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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526082/proof-of-concept-non-invasive-estimation-of-peripheral-venous-oxygen-saturation
#1
Musabbir Khan, Chris G Pretty, Alexander C Amies, Joel Balmer, Houda E Banna, Geoffrey M Shaw, J Geoffrey Chase
BACKGROUND: Pulse oximeters continuously monitor arterial oxygen saturation. Continuous monitoring of venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) would enable real-time assessment of tissue oxygen extraction (O2E) and perfusion changes leading to improved diagnosis of clinical conditions, such as sepsis. METHODS: This study presents the proof of concept of a novel pulse oximeter method that utilises the compliance difference between arteries and veins to induce artificial respiration-like modulations to the peripheral vasculature...
May 19, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518051/red-blood-cells-ageing-markers-a-multi-parametric-analysis
#2
Manon Bardyn, Benjamin Rappaz, Keyvan Jaferzadeh, David Crettaz, Jean-Daniel Tissot, Inkyu Moon, Gerardo Turcatti, Niels Lion, Michel Prudent
BACKGROUND: Red blood cells collected in citrate-phosphate-dextrose can be stored for up to 42 days at 4 °C in saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol additive solution. During this controlled, but nevertheless artificial, ex vivo ageing, red blood cells accumulate lesions that can be reversible or irreversible upon transfusion. The aim of the present study is to follow several parameters reflecting cell metabolism, antioxidant defences, morphology and membrane dynamics during storage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five erythrocyte concentrates were followed weekly during 71 days...
May 2017: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512702/an-intracardiac-soft-robotic-device-for-augmentation-of-blood-ejection-from-the-failing-right-ventricle
#3
Markus A Horvath, Isaac Wamala, Eric Rytkin, Elizabeth Doyle, Christopher J Payne, Thomas Thalhofer, Ignacio Berra, Anna Solovyeva, Mossab Saeed, Sara Hendren, Ellen T Roche, Pedro J Del Nido, Conor J Walsh, Nikolay V Vasilyev
We introduce an implantable intracardiac soft robotic right ventricular ejection device (RVED) for dynamic approximation of the right ventricular (RV) free wall and the interventricular septum (IVS) in synchrony with the cardiac cycle to augment blood ejection in right heart failure (RHF). The RVED is designed for safe and effective intracardiac operation and consists of an anchoring system deployed across the IVS, an RV free wall anchor, and a pneumatic artificial muscle linear actuator that spans the RV chamber between the two anchors...
May 16, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506774/immunomodulatory-and-protective-effects-of-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-an-allograft-islet-composite-transplantation-for-experimental-autoimmune-type-1-diabetes
#4
Jamal Mohammadi Ayenehdeh, Bahare Niknam, Shim Rasouli, Seyed Mahmoud Hashemi, Hossein Rahavi, Nima Rezaei, Masoud Soleimani, Ali Liaeiha, Mohammad Hossein Niknam, Nader Tajik
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic islet transplantation could be an ideal alternative therapy for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM). Adipose Tissue-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (AT-MSCs) characterized by immunomodulatory and protective effects may have the potential to improve the outcome of this highly immunogenic transplant. METHODS: Syngenic AT-MSCs along with allograft islets embedded in hydrogelic composite and transplanted intraperitoneally in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice...
May 12, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504360/oxygen-extraction-fraction-mapping-at-3-tesla-using-an-artificial-neural-network-a-feasibility-study
#5
Sebastian Domsch, Bettina Mürle, Sebastian Weingärtner, Jascha Zapp, Frederik Wenz, Lothar R Schad
PURPOSE: The oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) is an important biomarker for tissue-viability. MRI enables noninvasive estimation of the OEF based on the blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) effect. Quantitative OEF-mapping is commonly applied using least-squares regression (LSR) to an analytical tissue model. However, the LSR method has not yet become clinically established due to the necessity for long acquisition times. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) recently have received increasing interest for robust curve-fitting and might pose an alternative to the conventional LSR method for reduced acquisition times...
May 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503717/a-review-of-the-current-challenges-associated-with-the-development-of-an-artificial-pancreas-by-a-double-subcutaneous-approach
#6
REVIEW
Sverre Christian Christiansen, Anders Lyngvi Fougner, Øyvind Stavdahl, Konstanze Kölle, Reinold Ellingsen, Sven Magnus Carlsen
INTRODUCTION: Patients with diabetes type 1 (DM1) struggle daily to achieve good glucose control. The last decade has seen a rush of research groups working towards an artificial pancreas (AP) through the application of a double subcutaneous approach, i.e., subcutaneous (SC) continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Few have focused on the fundamental limitations of this approach, especially regarding outcome measures beyond time in range. METHODS: Based on insulin physiology, the limitations of CGM, SC insulin absorption, meal challenge, and physical activity in DM1 patients, we discuss the limitations of the double SC approach...
May 13, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500596/measuring-blood-pressure-using-a-noninvasive-tail-cuff-method-in-mice
#7
Yu Wang, Sean E Thatcher, Lisa A Cassis
The renin angiotensin system (RAS) is well known for its role in regulating blood pressure (BP). An activated RAS contributes to elevated blood pressure and is evident in both human and animal models of hypertension. Drugs that target the classic vasoconstrictive arm of the RAS (angiotensin II/AT1 receptor signaling) are potent anti-hypertensive agents in clinical setting. However, the newly discovered angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis added new vitality to the hypertension field...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495545/asymptotic-tracking-and-disturbance-rejection-of-the-blood-glucose-regulation-system
#8
Brandon Ashley, Weijiu Liu
Type 1 diabetes patients need external insulin to maintain blood glucose within a narrow range from 65 to 108 mg/dl (3.6 to 6.0 mmol/l). A mathematical model for the blood glucose regulation is required for integrating a glucose monitoring system into insulin pump technology to form a closed-loop insulin delivery system on the feedback of the blood glucose, the so-called "artificial pancreas". The objective of this paper is to treat the exogenous glucose from food as a glucose disturbance and then develop a closed-loop feedback and feedforward control system for the blood glucose regulation system subject to the exogenous glucose disturbance...
May 8, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482865/biting-midges-ceratopogonidae-as-vectors-of-avian-trypanosomes
#9
Milena Svobodová, Olga V Dolnik, Ivan Čepička, Jana Rádrová
BACKGROUND: Although avian trypanosomes are widespread parasites, the knowledge of their vectors is still incomplete. Despite biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are considered as potential vectors of avian trypanosomes, their role in transmission has not been satisfactorily elucidated. Our aim was to clarify the potential of biting midges to sustain the development of avian trypanosomes by testing their susceptibility to different strains of avian trypanosomes experimentally. Moreover, we screened biting midges for natural infections in the wild...
May 8, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482225/immunostaining-of-uva-induced-dna-damage-in-erythrocytes-of-medaka-oryzias-latipes
#10
Alaa El-Din Hamid Sayed, Hiroshi Mitani
Some authors have recently reported that UVA induces double-strand breaks (DSBs) in DNA. Only a few researchers have reported on the induction of DSBs upon UVA exposure, as measured using the Comet assay and γ-H2AX as markers of DSB formation. In the present study, we have investigated for the first time the dose-dependent induction of DSBs by UVA in medaka (Oryzias latipes) erythrocytes. Adult female medaka fish were exposed to UVA for 15, 30, and 60min/day for three continuous days; an unirradiated control group was kept in the same laboratory conditions...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474383/intraperitoneal-insulin-delivery-provides-superior-glycemic-regulation-to-subcutaneous-insulin-delivery-in-model-predictive-control-based-fully-automated-artificial-pancreas-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-a-pilot-study
#11
Eyal Dassau, Eric Renard, Jérôme Place, Anne Farret, Marie-José Pelletier, Justin Lee, Lauren M Huyett, Ankush Chakrabarty, Francis J Doyle, Howard C Zisser
AIMS: To compare intraperitoneal (IP) to subcutaneous (SC) insulin delivery in an artificial pancreas (AP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten adults with type 1 diabetes participated in a non-randomized, non-blinded sequential AP study using the same SC glucose sensing and Zone Model Predictive Control (ZMPC) algorithm adjusted for insulin clearance. On first admission, subjects underwent closed-loop control with SC delivery of a fast-acting insulin analogue for 24 hr...
May 5, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473710/a-short-artificial-antimicrobial-peptide-shows-potential-to-prevent-or-treat-bone-infections
#12
N Bormann, A Koliszak, S Kasper, L Schoen, K Hilpert, R Volkmer, J Kikhney, B Wildemann
Infection of bone is a severe complication due to the variety of bacteria causing it, their resistance against classical antibiotics, the formation of a biofilm and the difficulty to eradicate it. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are naturally occurring peptides and promising candidates for treatment of joint infections. This study aimed to analyze the effect of short artificial peptides derived from an optimized library regarding (1) antimicrobial effect on different bacterial species, (2) efficacy on biofilms, and (3) effect on osteoblast‑like cells...
May 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472319/evaluation-of-sterilized-artificial-diets-for-mass-rearing-the-lucilia-sericata-diptera-calliphoridae
#13
Le Zheng, Tawni L Crippen, Alan Dabney, Alex Gordy, Jeffery K Tomberlin
The impact of six sterilized diets (blood-yeast agar diet, decomposed beef liver diet, powdered beef liver diet, powdered fish diet, milk-based diet, and a chemically defined diet) on Lucilia sericata(Meigen) larvae reared at three densities (10 larvae, 20 larvae, and 40 larvae on 20 g diet) was determined in comparison to fresh beef liver as a control. Specifically, the effects of these diets on the following traits of L. sericatawere measured: 1) pupal weight, 2) pupation percentage, 3) eclosion percentage, as well as 4) adult longevity...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471885/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-for-acute-decompensated-heart-failure
#14
Laurence Dangers, Nicholas Bréchot, Matthieu Schmidt, Guillaume Lebreton, Guillaume Hékimian, Ania Nieszkowska, Sébastien Besset, Jean-Louis Trouillet, Jean Chastre, Pascal Leprince, Alain Combes, Charles-Edouard Luyt
OBJECTIVE: Long-term outcomes of patients treated with venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for acute decompensated heart failure (i.e., cardiogenic shock complicating chronic cardiomyopathy) have not yet been reported. This study was undertaken to describe their outcomes and determine mortality-associated factors. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of data prospectively collected. SETTING: Twenty-six-bed tertiary hospital ICU. PATIENTS: One hundred five patients implanted with venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for acute decompensated heart failure...
May 3, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471157/wearable-resistive-pressure-sensor-based-on-highly-flexible-carbon-composite-conductors-with-irregular-surface-morphology
#15
Kang-Hyun Kim, Soon Kyu Hong, Nam-Su Jang, Sung-Hun Ha, Hyung Woo Lee, Jong-Man Kim
Wearable pressure sensors are crucial building blocks for potential applications in real-time health monitoring, artificial electronic skins, and human-to-machine interfaces. Here we present a highly sensitive, simple-architectured wearable resistive pressure sensor based on highly compliant yet robust carbon composite conductors made of a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) forest embedded in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix with irregular surface morphology. A roughened surface of the VACNT/PDMS composite conductor is simply formed using a sandblasted silicon master in a low-cost and potentially scalable manner and plays an important role in improving the sensitivity of resistive pressure sensor...
May 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466601/adult-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-an-international-survey-of-transfusion-and-anticoagulation-techniques
#16
S A Esper, I J Welsby, K Subramaniam, W John Wallisch, J H Levy, J H Waters, D J Triulzi, J W A Hayanga, G J Schears
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a method of life support for either isolated cardiac failure or respiratory failure, with or without cardiac failure. When used for hemodynamic support, the ECMO circuit presents a non-endothelialized, artificial surface to blood inciting an inflammatory response which activates haemostatic pathways. Anticoagulation may complicate a pre-existing coagulopathy and/or inadequate surgical hemostasis of varying severity...
May 3, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465426/a-novel-agonist-of-the-trif-pathway-induces-a-cellular-state-refractory-to-replication-of-zika-chikungunya-and-dengue-viruses
#17
Kara M Pryke, Jinu Abraham, Tina M Sali, Bryan J Gall, Iris Archer, Andrew Liu, Shelly Bambina, Jason Baird, Michael Gough, Marita Chakhtoura, Elias K Haddad, Ilsa T Kirby, Aaron Nilsen, Daniel N Streblow, Alec J Hirsch, Jessica L Smith, Victor R DeFilippis
The ongoing concurrent outbreaks of Zika, Chikungunya, and dengue viruses in Latin America and the Caribbean highlight the need for development of broad-spectrum antiviral treatments. The type I interferon (IFN) system has evolved in vertebrates to generate tissue responses that actively block replication of multiple known and potentially zoonotic viruses. As such, its control and activation through pharmacological agents may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for simultaneously impairing growth of multiple virus types and rendering host populations resistant to virus spread...
May 2, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464111/circulating-beta-hydroxybutyrate-concentration-may-be-a-predictive-measurement-for-young-cows-that-have-a-greater-probability-to-conceive-at-a-fixed-time-artificial-insemination
#18
J D Hobbs, S R Edwards, E R Cope, Z D McFarlane, K G Pohler, J T Mulliniks
Timing of conception, which has been indicated to be negatively influenced by metabolic dysfunctions, can influence lifetime productivity within the cow herd. Therefore, our objective was to analyze the association of milk production, serum metabolites as an indicator of nutrient status, cow BW and BW change, and calf BW with timing of pregnancy in 183 spring-calving beef cows. Cows were retrospectively classified by timing of pregnancy as cows that were diagnosed pregnant by timed AI (TAI; = 118) or natural breeding (NAT; = 65)...
April 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463616/intelligent-control-of-neurosurgical-robot-mm-3-using-dynamic-motion-scaling
#19
Sunho Ko, Atsushi Nakazawa, Yusuke Kurose, Kanako Harada, Mamoru Mitsuishi, Shigeo Sora, Naoyuki Shono, Hirofumi Nakatomi, Nobuhito Saito, Akio Morita
OBJECTIVE Advanced and intelligent robotic control is necessary for neurosurgical robots, which require great accuracy and precision. In this article, the authors propose methods for dynamically and automatically controlling the motion-scaling ratio of a master-slave neurosurgical robotic system to reduce the task completion time. METHODS Three dynamic motion-scaling modes were proposed and compared with the conventional fixed motion-scaling mode. These 3 modes were defined as follows: 1) the distance between a target point and the tip of the slave manipulator, 2) the distance between the tips of the slave manipulators, and 3) the velocity of the master manipulator...
May 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457645/toxicological-and-thermoregulatory-effects-of-feather-contamination-with-artificially-weathered-mc-252-oil-in-western-sandpipers-calidris-mauri
#20
Ivan Maggini, Lisa V Kennedy, Steven J Bursian, Karen M Dean, Alexander R Gerson, Kendal E Harr, Jane E Link, Chris A Pritsos, Karen L Pritsos, Christopher G Guglielmo
The external contamination of bird feathers with crude oil might have effects on feather structure and thus on thermoregulation. We tested the thermoregulatory ability of western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) in a respirometry chamber with oil applied either immediately prior, or three days before the experiment. The birds were then exposed to a sliding cold temperature challenge between 27°C and -3°C to calculate thermal conductance. After the experiment, a large blood sample was taken and the liver extracted to measure a range of parameters linked to toxicology and oxidative stress...
April 27, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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