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Anik Karan, Margarita Darder, Urna Kansakar, Zach Norcross, Mark A DeCoster
We previously described the novel synthesis of a copper high-aspect ratio structure (CuHARS) biohybrid material using cystine. While extremely stable in water, CuHARS is completely (but slowly) degradable in cellular media. Here, integration of the CuHARS into cellulose matrices was carried out to provide added control for CuHARS degradation. Synthesized CuHARS was concentrated by centrifugation and then dried. The weighed mass was re-suspended in water. CuHARS was stable in water for months without degradation...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Giulia Albertini, Lauren Deneyer, Sigrid Ottestad-Hansen, Yun Zhou, Gamze Ates, Laura Walrave, Thomas Demuyser, Eduard Bentea, Hideyo Sato, Dimitri De Bundel, Niels C Danbolt, Ann Massie, Ilse Smolders
The communication between the immune and central nervous system (CNS) is affected in many neurological disorders. Peripheral injections of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are widely used to study this communication: an LPS challenge leads to a biphasic syndrome that starts with acute sickness and is followed by persistent brain inflammation and chronic behavioral alterations such as depressive-like symptoms. In vitro, the response to LPS treatment has been shown to involve enhanced expression of system xc-...
April 25, 2018: Glia
Amilal Bhat, Vikash Singh, Mahakshit Bhat, Vinay Kumar, Akshita Bhat
Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of urinary stones and pattern of changes according to the patient's age in Northwestern Rajasthan using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 1005 urolithiasis patients was carried out in two tertiary care centers from September 2012 to September 2016. Chemical composition of urinary stones was analyzed using FTIR spectroscopy, and a subgroup study based on the patient's age was done (8-12 years - Group A, 13-18 years - Group B, and >18 years - Group C)...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
Jia Jiang, Shuang Zang, Dan Li, Kun Wang, Sizhu Tian, Aimin Yu, Ziwei Zhang
Electron spin resonance spectroscopy was applied to determining the antioxidant capacity of eight thiol-containing compounds, including reduced glutathione, N-acetyl-L-cycsteine, methimazole, captopril, and tiopronin with one thiol group, 1,4-dithioerythritol and 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol with two thiol groups, as well as L-cystine with no free thiol group. Cu2+ ion gives an electron spin resonance signal and is reduced to Cu+ ion with no electron spin resonance signal by the free thiol group in the compounds...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
Jessica Kaufeld, Lutz T Weber, Christine Kurschat, Sima Canaan-Kuehl, Eva Brand, Jun Oh, Lars Pape
This article presents a case of cystinosis in a young man. Diagnosis of the disease and the problem of transition to adult care are described. Cystinosis is a rare lysosomal storage disease with first manifestation in early childhood presenting as renal Fanconi syndrome. Without treatment, the disease leads to severe health impairment. Due to the rarity of the disease, a correct diagnosis is often delayed. Without treatment, cystinosis often leads to end-stage renal failure, blindness, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, and rickets...
April 18, 2018: Der Internist
Laurence A N Egue, Florent K N'guessan, Solange Aka-Gbezo, Jean-Paul K M Bouatenin, Marina Koussemon-Camara
The increase of infections due to non-Candida albicans species made it very necessary to conduct adequate characterization to be able to identify the species of Candida isolated from traditional fermented foods. In this study, based on their hue on Candida Chromogenic Agar medium, a total of 136 yeast strains were isolated from tchapalo and bangui. Molecular identification based on PCR-RFLP of internal transcribed spacers of rDNA (ITS) and sequencing of the ITS and the D1/D2 regions allowed us to assign these isolates to seven species: Candida tropicalis, Candida inconspicua, Candida rugosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Trichosporon asahii...
May 2018: Fungal Biology
Masaki Nagane, Eiichi Kanai, Yuki Shibata, Takuto Shimizu, Chie Yoshioka, Takuya Maruo, Tadashi Yamashita
The sodium-independent cystine-glutamate antiporter plays an important role in extracellular cystine uptake. It comprises the transmembrane protein, xCT and its chaperone, CD98. Because glutathione is only weakly cell membrane permeable, cellular uptake of its precursor, cystine, is known to be a key step in glutathione synthesis. Moreover, it has been reported that xCT expression affects the progression of tumors and their resistance to therapy. Sulfasalazine is an inhibitor of xCT that is known to increase cellular oxidative stress, giving it anti-tumor potential...
2018: PloS One
Maria Lafuente, Jordi Solà, Ignacio Alfonso
The study of molecular networks represents a conceptual revolution in chemistry. Building on previous knowledge and after understanding the rules of non-covalent interactions, the design of stimulus-responsive chemical systems is possible. Here we report a new strategy, based on the reorganization of a dynamic chemical network that generates new fluorescent associations in the presence of cysteine or cystine. The binding and sensing units are encoded in the components that dynamically assemble and disassemble responding to external stimuli as a successful tool to detect both cysteine and cystine in aqueous media...
April 12, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Yi-Ping Hou, Xue-Wei Mao, Xiang-Pu Qu, Jian-Xin Wang, Chang-Jun Chen, Ming-Guo Zhou
Cyprodinil belongs to the chemical class of anilinopyrimidines fungicides. In this study, baseline sensitivity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary to cyprodinil was determined using 100 strains collected from the fields in Jiangsu Province of China. The EC50 (50% effective concentration) values ranged from 0.0636-0.8163 μg/ml with a mean value of 0.1869 (±0.1118) ug/ml for mycelial growth. Nine cyprodinil-resistant mutants (Range of resistance factor: 20.22-271.59) were obtained from sensitive strains exposed on PDA medium amended with cyprodinil and the resistance was stable after their ten transfers on PDA without the fungicide or stored at 4 °C for two months...
April 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Lakshmi Ananthakrishnan, Xinhui Duan, Yin Xi, Matthew A Lewis, Margaret S Pearle, Jodi A Antonelli, Harold Goerne, Elysha M Kolitz, Suhny Abbara, Robert E Lenkinski, Julia R Fielding, John R Leyendecker
PURPOSE: To assess the non-inferiority of dual-layer spectral detector CT (SDCT) compared to dual-source dual-energy CT (dsDECT) in discriminating uric acid (UA) from non-UA stones. METHODS: Fifty-seven extracted urinary calculi were placed in a cylindrical phantom in a water bath and scanned on a SDCT scanner (IQon, Philips Healthcare) and second- and third-generation dsDECT scanners (Somatom Flash and Force, Siemens Healthcare) under matched scan parameters. For SDCT data, conventional images and virtual monoenergetic reconstructions were created...
April 7, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
S L Stella, D A Velasco-Acosta, C Skenandore, Z Zhou, A Steelman, D Luchini, F C Cardoso
During the transition from prepartum to early lactation, dairy cows often experience negative energy balance (NEB) that may result in reproductive stress and decreased fertility. The objective of this study was to observe the effects of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) on plasma amino acid concentrations, uterine cytology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX) and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD), and to confirm neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 20) were randomly assigned to two treatments starting at 21 d before calving until 73 days in milk (DIM)...
March 26, 2018: Theriogenology
Fahad S Alshehri, Alqassem Y Hakami, Yusuf S Althobaiti, Youssef Sari
Hydrocodone (HYD) is one of the most widely prescribed opioid analgesic drugs. Several neurotransmitters are involved in opioids relapse. Among these neurotransmitters, glutamate is suggested to be involved in opioid dependence and relapse. Glutamate is regulated by several glutamate transporters, including glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and cystine/glutamate transporter (xCT). In this study, we investigated the effects of ceftriaxone (CEF) (200 mg/kg, i.p.), known to upregulate GLT-1 and xCT, on reinstatement to HYD (5 mg/kg, i...
March 28, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Nisha Singh, Hannah McMahon, Amy Bilderbeck, Zoe E Reed, Elizabeth Tunbridge, Daniel Brett, John R Geddes, Grant C Churchill, Guy M Goodwin
OBJECTIVES: We previously demonstrated oxidative stress in bipolar patients and a relationship between the age of illness onset and total glutathione, a principal antioxidant. In this study, we sought to replicate these findings in a new cohort of patients. METHODS: We recruited bipolar patients from Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK, of similar age and grouped them according to age of onset of illness. The early-onset group comprised patients with onset at <23 years, and the late group comprised patients with onset at >30 years...
March 30, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
Nils Große Hokamp, Johannes Salem, Albrecht Hesse, Jasmin Alexandra Holz, Manuel Ritter, Axel Heidenreich, David Maintz, Stefan Haneder
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of kidney stone composition analysis using spectral detector computed tomography scanner (SDCT) with normal- and low-dose imaging protocols. METHODS: A total of 154 stones harvested from nephrolithotripsy or nephrolithotomy with a known monocrystalline composition as determined by infrared spectroscopy were examined in a nonanthropomorphic phantom on an SDCT (IQon, Philips, Best, the Netherlands)...
March 28, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Xiaogen Chen, Qiujun Lu, Dan Liu, Cuiyan Wu, Meiling Liu, Haitao Li, Youyu Zhang, Shouzhuo Yao
The authors describe a silicon nanoparticle-based fluorometric method for sensitive and selective detection of Cu2+ . It is based on the catalytic action of Cu2+ on the oxidation of cysteine (Cys) by oxygen to form cystine and the by-product H2 O2 . The generated H2 O2 is catalytically decomposed by Cu2+ to generate hydroxyl radicals which oxidize and destroy the surface of SiNPs. As a result, the blue fluorescence of the SiNPs is quenched. The method has excellent selectivity due to the dual catalytic effects of Cu2+ , which is much better than most previously reported nanomaterial-based assays for Cu2+ ...
February 19, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Sören Bäumner, Lutz T Weber
Cystinosis is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the CTNS gene. Main dysfunction is a defective clearance of cystine from lysosomes that leads to accumulation of cystine crystals in every tissue of the body. There are three different forms: infantile nephropathic cystinosis, which is the most common form, juvenile nephropatic, and non-nephropathic cystinosis. Mostly, first symptom in infantile nephropathic cystinosis is renal Fanconi syndrome that occurs within the first year of life...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Chelsea L Gibson, Joseph T Balbona, Ashlin Niedzwiecki, Peter Rodriguez, Ken C Q Nguyen, David H Hall, Randy D Blakely
Across phylogeny, glutamate (Glu) signaling plays a critical role in regulating neural excitability, thus supporting many complex behaviors. Perturbed synaptic and extrasynaptic Glu homeostasis in the human brain has been implicated in multiple neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, where theories suggest that excitotoxic insults may accelerate a naturally occurring process of dopamine (DA) neuron degeneration. In C. elegans, mutation of the glial expressed gene, swip-10, results in Glu-dependent DA neuron hyperexcitation that leads to elevated DA release, triggering DA signaling-dependent motor paralysis...
March 28, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Mohammad Hassan Golzari, Mohammad Hassan Javanbakht, Ehsan Ghaedi, Hamed Mohammadi, Mahmoud Djalali
AIMS: Cardiovascular complications are one of main cause of increased mortality and morbidity among Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients. Altered metabolism of sulphur amino acids in diabetes reflected as increases in concentration of methionine and cysteine/cystine in the blood which known as a markers of Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD). The aim of present study was to determine the effect of Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) supplementation on sulfhydryl amino acids and Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) in patients with type 2 DM (T2DM)...
March 16, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Y F Ma, Z H Wu, M Gao, J J Loor
The experiment was conducted to determine the role of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like factor 2 (NFE2L2, formerly Nrf2) antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway in protecting bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC) against H2 O2 -induced oxidative stress injury. An NFE2L2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) interference or a pCMV6-XL5-NFE2L2 plasmid fragment was transfected to independently downregulate or upregulate expression of NFE2L2. Isolated BMEC in triplicate were exposed to H2 O2 (600 μM) for 6 h to induce oxidative stress before transient transfection with scrambled siRNA, NFE2L2-siRNA, pCMV6-XL5, and pCMV6-XL5-NFE2L2...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Yanhui Yang, Haifa Albanyan, Sumi Lee, Herve Aloysius, Jian-Jie Liang, Vladyslav Kholodovych, Amrik Sahota, Longqin Hu
To overcome the chemical and metabolic stability issues of l-cystine dimethyl ester (CDME) and l-cystine methyl ester (CME), a series of l-cystine diamides with or without Nα -methylation was designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their inhibitory activity of l-cystine crystallization. l-Cystine diamides 2a-i without Nα -methylation were found to be potent inhibitors of l-cystine crystallization while Nα -methylation of l-cystine diamides resulted in derivatives 3b-i devoid of any inhibitory activity of l-cystine crystallization...
March 10, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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