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Dna shape

Ghazna Zia, Haleema Sadia, Shabnam Nazir, Kiren Ejaz, Shaukat Ali, Ihsan-Ul-Haq, Tariq Iqbal, Muhammad Abdul Rauf Khan, Abida Raza, Saiqa Andleeb
BACKGROUND: Many health hazardous diseases are caused by clinical pathogens. Drug-resistant microbes are one of the major health problems in the world. To overcome the effect of infectious diseases new antimicrobial agent from nature has been explored which is environmentally friendly, less costly and more effective for the development of next-generation drugs. Bergenia ciliata and silver nitrate both have medicinal properties. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current research was to evaluate the cytotoxic, and antibacterial effect of green synthesized nanoparticles using Bergenia ciliata rhizome against clinical bacterial pathogens...
April 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Yaping Liu, Wenxian Lan, Chunxi Wang, Chunyang Cao
Tumor angiogenesis is mainly regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), produced by cancer cells. It is active on the endothelium via VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2). G-quadruplexes are DNA secondary structures formed by guanine-rich sequences, for example, within gene promoters where they may contribute to transcriptional activity. The proximal promoter of vegfr-2 contains a G-quadruplex, which has been suggested to interact with small molecules that inhibit VEGFR-2 expression and thereby tumor angiogenesis...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Lu-Yao Lu, Ling-Ling Chen, Zi-Yu Xing, Ting Hu, Jia-Sen Lu, Xing Huang
A Gram-variable, short-rod-shaped, motile, spore-forming, strictly aerobic and alkaliresistant bacterium, designed strain J-3T , was isolated from farmland soil sampled in Yancheng city, Jiangsu province, China. Optimal growth occurred at 30 °C, pH 7.0-8.0 and 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain J-3T was most closely related to Paenibacillusripae HZ1T (96.8 %), followed by Paenibacillussputi KIT00200-70066-1T (94.7 %). The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
David J Castro, Isabel Cerezo, Inmaculada Sampedro, Fernando Martínez-Checa
Strain D15T was isolated from a soil sample taken from Rambla Salada (Murcia), south-eastern Spain, by using the dilution-to-extinction method. The strain, a Gram-stain-negative aerobic bacteria, is non-motile, ovoid- or rod-shaped, catalase- and oxidase-positive, and grows at NaCl concentrations within the range 0.5-10 % (w/v) [optimum 3 % (w/v)], at 5-30 °C (optimum 28 °C) and at pH 6-9 (optimum pH 7.0). The 16S rRNA gene sequence indicates that it belongs to the genus Roseovarius in the class Alphaproteobacteria...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Sumi Akter, Mann Kyoon Shin
A Gram-stain-negative, oxidase-negative and catalase-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated PCS8T , hosted by the ciliate Paramecium caudatum was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Strain PCS8T was observed to be able to grow at 12-44 °C (optimum, 36-37 °C), at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, 7.0) and in the presence of 0-3 % NaCl (optimum, 1-2 %). It could hydrolyse starch and aesculin and produce acid from d-sorbitol, myo-inositol, glycerol and l-rhamnose. The sequence similarity of the new isolate was 96...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Stefania Bertazzoni, Angela Williams, Darcy A B Jones, Robert A Syme, Kar-Chun Tan, James Kyawzwar Hane
Fungal pathogen genomes can often be divided into core and accessory regions. Accessory regions may be comprised of either accessory regions (ARs) within core chromosomes (CCs), or wholly-dispensable (accessory) chromosomes (ACs). Fungal ACs and ARs typically accumulate mutations and structural rearrangements more rapidly over time than CCs, and many harbour genes relevant to host-pathogen interactions. These regions are of particular interest in plant pathology and include host-specific virulence factors and secondary metabolite synthesis gene clusters...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Kazunori Tomita
Telomerase, the enzyme that replenishes telomeres, is essential for most eukaryotes to maintain their generations. Telomere length homeostasis is achieved via a balance between telomere lengthening by telomerase, and erosion over successive cell divisions. Impaired telomerase regulation leads to shortened telomeres and can cause defects in tissue maintenance. Telomeric DNA is composed of a repetitive sequence, which recruits the protective protein complex, shelterin. Shelterin, together with chromatin remodelling proteins, shapes the heterochromatic structure at the telomere and protects chromosome ends...
April 16, 2018: Current Genetics
Alfonso Rodríguez-Gil, Tabea Riedlinger, Olesja Ritter, Vera V Saul, M Lienhard Schmitz
Appropriate gene expression in response to extracellular cues, that is, tissue- and lineage-specific gene transcription, critically depends on highly defined states of chromatin organization. The dynamic architecture of the nucleus is controlled by multiple mechanisms and shapes the transcriptional output programs. It is, therefore, important to determine locus-specific chromatin accessibility in a reliable fashion that is preferably independent from antibodies, which can be a potentially confounding source of experimental variability...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Feng-Qing Wang, Li-Hua Ren, Rong-Jie Zou, Yu-Zeng Sun, Xiao-Jing Liu, Fang Jiang, Li-Juan Liu
A yellow-pigmented bacterial strain (JR1T ) isolated from a sediment sample was subjected to a taxonomic study, based on phenotypic, genetic and physiological characterization. Here, we describe the cultivation and characteristics of strain JR1T , a novel member of the genus Carboxylicivirga in the family Marinilabiliaceae. Cells of strain JR1T were rod-shaped, Gram-stain-negative, non-motile and facultatively anaerobic. The temperature range for growth was 15-42 °C (optimum, 33 °C) and the pH range for growth was pH 6...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
S A O'Leary, J L White, J C Hu, K A Athanasiou
BACKGROUND: The equine cervical facet joint is a site of significant pathology. Located bilaterally on the dorsal spine, these diarthrodial joints work in conjunction with the intervertebral disc to facilitate appropriate spinal motion. Despite the high prevalence of pathology in this joint, the facet joint is understudied and thus lacking in viable treatment options. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to characterise equine facet joint cartilage and provide a comprehensive database describing the morphological, histological, biochemical, and biomechanical properties of this tissue...
April 15, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Sofía Grecco, Gregorio Iraola, Nicola Decaro, Alice Alfieri, Amauri Alfieri, Marina Gallo Calderón, Ana Paula da Silva, Daniela Name, Jaime Aldaz, Lucía Calleros, Ana Marandino, Gonzalo Tomás, Leticia Maya, Lourdes Francia, Yanina Panzera, Ruben Pérez
Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a fast-evolving single-stranded DNA virus that causes one of the most significant infectious diseases of dogs. Although the virus dispersed over long distances in the past, current populations are considered to be spatially confined and with only a few instances of migration between specific localities. It is unclear whether these dynamics occur in South America where global studies have not been performed. The aim of this study is to analyze the patterns of genetic variability in South American CPV populations and explore their evolutionary relationships with global strains...
January 2018: Virus Evolution
Low Yi Yik, Grace Joy Wei Lie Chin, Cahyo Budiman, Collin Glenn Joseph, Baba Musta, Kenneth Francis Rodrigues
The adaptive process in bacteria is driven by specific genetic elements which regulate phenotypic characteristics such as tolerance to high metal ion concentrations and the secretion of protective biofilms. Extreme environments such as those associated with heavy metal pollution and extremes of acidity offer opportunities to study the adaptive mechanisms of microorganisms. This study focused on the genome analysis of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt MCMY1), a gram positive rod shaped bacterium isolated from an acid mine drainage site in Sabah, Malaysia by using a combination of Single Molecule Real Time DNA Sequencing, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Quinn S McFrederick, Hoang Q Vuong, Jason A Rothman
Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, non-spore forming bacteria have been isolated from flowers and the guts of adult wild bees in the families Megachilidae and Halictidae. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that these bacteria belong to the genus Lactobacillus, and are most closely related to the honey-bee associated bacteria Lactobacillus kunkeei (97.0 % sequence similarity) and Lactobacillus apinorum (97.0 % sequence similarity). Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA genes and six single-copy protein coding genes, in situ and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization, and fatty-acid profiling differentiates the newly isolated bacteria as three novel Lactobacillus species: Lactobacillus micheneri sp...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Ram Hari Dahal, Jaisoo Kim
A novel bacterium, designated strain CA-1T , was isolated from forest soil in Kyonggi University. Cells were strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped and red-orange-pigmented. Strain CA-1T hydrolysed casein and DNA. It was able to grow at 15-37 °C, pH 5.5-9.0 and at 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl concentration. Flexirubin-type pigments were present. Phylogenetic analysis based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain CA-1T formed a lineage within the family Crocinitomicaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes that was distinct from Fluviicola hefeinensis MYL-8T (96...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Xin Guo, Xue-Mei Wang, Shuai Wei, Shou-Jun Xiao
Design rules for DNA nanotechnology have been mostly learnt from using linear single stranded (ss) DNAs as the source materials. For example, a typical DAO (Double crossover, Antiparallel, Odd half turns) tile for assembling two-dimensional (2D) lattices is built by only two linear ss-oligonucleotide scaffold strands, like two ropes making a square knot. We demonstrate here a new type of coupled DAO (cDAO) tiles and their 2D lattices using small circular ss-oligonucleotides as scaffold strands and linear ss-oligonucleotides as staple strands...
April 12, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Yuki Suzuki, Masayuki Endo, Hiroshi Sugiyama
Ordered DNA origami arrays have the potential to compartmentalize space into distinct periodic domains that can incorporate a variety of nanoscale objects. Here, we aimed to use the internal cavities of a preassembled two-dimensional (2D) DNA origami framework to incorporate supplemental square-shaped DNA origamis (SQ-origamis) with shapes that were complementary to those of the cavities. In our approach, the framework was first self-assembled on a mica-supported lipid bilayer membrane from cross-shaped DNA origamis (CR-origamis), and subsequently exposed to the SQ-origamis...
April 12, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Qiusha Li, Yifan Fei, Longlong Gao, Yali Yu, Yufeng Zhou, Ting Ye, Xiao-Shun Zhou, Yong Shao, Zheng-Zhi Yin
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) provide versatile sensor platforms to recognize targets by shape complementarity. However, the rigid structure of the classic MIPs compromises the signal transduction thus with necessary of the polymer and target modifications. Herein, we tried to use a flexible DNA that has a perfectly structured folding as the soft molecularly imprinted polymer (SMIP) for a straightforward sensor. As a proof of concept, the guanosine SMIP recognition was achieved by removal of a guanosine from a G-quadruplex-forming sequence (G4)...
April 12, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Sougata Roy, Rosemary Jagus, David Morse
Dinoflagellates are unicellular protists that feature a multitude of unusual nuclear features, including large genomes, packaging of DNA without histones, and multiple gene copies organized as tandem gene arrays. Furthermore, all dinoflagellate mRNAs experience trans-splicing with a common 22-nucleotide splice leader (SL) sequence. These features challenge some of the concepts and assumptions about the regulation of gene expression derived from work on model eukaryotes such as yeasts and mammals. Translational control in the dinoflagellates, based on extensive study of circadian bioluminescence and by more recent microarray and transcriptome analyses, is now understood to be a crucial element in regulating gene expression...
April 7, 2018: Microorganisms
Tong Guo, Wenyuan Han, Qunxin She
Sulfolobus islandicus Rey15A encodes one type I-A and two type III-B systems, all of which are active in mediating nucleic acids interference. However, the effectiveness of each CRISPR system against virus infection was not tested in this archaeon. Here we constructed S. islandicus strains that constitutively express the antiviral immunity from either I-A, or III-B, or I-A plus III-B systems against SMV1 and tested the response of each host to SMV1 infection. We found that, although both CRISPR immunities showed a strongly inhibition to viral DNA replication at an early stage of incubation, the host I-A CRISPR immunity gradually lost the control on virus proliferation, allowing accumulation of cellular viral DNA and release of a large number of viral particles...
April 9, 2018: RNA Biology
Xiaoxia Mao, Guifang Chen, Zihan Wang, Yuanguang Zhang, Xiaoli Zhu, Genxi Li
Hydrogels are of great interest in the field of biosensing for their good biocompatibility, plasticity, and capability of providing 3D scaffolds. Nevertheless, the application of hydrogels has not been linked with broad surface biosensing systems yet. To overcome the limitations, here for the first time, surface-immobilized pure DNA hydrogels were synthesized using a surficial primer-induced strategy and adopted for biosensing applications. The DNA hydrogel 3D scaffold is successfully constructed on a transparent ITO electrode, which facilitates both colourimetric and electrochemical measurements...
January 28, 2018: Chemical Science
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