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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429819/effects-of-dielectrophoresis-on-thrombogenesis-in-human-whole-blood
#1
Steven Kinio, James Mills
Thrombogenesis (blood clot formation) is a major barrier to the development of biomedical devices that interface with blood. Although state-of-the-art chemically and pharmacologically mediated clot mitigation strategies are effective, some limitations of such approaches include depletion of active agents, or adverse reactions in patients. Increased clotting protein adsorption and platelet adhesion, which occurs when artificial surfaces are exposed to blood, results in enhanced clot formation on artificial surfaces...
April 21, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429613/effect-of-dietary-supplementation-with-carnosic-acid-or-vitamin-e-on-animal-performance-haematological-and-immunological-characteristics-of-artificially-reared-suckling-lambs-before-and-after-road-transport
#2
Lara Morán, Sonia Andrés, Carolina Blanco, Julio Benavides, María Martínez-Valladares, Aidan P Moloney, F Javier Giráldez
To elucidate the influence of dietary carnosic acid (CA) and vitamin E on animal performance, immune response indicators and haematological parameters before and after transport stress, 24 lambs were individually fed ad libitum with milk replacer (MR) using an auto-feeder. Once daily the lambs received MR alone (Group CON, n = 8), MR + 0.096 g CA/kg live weight (LW) (Group CARN, n = 8) or MR + 0.024 g of α-tocopheryl acetate per kg LW (Group VitE, n = 8). After reaching the target slaughter weight (12 ± 0...
April 21, 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426239/performance-of-an-artificial-pancreas-system-for-young-children-with-type-1-diabetes
#3
Mark D DeBoer, Marc D Breton, Christian Wakeman, Elaine M Schertz, Emma G Emory, Jessica L Robic, Laura L Kollar, Boris P Kovatchev, Daniel R Cherñavvsky
BACKGROUND: Young children 5-8 years old with type 1 diabetes (T1D) exhibit clear needs for improved glycemic control but may be limited in their ability to safely interact with an artificial pancreas system. Our goal was to evaluate the safety and performance of an artificial pancreas (AP) system among young children with T1D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a randomized, crossover trial, children with T1D age 5-8 years were enrolled to receive on separate study periods (in random order) either the UVa AP using the DiAs Control Platform software with child-resistant lock-out screens (followed as an out-patient admission) or their usual insulin pump+continuous glucose monitor (CGM) care at home...
April 20, 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424884/principle-and-basic-property-of-the-sequential-flow-pump
#4
Shintaro Hara, Erina Maeno, Xinyang Li, Terumi Yurimoto, Takashi Isoyama, Itsuro Saito, Toshiya Ono, Yusuke Abe
In the emergency care field, early treatment of acute heart or respiratory failure has been a global concern. In severe cases, patients are frequently required to be on an extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO) life support. To make the ECMO system more compact and portable, we proposed a sequential flow-type centrifugal pump named the sequential flow pump (SFP). In this study, principle and basic properties of this novel blood pump were examined by computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis and an experimental model...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420257/gestational-diabetes-management-using-smart-mobile-telemedicine
#5
Mercedes Rigla, Iñaki Martínez-Sarriegui, Gema García-Sáez, Belén Pons, Maria Elena Hernando
Gestational diabetes (GDM) burden has been increasing progressively over the past years. Knowing that intrauterine exposure to maternal diabetes confers high risk for macrosomia as well as for future type 2 diabetes and obesity of the offspring, health care organizations try to provide effective control in spite of the limited resources. Artificial-intelligence-augmented telemedicine has been proposed as a helpful tool to facilitate an efficient widespread medical assistance to GDM. The aim of the study we present was to test the feasibility and acceptance of a mobile decision-support system for GDM, developed in the seventh framework program MobiGuide Project, which includes computer-interpretable clinical practice guidelines, access to data from the electronic health record as well as from glucose, blood pressure, and activity sensors...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419477/the-effectiveness-of-riboflavin-and-ultraviolet-light-pathogen-reduction-technology-in-eliminating-trypanosoma-cruzi-from-leukoreduced-whole-blood
#6
Teresa Jimenez-Marco, Beatriz Cancino-Faure, Enrique Girona-Llobera, M Magdalena Alcover, Cristina Riera, Roser Fisa
BACKGROUND: The parasitic Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, which is mainly transmitted by insect vectors. Other infection routes, both in endemic and in nonendemic areas, include organ and marrow transplantation, congenital transmission, and blood transfusion. Asymptomatic chronic chagasic individuals may have a low and transient parasitemia in peripheral blood and, consequently, they can unknowingly transmit the disease via blood transfusion. Riboflavin and ultraviolet (UV) light pathogen reduction is a method to reduce pathogen transfusion transmission risk based on damage to the pathogen nucleic acids...
April 16, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416836/-comparison-between-flexible-laryngeal-mask-airway-and-reinforced-tracheal-tube-used-for-lumbar-vertebral-surgery-in-prone-position
#7
Y L Zheng, W F Song, D X Wang
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the safety and feasibility of flexible laryngeal mask airway (FLMA) for lumbar vertebral surgery in prone position. METHODS: In the study, 120 adult patients scheduled for lumbar vertebral surgery under intravenous general anesthesia were divided into group FLMA and reinforced tracheal tube (RTT) group at random. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were recorded at the beginning of anesthesia induction (T0) and on the time of artificial airway intubation (T1), 1 min after intubation (T2), extubation (T3), 1 min after extubation (T4) as well...
April 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416825/-comparison-of-efficacy-and-safety-between-the-anterior-and-the-posterior-approaches-to-total-hip-arthroplasty
#8
Y J Zhang, J Li, K Qi, C C Xue, W D Xu
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety between direct anterior approach (DAA) and posterior approach (PA) in total hip arthroplasty. METHODS: This study evaluated postoperative results of 92 consecutive total hip arthroplasties performed by a single surgeon; 44 from the DAA, and 48 from PA. The age, body mass index, operation time, blood loss, hospital stay, positioning of the artificial hip, postoperative Harris score and postoperative complications were recorded and analyzed...
April 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414752/an-angiogenesis-platform-using-a-cubic-artificial-eggshell-with-patterned-blood-vessels-on-chicken-chorioallantoic-membrane
#9
Wenjing Huang, Makoto Itayama, Fumihito Arai, Katsuko S Furukawa, Takashi Ushida, Tomohiro Kawahara
The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) containing tiny blood vessels is an alternative to large animals for studies involving angiogenesis and tissue engineering. However, there is no technique to design the direction of growing blood vessels on the CAM at the microscale level for tissue engineering experiments. Here, a methodology is provided to direct blood vessel formation on the surface of a three-dimensional egg yolk using a cubic artificial eggshell with six functionalized membranes. A structure on the lateral side of the eggshell containing a straight channel and an interlinked chamber was designed, and the direction and formation area of blood vessels with blood flow was artfully defined by channels with widths of 70-2000 μm, without sharply reducing embryo viability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413080/effect-of-oral-exposure-to-artificially-weathered-deepwater-horizon-crude-oil-on-blood-chemistries-hepatic-antioxidant-enzyme-activities-organ-weights-and-histopathology-in-western-sandpipers-calidris-mauri
#10
Steven J Bursian, Karen M Dean, Kendal E Harr, Lisa Kennedy, Jane E Link, Ivan Maggini, Chris Pritsos, Karen L Pritsos, R E Schmidt, Christopher G Guglielmo
Shorebirds were among birds exposed to Mississippi Canyon 252 (MC252) crude oil during the 2010 Deep Water Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The western sandpiper (Calidris mauri) was chosen as one of four species for initial oral dosing studies conducted under Phase 2 of the avian toxicity studies for the DWH Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA). Thirty western sandpipers were assigned to one of three treatment groups, 10 birds per group. The control group was sham gavaged and the treatment groups were gavaged with 1 or 5mL oil kg bw(-1) daily for 20 days...
April 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413047/a-homolog-of-teleostean-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-3-stat3-from-rock-bream-oplegnathus-fasciatus-structural-insights-transcriptional-modulation-and-subcellular-localization
#11
S D N K Bathige, William Shanthakumar Thulasitha, Navaneethaiyer Umasuthan, J D H E Jayasinghe, Qiang Wan, Bo-Hye Nam, Jehee Lee
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is one of the crucial transcription factors in the Janus kinase (JAK)/STAT signaling pathway, and it was previously considered as acute phase response factor. A number of interleukins (ILs) such as IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-22 are known to be involved in activation of STAT3. In addition, various growth factors and pathogenic or oxidative stresses mediate the activation of a wide range of functions via STAT3. In this study, a STAT3 homolog was identified and functionally characterized from rock bream (RbSTAT3), Oplegnathus fasciatus...
April 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412284/effects-of-preanalytical-factors-on-hemoglobin-measurement-a-comparison-of-two-hemocue%C3%A2-point-of-care-analyzers
#12
Ralph D Whitehead, Ming Zhang, Maya R Sternberg, Rosemary L Schleicher, Bakary Drammeh, Carine Mapango, Christine M Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND: In field studies, hemoglobin (Hb) is often measured using a battery-operated, portable HemoCue® hemoglobinometer. METHODS: We compared the performance of 2 HemoCue® models (Hb-201+ and Hb-301) and investigated effects of preanalytical factors on Hb results by simulating unfavorable field conditions. RESULTS: The Hb-301 produced 2.6% higher results compared to the Hb-201+. Hb had to be measured within 1min of filling the Hb-301 cuvette to avoid artificially elevated concentrations (1...
April 12, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408900/the-thrombopoietin-receptor-structural-basis-of-traffic-and-activation-by-ligand-mutations-agonists-and-mutated-calreticulin
#13
REVIEW
Leila N Varghese, Jean-Philippe Defour, Christian Pecquet, Stefan N Constantinescu
A well-functioning hematopoietic system requires a certain robustness and flexibility to maintain appropriate quantities of functional mature blood cells, such as red blood cells and platelets. This review focuses on the cytokine receptor that plays a significant role in thrombopoiesis: the receptor for thrombopoietin (TPO-R; also known as MPL). Here, we survey the work to date to understand how this receptor functions at a molecular level throughout its lifecycle, from traffic to the cell surface, dimerization and binding cognate cytokine via its extracellular domain, through to its subsequent activation of associated Janus kinases and initiation of downstream signaling pathways, as well as the regulation of these processes...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407808/nested-pcr-assay-for-detection-of-schistosoma-japonicum-infection-in-domestic-animals
#14
Xin Zhang, Chuan-Chuan He, Jin-Ming Liu, Hao Li, Ke Lu, Zhi-Qiang Fu, Chuan-Gang Zhu, Yi-Ping Liu, Lai-Bao Tong, De-Bao Zhou, Li Zha, Yang Hong, Ya-Mei Jin, Jiao-Jiao Lin
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis japonica is a common zoonosis. Domestic animals are the primary source of infection and play an important role in disease transmission. The prevalence and infectivity of this disease in domestic animals in China have significantly decreased and, for this reason, diagnostics with a higher sensitivity have become increasingly necessary. It was reported that polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods could be used to detect schistosome infection in humans and animals and presented a high sensitivity and specificity...
April 13, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406906/water-diffusion-closely-reveals-neural-activity-status-in-rat-brain-loci-affected-by-anesthesia
#15
Yoshifumi Abe, Tomokazu Tsurugizawa, Denis Le Bihan
Diffusion functional MRI (DfMRI) reveals neuronal activation even when neurovascular coupling is abolished, contrary to blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI). Here, we show that the water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) derived from DfMRI increased in specific rat brain regions under anesthetic conditions, reflecting the decreased neuronal activity observed with local field potentials (LFPs), especially in regions involved in wakefulness. In contrast, BOLD signals showed nonspecific changes, reflecting systemic effects of the anesthesia on overall brain hemodynamics status...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406700/moderate-exercise-based-on-artificial-gravity-preserves-orthostatic-tolerance-and-exercise-capacity-during-short-term-head-down-bed-rest
#16
Xiao-Tao Li, Chang-Bin Yang, Yong-Sheng Zhu, Jing Sun, Fei Shi, Yong-Chun Wang, Yuan Gao, Jiang-Dong Zhao, Xi-Qing Sun
Numerous countermeasures have been proposed to minimize microgravity-induced physical deconditioning, but their benefits are limited. The present study aimed to investigate whether personalized aerobic exercise based on artificial gravity (AG) mitigates multisystem physical deconditioning. Fourteen men were assigned to the control group (n=6) and the countermeasure group (CM, n=8). Subjects in the CM group were exposed to AG (2Gz at foot level) for 30 min twice daily, during which time cycling exercise of 80-95% anaerobic threshold (AT) intensity was undertaken...
April 12, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406466/artificial-red-blood-cells-as-potential-photosensitizers-in-dye-laser-treatment-against-port-wine-stains
#17
REVIEW
Naoaki Rikihisa, Shoji Watanabe, Yoshiaki Saito, Hiromi Sakai
We suggest a novel method that uses artificial blood cells (hemoglobin vesicles, Hb-Vs) as photosensitizers in dye laser treatment (at 595-nm wavelength) for port-wine stains (i.e., capillary malformations presenting as red birthmarks) based on the results of animal experiments. As compared with human red blood cells, Hb-Vs have the same absorbance of 595 nm wavelength light and produce the same level of heat following dye laser irradiation. Small sized Hb-Vs (250 nm) distribute in the plasma phase in blood and tend to flow in the marginal zone of microvessels...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405313/artificial-rearing-influences-the-morphology-permeability-and-redox-state-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-low-and-normal-birth-weight-piglets
#18
Hans Vergauwen, Jeroen Degroote, Sara Prims, Wei Wang, Erik Fransen, Stefaan De Smet, Christophe Casteleyn, Steven Van Cruchten, Joris Michiels, Chris Van Ginneken
BACKGROUND: In this study the physiological implications of artificial rearing were investigated. Low (LBW) and normal birth weight (NBW) piglets were compared as they might react differently to stressors caused by artificial rearing. In total, 42 pairs of LBW and NBW piglets from 16 litters suckled the sow until d19 of age or were artificially reared starting at d3 until d19 of age. Blood and tissue samples that were collected after euthanasia at 0, 3, 5, 8 and 19 d of age. Histology, ELISA, and Ussing chamber analysis were used to study proximal and distal small intestine histo-morphology, proliferation, apoptosis, tight junction protein expression, and permeability...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404727/when-less-means-more-dehydration-improves-innate-immunity-in-rattlesnakes
#19
George A Brusch, Dale F DeNardo
Immune function can vary based on availability of resources, and most studies of such influences have focused on the co-investment of energy into immune and other physiological functions. When energy resources are limited, trade-offs exist, which can compromise immunity for other functions. As with energy, water limitation can also alter various physiological processes, yet water has received little consideration for its role in possibly modulating immune functions. We examined the relationship between immunocompetence and hydration state using the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox)...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402148/should-modulation-of-p50-be-a-therapeutic-target-in-the-critically-ill
#20
Amudan J Srinivasan, Clare Morkane, Daniel S Martin, Ian J Welsby
A defining feature of human hemoglobin is its oxygen binding affinity, quantified by the partial pressure of oxygen at which hemoglobin is 50% saturated (p50), and the variability of this parameter over a range of physiological and environmental states. Modulation of this property of hemoglobin can directly affect the degree of peripheral oxygen offloading and tissue oxygenation. Areas covered: This review summarizes the role of hemoglobin oxygen affinity in normal and abnormal physiology and discusses the current state of the literature regarding artificial modulation of p50...
April 12, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
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