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Yuxuan Zheng, Jeffrey D Ritzenthaler, Tom J Burke, Javier Otero, Jesse Roman, Walter H Watson
Aging is associated with progressive oxidation of the extracellular environment. The redox state of human plasma, defined by the concentrations of cysteine (Cys) and cystine (CySS), becomes more oxidized as we age. Recently, we showed that fibroblasts isolated from the lungs of young and old mice retain this differential phenotype; old cells produce and maintain a more oxidizing extracellular redox potential (Eh (Cys/CySS)) than young cells. Microarray analysis identified down-regulation of Slc7a11, the light subunit of the CySS/glutamate transporter, as a potential mediator of age-related oxidation in these cells...
February 16, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Arathi P J, Bhaskar Seemesh, Rajendra Kumar Reddy G, Suresh Kumar P, Ramanathan V
Different nano-structures of noble metals have been the conventional substrates for carrying out Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). In this paper we examine electrodeposited copper (Cu) nano-structures on pencil graphite as novel substrate to carry out SERS measurements by considering l-cystine (Cys-Cys) (dimer of the amino acid cysteine) as the probe. The formation of monolayer of the probe molecule on the substrates was confirmed using cyclic voltammetric measurements. Mode of adsorption of Cys-Cys was observed to be different on bulk Cu (taken in the wire form) and nano-structured Cu on pencil graphite...
February 5, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Maria Bitsori, Eleni Vergadi, Emmanouil Galanakis
Cystinosis is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal transport disorder, characterized by the accumulation of the aminoacid cystine and progressive dysfunction of several organs. Kidneys are severely affected, and the most frequent form, infantile nephropathic cystinosis, presents with growth failure in infancy, renal Fanconi syndrome and end-stage renal disease by the first decade of life. We report of a girl with infantile nephropathic cystinosis that has reached adolescence without the need of renal replacement therapy and without extrarenal manifestations despite her delayed diagnosis and treatment initiation...
February 14, 2018: CEN Case Reports
Nana Kobayashi, Shogo Okazaki, Oltea Sampetrean, Junichiro Irie, Hiroshi Itoh, Hideyuki Saya
CD44 variant (CD44v) contributes to cancer stemness by stabilizing the xCT subunit of system xc(-) and thereby promoting its glutamate-cystine antiporter activity. CD44 has also been implicated in autoimmune insulitis and inflammation in diabetic islets, but whether CD44v regulates insulin secretion has remained unclear. Here we show that CD44v inhibits insulin secretion by attenuating amino acid transport mediated by the L-type amino acid transporter LAT1. CD44v expression level was inversely related to insulin content in islets of normal and diabetic model mice...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xia Jia, Chunyan Zhang, Yonghua Zhao, Tuo Liu, Yunhua He
Few studies have explored the long-term effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 combined with lead (Pb) contamination on plants. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of 3 years of elevated CO2 (700 ± 23 μmol mol-1) on Pb accumulation and plant defenses in leaves of Robinia pseudoacacia L. seedlings in exposed to Pb (500 mg kg-1 soil). Elevated CO2 increased Pb accumulation in leaves and Pb removal rate in soils. In plants exposed to Pb stress, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents in leaves were lower under elevated CO2 than under ambient CO2, but seedling height and width increased under elevated CO2 relative to ambient CO2...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Adarsh R Kallar, Jayabalan Muthu, Shivaram Selvam
We report the preparation of protein encapsulated amino acid derived redox-responsive nanoparticles (NPs) as effective nanocarriers for intracellular delivery of proteins. More specifically, acryloyl derivatives of lysine, ornithine, cystine and cystamine, were employed as monomers and disulfide crosslinkers for non-covalent encapsulation of model protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) and were interfacially crosslinked via free radical polymerization to form redox-responsive protein NPs. Notably, prepared NPs exhibited high protein loading content between 37 and 45%, averaged ∼400 nm in hydrodynamic size and possessed a mean surface charge of -15 mV...
February 5, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Funda Bastug, Hulya Nalcacioglu, Fatih Ozaltin, Emine Korkmaz, Sibel Yel
Cystinosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from defective lysosomal transport of cystine due to mutations in the cystinosin lysosomal cystine transporter (CTNS) gene. The clinical phenotype of nephropathic cystinosis is characterized by renal tubular Fanconi syndrome and development of end-stage renal disease during the first decade. Although metabolic acidosis is the classically prominent finding of the disease, a few cases may present with hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis mimicking Bartter syndrome...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
Nikolaos Kourkoumelis, Georgios Gaitanis, Aristea Velegraki, Ioannis D Bassukas
Trichophyton rubrum and Candida species comprise the majority of onychomycosis pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate Raman spectroscopy for the differentiation between healthy and either T. rubrum or Candida infected nails. Raman measurements were performed on clippings (N = 52) infected either by T. rubrum (N = 12) or Candida species (N = 14; C. parapsilosis (sensu lato): N = 11, C. glabrata: N = 1, C. albicans: N = 2) with healthy nails (N = 26) used as controls. Systematic spectral differences were observed in the 500-520 cm-1 band region, attributable to a diverting imprint of the disulfide stretching of cystine and cysteine residues among samples...
October 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Chenguang Shang, Linzhi Liu, Xiaohui Wang, Ying Dong, Yan Zhang
OBJECTIVE To report on concurrent mutations of APC and MLH1 genes identified in a family affected with familial adenomatous polyposis(FAP). METHODS The proband was diagnosed with FAP based on her clinical manifestation, family history and histopathology examination. She developed endometrial epithelial neoplasia(EIN) two years later. With peripheral blood samples collected from her and members of her family, genomic DNA was extracted, and mutations of the APC and MLH1 genes were analyzed by Sanger sequencing...
February 10, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
Achini K Makuloluwa, Fatemeh Shams
Cystinosis is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder leading to defective transport of cystine out of lysosomes. Subsequent cystine crystal accumulation can occur in various tissues, including the ocular surface. This review explores the efficacy of cysteamine hydrochloride eye drops in the treatment of corneal cystine crystal accumulation and its safety profile.
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
Abdulaziz Alamri, Mohamed E Hamid, Muhammad Abid, Abdulrahman M Alwahhabi, Khalid M Alqahtani, Mohammed S Alqarni, Mosleh Abomughaid
Purpose: To analyze the prevalence and resistance rates of bacterial agents causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Aseer, Saudi Arabia (2013-2016). Patients and Methods: This was a 4-year (2013-2016) retrospective study undertaken in Aseer Central Hospital, Saudi Arabia. A total of 49,779 urine and other UT specimens obtained from patients suspected of having a UTI were analyzed. Urine specimens were inoculated onto cystine lactose electrolyte deficient agar following standard procedures...
January 2018: Urology Annals
Danielle Armas, Robert J Holt, Nils F Confer, Gregg C Checani, Mohammad Obaidi, Yuli Xie, Meg Brannagan
INTRODUCTION: Cystinosis is a rare, metabolic, autosomal recessive, genetic lysosomal storage disorder characterized by an accumulation of cystine in various organs and tissues. Cysteamine bitartrate (CB) is a cystine-depleting aminothiol agent approved in the United States and Europe in immediate-release and delayed-release (DR) formulations for the treatment of nephropathic cystinosis in children and adults. It is recommended that CBDR be administered with fruit juice (except grapefruit juice) for maximum absorption...
February 6, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Jonathan Wojciechowski, Adam D Martin, Pall Thordarson
It remains challenging to program soft materials to show dynamic, tunable time-dependent properties. In this work, we report a strategy to design transient supramolecular hydrogels based on kinetic control of competing reactions. Specifically, the pH triggered self-assembly of a redox-active supramolecular gelator, N,N'-dibenzoyl-L-cystine (DBC) in the presence of a reducing agent, which acts to disassemble the system. The lifetimes of the transient hydrogels can be tuned simply by pH or reducing agent concentration...
February 6, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Mai Froberg Sørensen, Sólborg Berglind Heimisdóttir, Mia Dahl Sørensen, Casper Schau Mellegaard, Helle Wohlleben, Bjarne Winther Kristensen, Christoph Patrick Beier
Epileptic seizures are an important cause of morbidity in glioma patients. Substantial lines of evidence support the concept of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate being a crucial mediator of glioma-associated seizures. In gliomas, non-vesicular secretion of glutamate via the cystine-glutamate exchanger (SLC7A11, xCT) constitutes the main mechanism contributing to high extracellular glutamate concentrations. However, a convincing "proof-of-relevance" of this mechanism in patient material is lacking. A cohort of 229 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed glioma was analyzed with respect to presence, time course, and severity of epileptic seizures...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Elisabetta Bolli, John P O'Rourke, Laura Conti, Stefania Lanzardo, Valeria Rolih, Jayne M Christen, Giuseppina Barutello, Marco Forni, Federica Pericle, Federica Cavallo
Aggressive forms of breast cancer, such as Her2+ and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), are enriched in breast cancer stem cells (BCSC) and have limited therapeutic options. BCSC represent a key cellular reservoir for relapse, metastatic progression and therapeutic resistance. Their ability to resist common cytotoxic therapies relies on different mechanisms, including improved detoxification. The cystine-glutamate antiporter protein xCT (SLC7A11) regulates cystine intake, conversion to cysteine and subsequent glutathione synthesis, protecting cells against oxidative and chemical insults...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Hassan E Embaby, Hesham M Swailam, Ahmed M Rayan
The composition and physicochemical properties of defatted acacia flour (DFAF), acacia protein concentrate (APC) and acacia protein isolate (API) were evaluated. The results indicated that API had lower, ash and fat content, than DFAF and APC. Also, significant difference in protein content was noticed among DFAF, APC and API (37.5, 63.7 and 91.8%, respectively). Acacia protein concentrate and isolates were good sources of essential amino acids except cystine and methionine. The physicochemical and functional properties of acacia protein improved with the processing of acacia into protein concentrate and protein isolate...
February 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
R C M Salles, L H Coutinho, A G da Veiga, M M Sant'Anna, G G B de Souza
We have studied the interaction of an ion beam (17.6 keV F-) with cystine, a dimer formed by the binding of two cysteine residues. Cystine can be considered as an ideal prototype for the study of the relevance of the disulfide (-S-S-) chemical bond in biomolecules. For the sake of comparison, the amino acid cysteine has also been subjected to the same experimental conditions. Characterization of the samples by XPS and NEXAFS shows that both pristine cystine and pristine cysteine are found as a dipolar ion (zwitterion)...
January 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Masayuki Hagiwara, Eiji Kikuchi, Nobuyuki Tanaka, Takeo Kosaka, Shuji Mikami, Hideyuki Saya, Mototsugu Oya
BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of patients with metastatic and/or recurrent urothelial cancer. However, the effectiveness of these treatments is severely limited due to the development of cisplatin resistance. Cancer stem cells have been documented as one of the key hypotheses involved in chemoresistance. CD44v8-10 has been identified as one of the new cancer stem cells markers and was recently shown to enhance the antioxidant system by interaction with xCT, a subunit of the cystine transporter modulating intracellular glutathione synthesis...
January 31, 2018: BMC Cancer
L D S Mariz, P M Amaral, S C Valadares Filho, S A Santos, E Detmann, M I Marcondes, J M V Pereira, J M Silva Júnior, L F Prados, A P Faciola
The objective of this study was to determine the apparent and true intestinal digestibility of total and individual AA, and to estimate the efficiency of whole-body AA retention from individual and total absorbed AA. Four Nellore animals (241.3 kg initial BW) and four crossbred Angus x Nellore (263.4 kg initial BW), cannulated in rumen and ileum were randomly allocated in two 4 × 4 Latin squares. The experiment lasted four 17 d periods, with 10 d for adaptation to diets and another seven for data collection...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Meng-Shian Chen, Sheng-Fan Wang, Chih-Yi Hsu, Pen-Hui Yin, Tien-Shun Yeh, Hsin-Chen Lee, Ling-Ming Tseng
Cancer cells exhibit an abnormal amino acid metabolism and a dependence on specific amino acids, which might provide potential targets for treating cancer patients. In this study, we demonstrated that human triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells were highly susceptible to cystine starvation. We found that necrostatin-1 (Nec-1, a RIP1 inhibitor), necrosulfonamide (an MLKL inhibitor), deferoxamine (an ion chelator), ferrostatin-1 (a ferroptosis inhibitor) and RIP1 knockdown can prevent cystine-starvation-induced cell death, suggesting that cystine starvation induces necroptosis and ferroptosis in TNBC cells...
December 29, 2017: Oncotarget
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