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Activator protein 1

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351614/a-membrane-g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-is-necessary-but-not-sufficient-for-sex-differences-in-zebra-finch-auditory-coding
#1
Amanda A Krentzel, Matheus Macedo-Lima, Maaya Z Ikeda, Luke Remage-Healey
Estradiol acts as a neuromodulator in brain regions important for cognition and sensory processing. Estradiol also shapes brain sex differences, but rarely have these concepts been considered simultaneously. In male and female songbirds, estradiol rapidly increases within the auditory forebrain during song exposure and enhances local auditory processing. We tested whether GPER1, a membrane bound estrogen receptor, is necessary and sufficient for neuroestrogen regulation of forebrain auditory processing in male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)...
January 17, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351486/different-physiological-roles-of-insulin-receptors-in-mediating-nutrient-metabolism-in-zebrafish
#2
Bin-Yuan Yang, Gang Zhai, Yu-Long Gong, Jing-Zhi Su, Xu-Yan Peng, Guo-Hui Shang, Dong Han, Jun-Yan Jin, Hao-Kun Liu, Zhen-Yu Du, Zhan Yin, Shou-Qi Xie
Insulin, the most potent anabolic hormone, is critical for somatic growth and metabolism in vertebrates. Type 2 diabetes, which is the primary cause of hyperglycemia, results from an inability of insulin to signal glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Our previous study showed that double knockout of insulin receptor a (insra) and b (insrb) caused β-cell hyperplasia and lethality from 5 dpf to 16 dpf. In this study, we characterized the physiological roles of Insra and Insrb, in somatic growth and fueling metabolism, respectively...
December 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351434/cub-domain-containing-protein-1-cdcp1-negatively-regulates-tgf%C3%AE-signaling-and-myofibroblast-differentiation
#3
Nina Noskovičová, Katharina Heinzelmann, Gerald Burgstaller, Jürgen Behr, Oliver Eickelberg
Fibroblasts are thought to be the prime cell type for producing and secreting extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the connective tissue. The profibrotic cytokine, transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ1) activates and transdifferentiates fibroblasts into αSMA-expressing myofibroblasts, which exhibit increased ECM secretion, in particular collagens. Little information, however, exists about cell-surface molecules on fibroblasts that mediate this transdifferentiation process. We recently identified, using unbiased cell-surface proteome analysis, Cub domain containing protein 1 (CDCP1) to be strongly downregulated by TGFβ1...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351429/removal-of-interscapular-brown-adipose-tissue-increases-aortic-stiffness-despite-normal-systemic-glucose-metabolism-in-mice
#4
Zachary Ian Grunewald, Nathan C Winn, Michelle L Gastecki, Makenzie L Woodford, James R Ball, Sarah A Hansen, Harold S Sacks, Victoria J Vieira-Potter, Jaume Padilla
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is considered protective against obesity and related cardiometabolic dysfunction. Indeed, activation of BAT improves glucose homeostasis and attenuates cardiovascular disease development. However, whether a reduction in BAT mass perturbs metabolic function and increases risk for cardiovascular disease remains largely unknown. To address this question, C57BL/6J male mice underwent sham or surgical bilateral excision of interscapular BAT (iBATx) and were fed a normal chow or Western diet (WD) for 18 weeks, creating four groups (n=10/group)...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351416/acute-and-chronic-resistance-training-downregulates-select-line-1-retrotransposon-activity-markers-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#5
Matthew A Romero, C Brooks Mobley, Petey W Mumford, Paul A Roberson, Cody T Haun, Wesley C Kephart, James C Healy, Darren T Beck, Kaelin C Young, Jeffrey S Martin, Christopher M Lockwood, Michael D Roberts
Herein, we examined if acute or chronic resistance exercise affected markers of skeletal muscle LINE-1 retrotransposon activity. In study 1, 10 resistance-trained college-aged males performed three consecutive daily back squat sessions, and vastus lateralis biopsies were taken prior to (Pre), 2 h following session 1 (Post1), and 3 days following session 3 (Post2). In study 2, 13 untrained college-aged males performed a full-body resistance training program (3 d/wk), and vastus lateralis biopsies were taken prior to (week 0) and ~72 h following training cessation (week 12)...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351409/pharmacological-activation-of-ppar%C3%AE-inhibits-hypoxia-induced-proliferation-through-a-caveolin-1-targeted-and-dependent-mechanism-in-pasmcs
#6
Kai Yang, Mingming Zhao, Junyi Huang, Chenting Zhang, Qiu Yu Zheng, Yuqin Chen, Haiyang Jiang, Wenju Lu, Jian Wang
Previously, we and others have demonstrated that activation of peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor γ (PPARγ) by specific pharmacological agonists inhibits the pathogenesis of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (CHPH) by suppressing the proliferation and migration in distal pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Moreover, these beneficial effects of PPARγ are mediated by targeting the intracellular calcium homeostasis and store-operated calcium channel (SOCC) proteins, including the main caveolae component caveolin-1...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351408/choroid-plexus-epithelial-cells-express-the-adhesion-protein-p-cadherin-at-cell-cell-contacts-and-syntaxin-4-in-the-luminal-membrane-domain
#7
Inga Baasch Christensen, Esben Nees Mogensen, Helle Hasager Damkier, Jeppe Praetorius
The choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs) belong to a small group of polarized cells, where the Na+,K+-ATPase is expressed in the luminal membrane. The basic polarity of the cells is, therefore, still debated. We investigated the subcellular distribution of an array of proteins known to play fundamental roles in either in establishing and maintaining basic cell polarity or the polarized delivery and recycling of plasma membrane proteins. Immunofluorescence histochemical analysis was applied to determine the subcellular localization of apical and basolateral membrane determinants...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351406/interleukin-6-promotes-a-sustained-loss-of-endothelial-barrier-function-via-janus-kinase-mediated-stat3-phosphorylation-and-de-novo-protein-synthesis
#8
Hiba Alsaffar, Nina Martino, Joshua P Garrett, Alejandro P Adam
Vascular leakage is a hallmark of the inflammatory response. Acute changes in endothelial permeability are due to post-translational changes in intercellular adhesion and cytoskeleton proteins. However, little is known about the mechanisms leading to long-term changes in vascular permeability. Here, we show that Interleukin-6 (IL-6) promotes an increase in endothelial monolayer permeability that lasts over 24 h and demonstrate that activation of Src and MEK/Erk pathways are required only for short-term increases in permeability, being dispensable after 2 h...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351389/proliferation-of-hepatic-stellate-cells-mediated-by-yap-and-taz-contributes-to-liver-repair-and-regeneration-after-liver-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#9
Takanori Konishi, Rebecca M Schuster, Alex B Lentsch
Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) are key regulators of cell proliferation and organ size, however, their physiological contribution after liver injury has not been fully understood. In this study, we sought to determine the role of YAP and TAZ during liver recovery after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). A murine model of partial (70%) I/R was used to induce liver injury and study the reparative and regenerative response. After liver injury, there was marked activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate cells...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351256/immobilization-of-staphylococcus-aureus-sortase-a-on-chitosan-particles-and-its-applications-in-peptide-to-peptide-ligation-and-peptide-cyclization
#10
Min Yang, Haofei Hong, Shaozhong Liu, Xinrui Zhao, Zhimeng Wu
Chitosan macro-particles prepared by the neutralization method were applied to Sortase A (SrtA) immobilization using glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking agent. The particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the immobilization process. An average specific activity of 3142 U (mg protein)-1 was obtained under optimized immobilization conditions (chitosan concentration 3%, SrtA concentration 0...
January 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351230/comparison-of-antioxidative-effects-of-insect-tea-and-its-raw-tea-kuding-tea-polyphenols-in-kunming-mice
#11
Xin Zhao, Jia-Le Song, Ruokun Yi, Guijie Li, Peng Sun, Kun-Young Park, Huayi Suo
Kudingcha is a traditional Chinese tea, and insect tea is a special drink produced by the metabolism of insect larvae using the raw Kuding tea. Insect tea polyphenols (ITP) and its raw tea (Kuding tea) polyphenols (KTP) are high-purity polyphenols extracted by centrifuge precipitation. The present study was designed to compare the antioxidative effects of insect tea polyphenols (ITP) and its raw tea (Kuding tea) polyphenols (KTP) on d-galactose-induced oxidation in Kunming (KM) mice. KM mice were treated with ITP (200 mg/kg) and KTP (200 mg/kg) by gavage, and vitamin C (VC, 200 mg/kg) was also used as a positive control by gavage...
January 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351188/proangiogenic-effect-of-metformin-in-endothelial-cells-is-via-upregulation-of-vegfr1-2-and-their-signaling-under-hyperglycemia-hypoxia
#12
Sherin Bakhashab, Farid Ahmed, Hans-Juergen Schulten, Fahad W Ahmed, Michael Glanville, Mohammed H Al-Qahtani, Jolanta U Weaver
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity/mortality worldwide. Metformin is the first therapy offering cardioprotection in type 2 diabetes and non-diabetic animals with unknown mechanism. We have shown that metformin improves angiogenesis via affecting expression of growth factors/angiogenic inhibitors in CD34⁺ cells under hyperglycemia-hypoxia. Now we studied the direct effect of physiological dose of metformin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) under conditions mimicking hypoxia-hyperglycemia...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351168/co-regulation-of-er-stress-and-oxidative-stress-in-neuropathic-pain-and-disinhibition-of-the-spinal-nociceptive-circuitry
#13
Yanhu Ge, Yingfu Jiao, Peiying Li, Zhenghua Xiang, Zhi Li, Long Wang, Wenqian Li, Hao Gao, Jiayun Shao, Daxiang Wen, Weifeng Yu
The accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen leads to ER stress, which is related to cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Neuropathic pain may result from spinal dorsal horn (SDH) ER stress. In this study, we examined the cause-effect relationship between ER stress and neuropathic pain using the spinal nerve ligation(SNL) rat model. We showed that ER stress was mutually promotive with oxidative stress during the process. We also tested the hypothesis that spinal sensitization arose from reduced activities of GABA-ergic interneurons and that spinal sensitization was mediated by SDH ER stress...
January 18, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350921/the-semireduced-mechanism-for-nitric-oxide-reduction-by-non-heme-diiron-complexes-modeling-flavodiiron-no-reductases
#14
Corey J White, Amy L Speelman, Claudia Kupper, Serhiy Demeshko, Franc Meyer, James P Shanahan, E Ercan Alp, Michael Hu, Jiyong Zhao, Nicolai Lehnert
Flavodiiron nitric oxide reductases (FNORs) are a subclass of flavodiiron proteins (FDPs) capable of preferential binding and subsequent reduction of NO to N2O. FNORs are found in certain pathogenic bacteria, equipping them with resistance to nitrosative stress, generated as a part of the immune defense in humans, and allowing them to proliferate. Here, we report the spectroscopic characterization and detailed reactivity studies of the diiron dinitrosyl model complex [Fe2(BPMP)(OPr)(NO)2](OTf)2 for the FNOR active site that is capable of reducing NO to N2O [Zheng et al...
January 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350750/the-hepatoprotective-effect-of-selenium-enriched-yeast-and-gum-arabic-combination-on-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-chronic-liver-injury-in-rats
#15
Mohammed Hamid, Yassin Abdulrahim, Dandan Liu, Gang Qian, Alamzeb Khan, Kehe Huang
The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of selenium-enriched yeast (SY) and Gum Arabic (GA) have been reported. This study aimed to determine the hepatoprotective effect of SY and GA combination on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced chronic liver injury in rats and to explore their synergistic mechanisms of action. Forty adult male Wistar rats randomly allotted to 5 groups: (A) worked as control, (B) was administered CCl4 , (C-E) were fed daily by GA, SY, and GA+SY respectively after mixing with basal diet, following CCl4 -intoxication...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350681/aav-9-mediated-phosphatase-1-inhibitor-1-overexpression-improves-cardiac-contractility-in-unchallenged-mice-but-is-deleterious-in-pressure-overload
#16
D M Schwab, L Tilemann, R Bauer, M Heckmann, A Jungmann, M Wagner, J Burgis, C Vettel, H A Katus, A El-Armouche, O J Müller
The downregulation of β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) and decreased cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity in failing hearts results in decreased phosphorylation and inactivation of phosphatase-inhibitor-1 (I-1), a distal amplifier element of β-adrenergic signaling, leading to increased protein phosphatase 1 activity and dephosphorylation of key phosphoproteins, including phospholamban. Downregulated and hypophosphorylated I-1 likely contributes to β-AR desensitization; therefore its modulation is a promising approach in heart failure treatment...
January 19, 2018: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350460/three-generation-family-with-novel-contiguous-gene-deletion-on-chromosome-2p22-associated-with-thoracic-aortic-aneurysm-syndrome
#17
Bianca Quiñones-Pérez, Grace E VanNoy, Meghan C Towne, Yiping Shen, Michael N Singh, Pankaj B Agrawal, Sharon E Smith
Latent transforming growth factor binding proteins (LTBP) are a family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins that play an important role in the regulation of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) activation. Dysregulation of the TGF-ß pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inherited disorders predisposing to thoracic aortic aneurysms syndromes (TAAS) including Marfan syndrome (MFS; FBN1) and Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS; TGFBR1, TGFBR2, TGFB2, TGFB3, SMAD2, SMAD3). While these syndromes have distinct clinical criteria, they share clinical features including aortic root dilation and musculoskeletal findings...
January 19, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350417/hepatitis-c-virus-core-protein-induces-dysfunction-of-liver-sinusoidal-endothelial-cell-by-down-regulation-of-silent-information-regulator-1
#18
Li-Jie Sun, Jian-Wu Yu, Yu-Guang Shi, Xiao-Yu Zhang, Meng-Ni Shu, Mo-Yang Chen
Objective Hepatic fibrosis is a frequent feature of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Some evidence has suggested the potential role of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) in organ fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of HCV core protein on expression of SIRT1 of liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) and function of LSEC. Methods LSECs were co-cultured with HepG2 cells or HepG2 cells expressing HCV core protein and LSECs cultured alone were used as controls. After co-culture, the activity and expression levels of mRNA and protein of SIRT1 in LSEC were detected by a SIRT1 fluorometric assay kit, real time-PCR (RT-PCR), Western blot, respectively...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350405/reactive-oxygen-species-induced-parthanatos-of-immunocytes-by-human-cytomegalovirus-associated-substance
#19
Jung Heon Kim, Jiyeon Kim, Jin Roh, Chan-Sik Park, Ju-Young Seoh, Eung-Soo Hwang
Previous studies examined various immune evasion strategies of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) to understand HCMV pathogenesis. Although the mechanism that underlies immunocyte destruction near HCMV-infected lesions has yet to be established, we show that substances produced by HCMV-infected cells induce death in several types of immunocytes, but not in fibroblasts or astrocytomas. These substances contain HCMV proteins and were termed HCMV-associated insoluble substance (HCMVAIS). We characterized this mechanism of cell death induced by HCMVAIS to understand the death of immunocytes near HCMV-infected lesions...
January 19, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350274/t-lymphocytes-facilitate-brain-metastasis-of-breast-cancer-by-inducing-guanylate-binding-protein-1-expression
#20
Dana A M Mustafa, Rute M S M Pedrosa, Marcel Smid, Marcel van der Weiden, Vanja de Weerd, Alex L Nigg, Cor Berrevoets, Lona Zeneyedpour, Neibla Priego, Manuel Valiente, Theo M Luider, Reno Debets, John W M Martens, John A Foekens, Anieta M Sieuwerts, Johan M Kros
The discovery of genes and molecular pathways involved in the formation of brain metastasis would direct the development of therapeutic strategies to prevent this deadly complication of cancer. By comparing gene expression profiles of Estrogen Receptor negative (ER-) primary breast tumors between patients who developed metastasis to brain and to organs other than brain, we found that T lymphocytes promote the formation of brain metastases. To functionally test the ability of T cells to promote brain metastasis, we used an in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model...
January 19, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
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