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Artificial blood

Lewis S Gall, Paul Vulliamy, Scarlett Gillespie, Timothy F Jones, Rochelle S J Pierre, Sabine E Breukers, Christine Gaarder, Nicole P Juffermans, Marc Maegele, Jakob Stensballe, Pär I Johansson, Ross A Davenport, Karim Brohi
OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics of trauma patients with low levels of fibrinolysis as detected by viscoelastic hemostatic assay (VHA) and explore the underlying mechanisms of this subtype. BACKGROUND: Hyperfibrinolysis is a central component of acute traumatic coagulopathy but a group of patients present with low levels of VHA-detected fibrinolysis. There is concern that these patients may be at risk of thrombosis if empirically administered an antifibrinolytic agent...
March 19, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Muna Al-Asfi, Dennis McNevin, Bhavik Mehta, Daniel Power, Michelle E Gahan, Runa Daniel
AbstractThe ability to provide accurate DNA-based forensic intelligence requires analysis of multiple DNA markers to predict the biogeographical ancestry (BGA) and externally visible characteristics (EVCs) of the donor of biological evidence. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) enables the analysis of hundreds of DNA markers in multiple samples simultaneously, increasing the value of the intelligence provided to forensic investigators while reducing the depletion of evidential material resulting from multiple analyses...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Mikaela G Howie, Allyson K Jackson, Daniel A Cristol
Mercury (Hg) exposure has been extensively studied in aquatic and piscivorous wildlife, but, historically, less attention has been directed towards terrestrial species. However, it has become apparent that aquatic Hg crosses ecosystem boundaries along with beneficial subsidies, thereby entering the terrestrial food chain. It is still not known how far from contaminated waterways Hg exposure remains a risk. We examined the spatial extent of exposure in terrestrial songbirds breeding in the floodplain along a 40-km stretch of Hg-contaminated river in Virginia, USA...
March 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jannis Köhler, Jegor Ruschke, Katja Bettina Ferenz, Cemal Esen, Michael Kirsch, Andreas Ostendorf
Albumin-derived perfluorocarbon-based capsules are promising as artificial oxygen carriers with high solubility. However, these capsules have to be studied further to allow initial human clinical tests. The aim of this paper is to provide and characterize a holographic optical tweezer to enable contactless trapping and moving of individual capsules in an environment that mimics physiological (in vivo) conditions most effectively in order to learn more about the artificial oxygen carrier behavior in blood plasma without recourse to animal experiments...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Muhammad Naveed, Lei Han, Ghulam Jilany Khan, Sufia Yasmeen, Reyaj Mikrani, Muhammad Abbas, Li Cunyu, Zhou Xiaohui
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a complicated pathophysiological syndrome, leading cause of hospitalization as well as mortalities in developed countries wherein an irregular function of the heart leads to the insufficient blood supply to the body organs. It is an accumulative slackening of various complications including myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CAD), hypertension, valvular heart disease (VHD) and cardiomyopathy; its hallmarks include hypertrophy, increased interstitial fibrosis and loss of myocytes...
March 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Sarah Kim, Daphne Foong, Mark S Cooper, Markus J Seibel, Hong Zhou
Accurate measurement of circulating glucocorticoid concentrations in rodents is often hampered by the stress-related activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during animal handling. The present study aims to identify methods of blood collection associated with minimal stress and thus artificial increases in plasma glucocorticoid levels. Using two strains of mice, we evaluated common laboratory methods of non-terminal (tail blood sampling with or without restraint; retro-orbital puncture) and terminal blood collection (cardiac puncture) and their immediate and prolonged effect on plasma corticosterone levels...
March 13, 2018: Steroids
Charrise M Ramkissoon, Pau Herrero, Jorge Bondia, Josep Vehi
The artificial pancreas (AP) system is designed to regulate blood glucose in subjects with type 1 diabetes using a continuous glucose monitor informed controller that adjusts insulin infusion via an insulin pump. However, current AP developments are mainly hybrid closed-loop systems that include feed-forward actions triggered by the announcement of meals or exercise. The first step to fully closing the loop in the AP requires removing meal announcement, which is currently the most effective way to alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia due to the delay in insulin action...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Naoaki Rikihisa, Mai Tominaga, Shoji Watanabe, Nobuyuki Mitsukawa, Yoshiaki Saito, Hiromi Sakai
Our previous study proposed using artificial blood cells (hemoglobin vesicles, Hb-Vs) as photosensitizers in dye laser treatment for port-wine stains (PWSs). Dye laser photons are absorbed by red blood cells (RBCs) and hemoglobin (Hb) mixture, which potentially produce more heat and photocoagulation and effectively destroy endothelial cells. Hb-Vs combination therapy will improve clinical outcomes of dye laser treatment for PWSs because very small vessels do not contain sufficient RBCs and they are poor absorbers/heaters of lasers...
March 15, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Sheng Yan, Hangyan Shi, Da Chen, Jincai Guo, Yi Sun, Sufan Wu
The reconstruction of large full-thickness scalp defects remains a surgical challenge, especially when the skull is exposed completely without periosteum. Surgical technique options for wound coverage have included tissue expansion, skin grafting, local or regional flaps, and microvascular free tissue transfer. In recent years, some authors have reported to use biological material as an alternative for repairing complex wounds. The authors report the successful reconstruction of a large defect with bare skull in bilateral temporal regions of a 3-year-old child...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Jie Tong, Ying Yu, Linlin Zheng, Chong Zhang, Yabin Tu, Yonggang Liu, Jianan Wu, Hai Li, Shujie Wang, Chenggang Jiang, En-Min Zhou, Gang Wang, Xuehui Cai
BACKGROUND: The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) has been responsible for several viral attacks in the Asian porcine industry, since the first outbreak in China in 2006. During the early stages of the HP-PRRSV infection, high levels of proinflammatory cytokines are noted in the host peripheral blood, which are accompanied by severe lesions in the lungs and immune system organs; these are considered as the greatest contributors to the overall disease burden...
March 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Li-Zhi Zhang, Jie Gao, Zhi-Cheng Zhang, Xiao-Wei Wang, Jian-Zheng Zhang, Tian-Sheng Sun
OBJECTIVE: To compare of clinical effects of different surgical methods in the treatment of elderly femoral neck fractures. METHODS: From January 2013 to June 2016, 144 elderly patients with femoral neck were treated and divided into artificial hip replacement group and cannulated screw fixation group according to the surgical methods. In the total hip arthroplasty group, there were 89 cases, 28 males and 61 females, with an average age of(84.10±3.10) years old;Hollow nail fixation group 55 cases, 20 males and 35 females, with an average age of (86...
February 25, 2018: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
G F Metallov, E N Ponomareva, M N Sorokina, V A Grigoryev, A A Korchunov
The article reports data on the dynamics of blood parameters and parameters of protein, fat, and water-salt metabolism in female starlet × beluga hybrids kept under artificial conditions in the period of reproductive cycle. Gonad maturation in female hybrids in the artificial environment causes clear changes in the biochemistry of blood and of urine.
January 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
Sonja Oehmcke-Hecht, Juliane Köhler
The name human contact system is related to its mode of action, as "contact" with artificial negatively charged surfaces triggers its activation. Today, it is generally believed that the contact system is an inflammatory response mechanism not only against artificial material but also against misfolded proteins and foreign organisms. Upon activation, the contact system is involved in at least two distinct (patho)physiologic processes: i . the trigger of the intrinsic coagulation via factor XI and ii ...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Avshalom Leibowitz, Ariel Bier, Mayan Gilboa, Edna Peleg, Iris Barshack, Ehud Grossman
Recent data indicate that artificial sweeteners (AS) may have deleterious effects on glucose metabolism. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of AS and the effects of a high fructose diet (HFrD) on glucose metabolism and insulin resistance (IR) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. SD rats were fed either regular chow, chow with saccharin (Sac) (0.1 mg/mL) placed in their water, or HFrD for seven weeks. Glucose, insulin, and triglycerides (Tg) levels were measured upon completion. A homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)-IR index was used to determine insulin resistance...
March 12, 2018: Nutrients
C L Depoix, F Haegemann, F Debiève, C Hubinont
STUDY QUESTION: Is 8% O2 a better percentage of atmospheric oxygen for long-term cultures of human primary term cytotrophoblasts than the conventional 21% O2 traditionally used in cell culture? SUMMARY ANSWER: Human primary term cytotrophoblasts are able to differentiate into syncytiotrophoblasts under both atmospheric oxygen levels. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Cell culture is traditionally done under 21% O2, which is equal to a pO2 of ~160 mm Hg...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Anamaria Balic
The tooth is an intricate composition of precisely patterned, mineralized matrices and soft tissues. Mineralized tissues include enamel (produced by the epithelial cells called ameloblasts), dentin and cementum (produced by mesenchymal cells called odontoblasts and cementoblasts, respectively), and soft tissues, which include the dental pulp and the periodontal ligament along with the invading nerves and blood vessels. It was perceived for a very long time that teeth primarily serve an esthetical function. In recent years, however, the role of healthy teeth, as well as the impact of oral health on general well-being, became more evident...
March 13, 2018: Gerontology
Donglai Qi, Qian Li, Chen Chen, Xiang Wang
During the development of artificial red blood cell (RBC) substitutes, oxidation side reaction is one of the major factors that hinder the application of haemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs). In order to avoid oxidation toxicity, we designed and prepared natural Hb conjugated with ferulic acid (FA) via simple chemical modification. In addition, the thiol groups on Hb surface were increased via the reaction of Hb with 2-iminothiolane (2-IT) and then modified with FA for the study of anti-oxidant ability...
March 13, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Victor J Drew, Ching-Li Tseng, Jerard Seghatchian, Thierry Burnouf
Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a multifactorial, frequent, pathology characterized by deficient tear production or increased evaporation of tears and associated with ocular surface alteration and inflammation. It mostly affects, but not exclusively, older individuals and leads to varying degrees of discomfort and decreased quality of life. Although the typical treatments of DES rely on using artificial tears, polyunsaturated fatty acids, integrin antagonists, anti-inflammatory agents, or on performing punctal occlusion, recently, standardized blood-derived serum eye drops (SED) are generating much interest as a new physiological treatment option...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Zineb Moussafir, Larbi Allai, Kawtar El Khalil, Abdelkhaled Essamadi, Bouchra El Amiri
The aim of the present study was to compare a Bovine Pregnancy Rapid Test (Ubio quickVET; BPRT) with a commercial ELISA-PAG test (Bovine Pregnancy Test DG29®) for early pregnancy diagnosis based on the presence of the PAG (pregnancy-associated glycoprotein) in dairy cattle between 30 and 40 days after artificial insemination (AI). Blood samples were collected from 212 cows between 30 and 40 days after artificial insemination (AI) to quantify the concentrations of PAG in each sample. Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) diagnosis of pregnancy was conducted at day 45 ± 3 after AI as the reference standard for the two PAG tests...
March 2, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Benjamin Pyles, Barbara J Bailus, Henriette O'Geen, David J Segal
The ability to activate or repress specific genes in the brain could have a tremendous impact for understanding and treating neurological disorders. Artificial transcription factors based on zinc finger, TALE, and CRISPR/Cas9 programmable DNA-binding platforms have been widely used to regulate the expression of specific genes in cultured cells, but their delivery into the brain represents a critical challenge to apply such tools in live animals. In previous work, we developed a purified, zinc finger-based artificial transcription factor that could be injected systemically, cross the blood-brain barrier, and alter expression of a specific gene in the brain of an adult mouse model of Angelman syndrome...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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