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Blood substitute

Alejandro Amor-Coarasa, James Kelly, Shashikanth Ponnala, Yogindra Vedvyas, Anastasia Nikolopoulou, Clarence Williams, Moonsoo M Jin, J David Warren, John W Babich
INTRODUCTION: CXCR4 specific [18 F]-labeled positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents are needed which would enable general distribution of the radiotracer for clinical investigation. We sought to synthesize, radiolabel and evaluate [18 F]RPS-544, a novel non-peptide CXCR4 antagonist as a CXCR4 specific probe. We compared [18 F]RPS-544 with the previously published [18 F]-3 ([18 F]RPS-510 in this paper) in a bi-lateral tumor model of differential CXCR4 expression for its ability to selectively target CXCR4 expression...
January 31, 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Kuldip D Upadhyay, Narsinh M Dodia, Rupesh C Khunt, Ravi S Chaniara, Anamik K Shah
A series of pyrano[3,2- c ]quinoline based structural analogues was synthesized using one-pot multicomponent condensation between 2,4-dihydroxy-1-methylquinoline, malononitrile, and diverse un(substituted) aromatic aldehydes. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity activity. Initially, all the compounds were evaluated for the percent inhibition of cytokine release, and cytotoxicity activity and 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50 ) were also determined. Based on the primary results, it was further studied for their ability to inhibit TNF-α production in the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC) assay...
March 8, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Mitchell R Dyer, DaShawn Hickman, Norman Luc, Shannon Haldeman, Patricia Loughran, Christa Pawlwoski, Anirban Sen Gupta, Matthew D Neal
BACKGROUND: Clinical resuscitative treatment of traumatic hemorrhage involves transfusion of RBC, platelets and plasma in controlled ratios. However, use of such blood components, especially platelets, present many challenges including availability, portability, contamination risks, and short shelf-life, which limit the use of platelet transfusions outside of large trauma centers such as remote civilian hospitals and austere pre-hospital settings. This has prompted significant research in platelet substitutes that may resolve the above issues while providing platelet-mimetic hemostatic action...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Tuerhongjiang Tuxun, Shadike Apaer, Hai-Zhang Ma, Jin-Ming Zhao, Ren-Yong Lin, Tuerganaili Aji, Ying-Mei Shao, Hao Wen
Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake by alveolar echinococcosis (AE) liver lesions is a signal of their metabolic activity and of disease progression. In order to find a surrogate marker for this status, we investigated whether parameters of the peripheral and/or periparasitic immune responses were associated with metabolic activity in a prospective case-control study of 30 AE patients and 22 healthy controls. Levels of 18 cytokines and chemokines, representative of innate and adaptive immune responses, were assessed in plasma and peripheral cells of two groups of patients with (MAAE) and without (MIAE) metabolically active lesions, and in the liver of MAAE patients...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Donglai Qi, Qian Li, Chen Chen, Xiang Wang
During the development of artificial red blood cell (RBC) substitutes, oxidation side reaction is one of the major factors that hinder the application of haemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs). In order to avoid oxidation toxicity, we designed and prepared natural Hb conjugated with ferulic acid (FA) via simple chemical modification. In addition, the thiol groups on Hb surface were increased via the reaction of Hb with 2-iminothiolane (2-IT) and then modified with FA for the study of anti-oxidant ability...
March 13, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Talat Ghane, Nasim Zamani, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Ali Beyrami, Alireza Noroozi
Objective: To describe an outbreak of lead poisoning among opium users in the Islamic Republic of Iran and estimate the number of affected people in the country. Methods: We used data from the country's largest poison treatment centre to illustrate the epidemiology of an outbreak of lead poisoning in oral opium users. We describe the government's referral and treatment guidelines in response to the outbreak. Based on the number of individuals treated and previous studies on the prevalence of oral opium use we estimated the total number of people at risk of lead-contaminated opium nationwide...
March 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Jasna Neumann, Olof Beck, Norbert Dahmen, Michael Böttcher
BACKGROUND: Oral fluid (OF) is being developed as a specimen for the determination of drug intake as an alternative to serum and plasma. It is generally considered as an attractive specimen due to the noninvasive nature of the sampling procedure and the relation to the free fraction of drug in the blood. These features are of particular value in drug treatment of psychiatric disorders. To establish OF for the purpose of monitoring drug therapy, the relationship between concentrations in OF and serum/plasma must be documented...
April 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Yuesheng Shen, Wenjin Zhu, Mengye Zhao, Guige Zhao, Geng Niu, Yuwei Bai, Bo Yang, Chao Chen, Hongli Zhu
Polymerized porcine hemoglobin (pPolyHb), a kind of glutaraldehyde-polymerized haemoglobin-based oxygen carrier, was developed as a potential red blood substitute for clinical applications. Assessment of its absorption, distribution, and metabolism is a major determinant of its safety and efficacy. In this study, a series of pharmacokinetic parameters of pPolyHb were measured and calculated in different animal models, such as the top-load model, the 50% exchange transfusion model and the haemorrhagic shock model...
March 11, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
M Gasser, M H Frank, A M Waaga-Gasser
Critical chronic ischemia in patients with underlying arterial occlusive disease requires vascular reconstructive surgery. The limited supply of suitable small-diameter autologous vascular grafts in many patients and obvious disadvantages of synthetic bypass material demand the development of clinically usable tissue-engineered blood vessel substitutes. Despite substantial progress in the field over the last two decades, their implementation into the clinical routine has been challenging. The limited replicative life span of human adult vascular cells and their slow rate of collagenous matrix production in vitro have posed important problems in the development of mechanically robust and biologically functional engineered grafts...
February 2018: Gefässchirurgie: Zeitschrift Für Vaskuläre und Endovaskuläre Chirurgie
Jung Gi Lee, Jae Ha Ryu, Seon-Myung Kim, Moon-Young Park, San-Ho Kim, Young G Shin, Jong-Woo Sohn, Ha Hyung Kim, Zee-Yong Park, Jae Young Seong, Jae Il Kim
Exendin-4, a 39 amino acid peptide isolated from the saliva of the Gila monster, plays an important role in regulating glucose homeostasis, and is used clinically for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Exendin-4 shares 53% sequence identity with the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) but, unlike GLP-1, is highly resistant to proteolytic enzymes such as dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP 24.11). Herein, we focused on the structure and function of the C-terminal Trp-cage of exendin-4, and suggest that it may be structurally required for resistance to proteolysis by NEP 24...
March 6, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Serena Tedesco, Federica De Majo, Jieun Kim, Annalisa Trenti, Lucia Trevisi, Gian Paolo Fadini, Chiara Bolego, Peter W Zandstra, Andrea Cignarella, Libero Vitiello
Human peripheral-blood monocytes are used as an established in vitro system for generating macrophages. For several reasons, monocytic cell lines such as THP-1 have been considered as a possible alternative. In view of their distinct developmental origins and phenotypic attributes, we set out to assess the extent to which human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP-1 cells were overlapping across a variety of responses to activating stimuli. Resting (M0) macrophages were polarized toward M1 or M2 phenotypes by 48-h incubation with LPS (1 μg/ml) and IFN-γ (10 ng/ml) or with IL-4 (20 ng/ml) and IL-13 (5 ng/ml), respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
T Guan, H J Wu, L J Zhang, D J Xu, L B Zheng, Y F Yao
Objective: To investigate the possibility of the visual system homeobox 1 (VSX1) gene as a candidate susceptibility gene for Chinese patients with sporadic keratoconus, and to identify sequence variants of the VSX1 gene in such patients. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Genomic DNA was extracted from the leukocytes in the peripheral venous blood of 50 patients with sporadic keratoconus and 50 control subjects without this ocular disorder. Five exons and the intron-exon splicing of the VSX1 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
March 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Katarzyna Mokra, Katarzyna Woźniak, Bożena Bukowska, Paulina Sicińska, Jaromir Michałowicz
Because bisphenol A (BPA) and some of its analogs have been supposed to influence development of cancer, we have assessed the effect of BPA, bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) on DNA bases oxidation, which is a key process in cancer initiation. The analysis was conducted on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which are very useful model to assess genotoxic potential of various toxicants in different cell types. In order to determine oxidative damage to DNA pyrimidines and purines, alkaline version of the comet assay with DNA glycosylases, i...
February 27, 2018: Chemosphere
Xiaozheng Zhang, Fengchao Cui, Hongqian Chen, Tianshu Zhang, Kecheng Yang, Yibo Wang, Zhenyan Jiang, Kenner C Rice, Linda R Watkins, Mark R Hutchinson, Yunqi Li, Yinghua Peng, Xiaohui Wang
The opioid inactive isomer (+)-naltrexone is one of the rare Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonists with good blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, which is a lead with promising potential for treating neuropathic pain and drug addiction. (+)-Naltrexone targets the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) binding pocket of myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2) and blocks innate immune TLR4 signaling. However, the details of the molecular interactions of (+)-naltrexone and its derivatives with MD-2 are not fully understood, which hinders the ligand-based drug discovery...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
M P Serrano, P Gambín, T Landete-Castillejos, A García, J Cappelli, F J Pérez-Barbería, J A Gómez, L Gallego
This study describes the effects of Mn supplementation of 20 late-gestating and lactating Iberian red deer (Cervuselaphushispanicus) females (hinds) fed a balanced diet on milk production and milk composition over the lactation period. Body weight of their calves at birth and at weaning was also evaluated. In addition, the effect of lactation stage was studied. For these purposes, 2 groups of hinds, one composed by 12 individuals (experimental) and the other by 8 individuals (control) were compared. Experimental hinds were s...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
C Desert, E Baéza, M Aite, M Boutin, A Le Cam, J Montfort, M Houee-Bigot, Y Blum, P F Roux, C Hennequet-Antier, C Berri, S Metayer-Coustard, A Collin, S Allais, E Le Bihan, D Causeur, F Gondret, M J Duclos, S Lagarrigue
BACKGROUND: Because the cost of cereals is unstable and represents a large part of production charges for meat-type chicken, there is an urge to formulate alternative diets from more cost-effective feedstuff. We have recently shown that meat-type chicken source is prone to adapt to dietary starch substitution with fat and fiber. The aim of this study was to better understand the molecular mechanisms of this adaptation to changes in dietary energy sources through the fine characterization of transcriptomic changes occurring in three major metabolic tissues - liver, adipose tissue and muscle - as well as in circulating blood cells...
March 7, 2018: BMC Genomics
J S Shen, Y Y Chen, L E Moraes, Z T Yu, W Y Zhu
This study investigated the effects of dietary protein sources and nisin on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestion, plasma metabolites, N utilization, and growth performance in growing lambs. Thirty-two male Hu lambs (23 ± 2 kg initial BW) were assigned to four dietary treatments in a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Two protein sources, soybean meal (SBM) and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), and two levels of nisin, 0 and 30.5 mg of nisin/kg of feed, were used to formulate four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Khajohn Tiranathanagul, Paweena Susantitaphong, Nattachai Srisawat, Nanta Mahatanan, Kriang Tungsanga, Kearkiat Praditpornsilpa, Somchai Eiam-Ong
BACKGROUND: Recently, in the first hemodiafiltration (HDF) experience report from South East Asia (SEA), we reported a 3-year prospective study demonstrating the various short-term benefits of high-efficiency online HDF (OL-HDF) over high-flux hemodialysis (HD). Very few long-term survival reports of high-efficiency OL-HDF are available and the data are heterogeneous and incomplete. OBJECTIVES: The present historical cohort study was conducted to determine the long-term survival and outcome of high-efficiency OL-HDF-treated patients...
March 7, 2018: Nephron
Naoya Shinohara, Chieko Matsumoto, Keiji Matsubayashi, Tadashi Nagai, Masahiro Satake
There are few reports on HIV-1 intra-host evolutionary rate in asymptomatic treatment-naïve patients. Here, the HIV-1 intra-host evolutionary rate was estimated based on HIV-1 RNA sequences from plasma samples of blood donors in Japan. Blood donors were assumed to have received no treatment for and have no symptoms of HIV-1 infection because they were healthy, and declared no risky behaviors of HIV-1 infection on a self-reported questionnaire or interview followed by donation. HIV-1 RNA was obtained from 85 plasma samples from 36 blood donors who donated blood multiple times and were HIV-1-positive...
March 7, 2018: Virus Genes
Hongmei Chen
Inertial and deformability- based particles separations gradually attract more significant attentions. In this work, we present a hybrid chip by combining the advantages of inertial and deformability -based principle. The chip is a triplet parallelizing spiral inertial microfluidic chip interconnected with numerable tilted slits (Spiral-Slits Chip) for continuous separation of circulating tumor cells. Utilizing the inertial lift and viscous drag forces, different sized particles achieve different equilibrium at distinct streamlines of the spiral microchannel...
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
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