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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933401/improvement-of-abnormal-vaginal-flora-in-ugandan-women-by-self-testing-and-short-use-of-intravaginal-antimicrobials
#1
G Donders, G Bellen, F Donders, J Pinget, I Vandevelde, T Michiels, J Byamughisa
The vaginal composition of African women is more often lactobacillus-deficient compared to that of women from other areas around the world. Lactobacillus-deficient microflora is a known risk factor for serious health problems, such as preterm birth, cervix cancer, and entrapment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of local vaginal antibiotic or antiseptic treatment on abnormal vaginal flora (AVF), aerobic vaginitis (AV), and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among women in rural, semi-urban, and urban areas in Uganda, as compared to placebo...
December 8, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929465/using-multi-fluorinated-bile-acids-and-in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-measure-bile-acid-transport
#2
Jessica Felton, Kunrong Cheng, Anan Said, Aaron C Shang, Su Xu, Diana Vivian, Melissa Metry, James E Polli, Jean-Pierre Raufman
Along with their traditional role as detergents that facilitate fat absorption, emerging literature indicates that bile acids are potent signaling molecules that affect multiple organs; they modulate gut motility and hormone production, and alter vascular tone, glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and energy utilization. Changes in fecal bile acids may alter the gut microbiome and promote colon pathology including cholerrheic diarrhea and colon cancer. Key regulators of fecal bile acid composition are the small intestinal Apical Sodium-dependent Bile Acid Transporter (ASBT) and fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19)...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926431/the-oral-microbiome-in-health-and-its-implication-in-oral-and-systemic-diseases
#3
B Sampaio-Maia, I M Caldas, M L Pereira, D Pérez-Mongiovi, R Araujo
The oral microbiome can alter the balance between health and disease, locally and systemically. Within the oral cavity, bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, and viruses may all be found, each having a particular role, but strongly interacting with each other and with the host, in sickness or in health. A description on how colonization occurs and how the oral microbiome dynamically evolves throughout the host's life is given. In this chapter the authors also address oral and nonoral conditions in which oral microorganisms may play a role in the etiology and progression, presenting the up-to-date knowledge on oral dysbiosis as well as the known underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms involving oral microorganisms in each condition...
2016: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915988/vitamin-d-vdr-probiotics-and-gastrointestinal-diseases
#4
Mei Shang, Jun Sun
Vitamin D is an important factor in regulating inflammation, immune responses, and carcinoma inhibition via action of its receptor, vitamin D receptor (VDR). Recent studies have demonstrated the role of vitamin D/VDR in regulating host-bacterial interactions. Probiotics are beneficial bacteria with the power of supporting or favoring life on the host. In the current review, we will discuss the recent progress on the roles of vitamin D/VDR in gut microbiome and inflammation. We will summarize evidence of probiotics in modulating vitamin D/VDR and balancing gut microbiota in health and gastrointestinal diseases...
December 2, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910783/recent-advances-and-challenges-in-studies-of-control-of-cancer-stem-cells-and-the-gut-microbiome-by-the-trametes-derived-polysaccharopeptide-psp-review
#5
Joseph M Wu, Barbara B Doonan, Tze-Chen Hsieh, Qingyao Yang, Xiao-Tong Yang, Ming-Tat Ling
The medicinal mushroom Trametes versicolor has been well recognized for its activity in maintaining the general health of the population and in managing and treating human diseases in various cultures. Its use has been recently gaining acceptance and popularity in Western countries. The reported health benefits of T. versicolor led to a search for the identity of its bioactive ingredients. These efforts have resulted in the isolation of the polysaccharopeptide PSP from cultured mycelia of strain Cov-1, which expresses large amounts of PSP...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903834/saliva-diagnostics-current-views-and-directions
#6
Karolina Elżbieta Kaczor-Urbanowicz, Carmen Martin Carreras-Presas, Katri Aro, Michael Tu, Franklin Garcia-Godoy, David Tw Wong
In this review, we provide an update on the current and future applications of saliva for diagnostic purposes. There are many advantages of using saliva as a biofluid. Its collection is fast, easy, inexpensive, and non-invasive. In addition, saliva, as a "mirror of the body," can reflect the physiological and pathological state of the body. Therefore, it serves as a diagnostic and monitoring tool in many fields of science such as medicine, dentistry, and pharmacotherapy. Introduced in 2008, the term "Salivaomics" aimed to highlight the rapid development of knowledge about various "omics" constituents of saliva, including: proteome, transcriptome, micro-RNA, metabolome, and microbiome...
November 29, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898282/comparative-fingerprinting-of-the-human-microbiota-in-diabetes-and-cardiovascular-disease
#7
Emanuel Vamanu, Diana Pelinescu, Ionela Sarbu
Diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and are associated with changes in the human gut microbiota. To better understand the relationships between diet, disease, and the colonic microbiome, we used the in vitro GIS1 system and repetitive element palindromic polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) to determine the microbial fingerprints in individuals with these diseases and compared them with the fingerprints in healthy controls. Clear differences were apparent in the three groups...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896917/on-the-pathogenesis-of-mtor-associated-stomatitis-mias-studies-using-an-organotypic-model-of-the-oral-mucosa
#8
Stephen Sonis, Paulette Wright Andreotta, Gregory Lyng
OBJECTIVE: mTOR inhibitor treatment of solid cancers is associated with mTOR inhibitor-associated stomatitis (mIAS) a common, significant, dose-limiting toxicity, with aphthous-like lesions. Our objective was to assess the utility of a new organotypic model in defining mIAS' pathogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of everolimus on organotypic human oral mucosa was studied. Sterile specimens were assessed 24 hr and 48 hr after exposure to varying concentrations of everolimus...
November 29, 2016: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896820/ppar%C3%AE-targeted-oral-cancer-treatment-and-additional-utility-of-genomics-analytic-techniques
#9
Nathan Handley, Jacob Eide, Randall Taylor, Beverly Wuertz, Patrick Gaffney, Frank Ondrey
OBJECTIVE: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists have been shown to have anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic, and proapoptotic effects, leading to interest in their use as cancer therapeutics. Pioglitazone, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved type II diabetes medication and PPARγ agonist, may have a role in adjuvant head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma treatment or prevention. Therefore, the purpose of this study was: 1) to treat oral cavity cancer cells with the PPARγ activator, pioglitazone, to analyze gene expression changes; and 2) to compare those changes with our preexisting genomic data for development of hypothesis-driven additional basic and clinical studies...
November 29, 2016: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892936/influence-of-early-life-exposure-host-genetics-and-diet-on-the-mouse-gut-microbiome-and-metabolome
#10
Antoine M Snijders, Sasha A Langley, Young-Mo Kim, Colin J Brislawn, Cecilia Noecker, Erika M Zink, Sarah J Fansler, Cameron P Casey, Darla R Miller, Yurong Huang, Gary H Karpen, Susan E Celniker, James B Brown, Elhanan Borenstein, Janet K Jansson, Thomas O Metz, Jian-Hua Mao
Although the gut microbiome plays important roles in host physiology, health and disease(1), we lack understanding of the complex interplay between host genetics and early life environment on the microbial and metabolic composition of the gut. We used the genetically diverse Collaborative Cross mouse system(2) to discover that early life history impacts the microbiome composition, whereas dietary changes have only a moderate effect. By contrast, the gut metabolome was shaped mostly by diet, with specific non-dietary metabolites explained by microbial metabolism...
November 28, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887656/looking-beyond-the-cancer-cell-for-effective-drug-combinations
#11
Jonathan R Dry, Mi Yang, Julio Saez-Rodriguez
Combinations of therapies are being actively pursued to expand therapeutic options and deal with cancer's pervasive resistance to treatment. Research efforts to discover effective combination treatments have focused on drugs targeting intracellular processes of the cancer cells and in particular on small molecules that target aberrant kinases. Accordingly, most of the computational methods used to study, predict, and develop drug combinations concentrate on these modes of action and signaling processes within the cancer cell...
November 25, 2016: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884207/potential-contribution-of-the-uterine-microbiome-in-the-development-of-endometrial-cancer
#12
Marina R S Walther-António, Jun Chen, Francesco Multinu, Alexis Hokenstad, Tammy J Distad, E Heidi Cheek, Gary L Keeney, Douglas J Creedon, Heidi Nelson, Andrea Mariani, Nicholas Chia
BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer studies have led to a number of well-defined but mechanistically unconnected genetic and environmental risk factors. One of the emerging modulators between environmental triggers and genetic expression is the microbiome. We set out to inquire about the composition of the uterine microbiome and its putative role in endometrial cancer. METHODS: We undertook a study of the microbiome in samples taken from different locations along the female reproductive tract in patients with endometrial cancer (n = 17), patients with endometrial hyperplasia (endometrial cancer precursor, n = 4), and patients afflicted with benign uterine conditions (n = 10)...
November 25, 2016: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884202/extending-colonic-mucosal-microbiome-analysis-assessment-of-colonic-lavage-as-a-proxy-for-endoscopic-colonic-biopsies
#13
Euan Watt, Matthew R Gemmell, Susan Berry, Mark Glaire, Freda Farquharson, Petra Louis, Graeme I Murray, Emad El-Omar, Georgina L Hold
BACKGROUND: Sequencing-based analysis has become a well-established approach to deciphering the composition of the gut microbiota. However, due to the complexity of accessing sufficient material from colonoscopic biopsy samples, most studies have focused on faecal microbiota analysis, even though it is recognised that differences exist between the microbial composition of colonic biopsies and faecal samples. We determined the suitability of colonic lavage samples to see if it had comparable microbial diversity composition to colonic biopsies as they are without the limitations associated with sample size...
November 25, 2016: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874907/natural-products-as-mediators-of-disease
#14
REVIEW
Neha Garg, Tal Luzzatto-Knaan, Alexey V Melnik, Andrés Mauricio Caraballo-Rodríguez, Dimitrios J Floros, Daniel Petras, Rachel Gregor, Pieter C Dorrestein, Vanessa V Phelan
Covering: up to 2016Humans are walking microbial ecosystems, each harboring a complex microbiome with the genetic potential to produce a vast array of natural products. Recent sequencing data suggest that our microbial inhabitants are critical for maintaining overall health. Shifts in microbial communities have been correlated to a number of diseases including infections, inflammation, cancer, and neurological disorders. Some of these clinically and diagnostically relevant phenotypes are a result of the presence of small molecules, yet we know remarkably little about their contributions to the health of individuals...
November 22, 2016: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866909/unsaturated-fatty-acid-synthesis-in-the-gastric-pathogen-helicobacter-pylori-proceeds-via-a-backtracking-mechanism
#15
Hongkai Bi, Lei Zhu, Jia Jia, Liping Zeng, John E Cronan
Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that inhabits the upper gastrointestinal tract in humans, and the presence of this pathogen in the gut microbiome increases the risk of peptic ulcers and stomach cancer. H. pylori depends on unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) biosynthesis for maintaining membrane structure and function. Although some of the H. pylori enzymes involved in UFA biosynthesis are functionally homologous with the enzymes found in Escherichia coli, we show here that an enzyme HP0773, now annotated as FabX, uses an unprecedented backtracking mechanism to not only dehydrogenate decanoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) in a reaction that parallels that of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, the first enzyme of the fatty acid β-oxidation cycle, but also isomerizes trans-2-decenoyl-ACP to cis-3-decenoyl-ACP, the key UFA synthetic intermediate...
November 16, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853235/intestinal-ppar%C3%AE-signalling-is-required-for-sympathetic-nervous-system-activation-in-response-to-caloric-restriction
#16
Kalina Duszka, Alexandre Picard, Sandrine Ellero-Simatos, Jiapeng Chen, Marianne Defernez, Eeswari Paramalingam, Anna Pigram, Liviu Vanoaica, Cécile Canlet, Paolo Parini, Arjan Narbad, Hervé Guillou, Bernard Thorens, Walter Wahli
Nuclear receptor PPARγ has been proven to affect metabolism in multiple tissues, and has received considerable attention for its involvement in colon cancer and inflammatory disease. However, its role in intestinal metabolism has been largely ignored. To investigate this potential aspect of PPARγ function, we submitted intestinal epithelium-specific PPARγ knockout mice (iePPARγKO) to a two-week period of 25% caloric restriction (CR), following which iePPARγKO mice retained more fat than their wild type littermates...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842559/dna-from-fecal-immunochemical-test-can-replace-stool-for-detection-of-colonic-lesions-using-a-microbiota-based-model
#17
Nielson T Baxter, Charles C Koumpouras, Mary A M Rogers, Mack T Ruffin, Patrick D Schloss
BACKGROUND: There is a significant demand for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening methods that are noninvasive, inexpensive, and capable of accurately detecting early stage tumors. It has been shown that models based on the gut microbiota can complement the fecal occult blood test and fecal immunochemical test (FIT). However, a barrier to microbiota-based screening is the need to collect and store a patient's stool sample. RESULTS: Using stool samples collected from 404 patients, we tested whether the residual buffer containing resuspended feces in FIT cartridges could be used in place of intact stool samples...
November 14, 2016: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827319/the-salivary-microbiome-and-oral-cancer-risk-a-pilot-study-in-fanconi-anemia
#18
C P Furquim, G M S Soares, L L Ribeiro, M A Azcarate-Peril, N Butz, J Roach, K Moss, C Bonfim, C C Torres-Pereira, F R F Teles
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disease characterized by chromosomal instability and impaired DNA damage repair. FA patients develop oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) earlier and more frequently than the general population, especially after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Although evidence of an etiological role of the local microbiome and carcinogenesis has been mounting, no information exists regarding the oral microbiome of FA patients. The aim of this study was to explore the salivary microbiome of 61 FA patients regarding their oral health status and OSCC risk factors...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821485/dietary-emulsifier-induced-low-grade-inflammation-promotes-colon-carcinogenesis
#19
Emilie Viennois, Didier Merlin, Andrew T Gewirtz, Benoit Chassaing
The increased risks conferred by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) gave rise to the term "colitis-associated cancer" and the concept that inflammation promotes colon tumorigenesis. A condition more common than IBD is low-grade inflammation, which correlates with altered gut microbiota composition and metabolic syndrome, both present in many cases of CRC. Recent findings suggest that low-grade inflammation in the intestine is promoted by consumption of dietary emulsifiers, a ubiquitous component of processed foods which alter the composition of gut microbiota...
November 7, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811909/fusobacterium-nucleatum-in-colorectal-carcinoma-tissue-according-to-tumor-location
#20
Kosuke Mima, Yin Cao, Andrew T Chan, Zhi Rong Qian, Jonathan A Nowak, Yohei Masugi, Yan Shi, Mingyang Song, Annacarolina da Silva, Mancang Gu, Wanwan Li, Tsuyoshi Hamada, Keisuke Kosumi, Akiko Hanyuda, Li Liu, Aleksandar D Kostic, Marios Giannakis, Susan Bullman, Caitlin A Brennan, Danny A Milner, Hideo Baba, Levi A Garraway, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Wendy S Garrett, Curtis Huttenhower, Matthew Meyerson, Edward L Giovannucci, Charles S Fuchs, Reiko Nishihara, Shuji Ogino
OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests a possible role of Fusobacterium nucleatum in colorectal carcinogenesis, especially in right-sided proximal colorectum. Considering a change in bowel contents and microbiome from proximal to distal colorectal segments, we hypothesized that the proportion of colorectal carcinoma enriched with F. nucleatum might gradually increase along the bowel subsites from rectum to cecum. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 1,102 colon and rectal carcinomas in molecular pathological epidemiology databases of the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study...
November 3, 2016: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
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