amino acid concentration of citrus flush shoots on the densities of various Diaphorina citri life stages. Adult D. citri preferentially selected young shoots for feeding and numbers of D. citri immatures were positively correlated with flush shoot softness. Young flush shoots had higher concentrations of macro and micro nutrients relative to mature ones and this was associated with higher densities of all D...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024798/zonisamide-attenuates-lactacystin-induced-parkinsonism-in-mice-without-affecting-system-xc
#16
Eduard Bentea, Joeri Van Liefferinge, Lise Verbruggen, Katleen Martens, Sho Kobayashi, Lauren Deneyer, Thomas Demuyser, Giulia Albertini, Katrien Maes, Hideyo Sato, Ilse Smolders, Jan Lewerenz, Ann Massie
Zonisamide (ZNS), an anticonvulsant drug exhibiting symptomatic effects in Parkinson's disease (PD), was recently reported to exert neuroprotection in rodent models. One of the proposed neuroprotective mechanisms involves increased protein expression of xCT, the specific subunit of the cystine/glutamate antiporter system xc(-), inducing glutathione (GSH) synthesis. Here, we investigated the outcome of ZNS treatment in a mouse model of PD based on intranigral proteasome inhibition, and whether the observed effects would be mediated by system xc(-)...
December 24, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012719/cysteamine-supplementation-revealed-detrimental-effect-on-cryosurvival-of-buffalo-sperm-based-on-computer-assisted-semen-analysis-and-oxidative-parameters
#17
Dheer Singh Swami, Pradeep Kumar, R K Malik, Monika Saini, Dharmendra Kumar, M H Jan
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of addition of cysteamine to the semen extender on post-thaw semen quality. A total of 30 ejaculates were collected from six bulls. Each ejaculate was divided into five equal parts and diluted to final concentration of 80 million sperms/mL using Optixcell(®)(IMV, France) semen extender supplemented with different concentrations of cysteamine (0, 0.75, 1.25, 2.5 and 5mM) and cryopreserved. In the frozen-thawed samples, the VAP, VSL, VCL ALH and sperm motility of control samples was greater (P<0...
December 13, 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012236/effects-of-lys-deficiency-and-lys-lys-dipeptide-on-cellular-apoptosis-and-amino-acids-metabolism
#18
Jie Yin, Yuying Li, Hui Han, Jie Zheng, Lijian Wang, Wenkai Ren, Shuai Chen, Fei Wu, Rejun Fang, Xingguo Huang, Chunyong Li, Bie Tan, Xia Xiong, Yuzhe Zhang, Gang Liu, Jiming Yao, Tiejun Li, Yulong Yin
SCOPE: Lysine (Lys) is a common limiting amino acids (AA) for humans and animals and plays an important role in cell proliferation and metabolism, while metabolism of Lys deficiency and its dipeptide is still obscure. Thus, this study mainly investigated the effects of Lys deficiency and Lys-Lys dipeptide on apoptosis and AA metabolism in vitro and in vivo models. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lys deficiency induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and upregulated Lys transporters in vitro and in vivo...
December 24, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009046/single-step-purification-of-cyclotides-using-affinity-chromatography
#19
Shaikh Jamal Uddin, Taj Muhammad, Md Shafiullah, Blazej Slazak, Razina Rouf, Ulf Göransson
Cyclotides are considered promising scaffolds for drug development owing to their inherent host defence activities and highly stable structure, defined by the cyclic cystine knot. These proteins are expressed as complex mixtures in plants. Although several methods have been developed for their isolation and analysis, purification of cyclotides is still a lengthy process. Here, we describe the use of affinity chromatography for the purification of cyclotides using polyclonal IgG antibodies raised in rabbits against cycloviolacin O2 and immobilized on NHS-activated Sepharose columns...
December 23, 2016: Biopolymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007652/characteristics-of-sulfasalazine-induced-cytotoxicity-in-c6-rat-glioma-cells
#20
Raffaela Silvestre Ignarro, Gustavo Facchini, Daniela Rodrigues de Melo, Karin Juliane Pelizzaro-Rocha, Carmen Veríssima Ferreira, Roger Frigério Castilho, Fabio Rogerio
Glioblastoma is the most aggressive primary brain tumor. Surgical resection, radiotherapy and temozolomide (TMZ), an alkylating agent, is the standard of care. Glioma cells may synthetize the antioxidant glutathione by importing cystine through a cystine/glutamate antiporter, which is inhibited by sulfasalazine (SAS). C6 rat glioma cells are largely used in in vitro and in vivo models for developing new glioblastoma treatment strategies. We treated C6 cells with 25μM TMZ and/or 0.25mM or 0.5mM SAS for 1, 3 or 5days and evaluated viability, apoptosis, total glutathione levels and metalloproteinase MMP2 and MMP9 activities...
December 19, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
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