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Microbiome AND cancer

Xiqi Li, Cesar A Arias, Samuel L Aitken, Jessica Galloway Peña, Diana Panesso, Michael Chang, Lorena Diaz, Rafael Rios, Yazan Numan, Sammi Ghaoui, Sruti DebRoy, Micah M Bhatti, Dawn E Simmons, Isaam Raad, Ray Hachem, Stephanie A Folan, Pranoti Sahasarabhojane, Awdhesh Kalia, Samuel A Shelburne
Background: Pathobionts, bacteria that are typically human commensals but can cause disease, contribute significantly to antimicrobial resistance. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a prototypical pathobiont as it is a ubiquitous human commensal but also a leading cause of healthcare-associated bacteremia. We sought to determine the etiology of a recent increase in invasive S. epidermidis isolates resistant to linezolid. Methods: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on 176 S...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Pablo Romero-Morelos, Cindy Bandala, Julián Jiménez-Tenorio, Mariana Valdespino-Zavala, Miriam Rodríguez-Esquivel, Reyna Anaid Gama-Ríos, Artfy Bandera, Mónica Mendoza-Rodríguez, Keiko Taniguchi, Daniel Marrero-Rodríguez, Ricardo López-Romero, Eva Ramón-Gallegos, Mauricio Salcedo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cervical cancer is an important health problem in our country. It is known that there are several risk factors for this neoplasm, and it has been suggested that cervical microbiome alterations could play a role in the development and progress of cancer. Bacterial vaginosis associated bacteria such as Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis has been suggested as potential risk factor for cervical lesions and cervical cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: DNA from 177 cervical scraping samples was studied: 104 belonged to women without cytological or colposcopic alterations and 73 samples from precursor lesions with previous human papillomavirus (HPV) infection history...
March 12, 2018: Medicina Clínica
Efrat L Amitay, Agne Krilaviciute, Hermann Brenner
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. Dysbiosis in the gut microbiota may be associated with CRC. This systematic review focuses on differences in gut microbial community between people diagnosed with CRC or adenoma and healthy individuals using fecal samples, emphasizing non-invasive fecal microbiome models for CRC early diagnosis. Nineteen studies were identified in a systematic literature search of Pubmed, Web of Science and ScienceDirect. Several bacteria were reported to differ in abundance between CRC and adenoma cases and healthy controls, with Fusobacterium the most common...
March 15, 2018: Gut Microbes
Teruaki Nakatsuji, Tiffany H Chen, Anna M Butcher, Lynnie L Trzoss, Sang-Jip Nam, Karina T Shirakawa, Wei Zhou, Julia Oh, Michael Otto, William Fenical, Richard L Gallo
We report the discovery that strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis produce 6- N -hydroxyaminopurine (6-HAP), a molecule that inhibits DNA polymerase activity. In culture, 6-HAP selectively inhibited proliferation of tumor lines but did not inhibit primary keratinocytes. Resistance to 6-HAP was associated with the expression of mitochondrial amidoxime reducing components, enzymes that were not observed in cells sensitive to this compound. Intravenous injection of 6-HAP in mice suppressed the growth of B16F10 melanoma without evidence of systemic toxicity...
February 2018: Science Advances
Jing-Hua Sun, Xiao-Lin Li, Jie Yin, Yi-Hong Li, Ben-Xiang Hou, Zhongtao Zhang
Gastric cancer is the second most common malig-nancy and one of the principal causes of cancer‑related mortality worldwide. Early diagnostic and screening methods for gastric cancer are limited at present, most of them involving invasive procedures. We aimed to investigate the characteristics of the oral microbiome in gastric cancer individuals and to conduct a screening method for gastric cancer by oral microbiome detection. We used high‑throughput sequencing to examine the total bacterial profile of saliva and plaque samples of 50 subjects, including 37 individuals with gastric cancer and 13 controls...
March 1, 2018: Oncology Reports
Audrey Humphries, Adil Daud
Although immunotherapy has been remarkably effective across multiple cancer types, there continues to be a significant number of non-responding patients. A possible factor proposed to influence the efficacy of immunotherapies is the gut microbiome. We discuss the results and implications of recent research on the relationship between the gut microbiome, our immune systems, and immune checkpoint inhibitor therapies including anti-CTLA-4 Ab and anti-PD-1 Ab. While the investigations all exhibit interesting results and conclusions, we find little congruence in the specific bacteria that were found favorable for antitumor responses...
March 1, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Jin Ah Cho, Daniel J F Chinnapen
Mucosal surfaces that line our gastrointestinal tract are continuously exposed to trillions of bacteria that form a symbiotic relationship and impact host health and disease. It is only beginning to be understood that the cross-talk between the host and microbiome involve dynamic changes in commensal bacterial population, secretion, and absorption of metabolites between the host and microbiome. As emerging evidence implicates dysbiosis of gut microbiota in the pathology and progression of various diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, and allergy, conventional treatments that either overlook the microbiome in the mechanism of action, or eliminate vast populations of microbes via wide-spectrum antibiotics need to be reconsidered...
March 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Angelamaria Becorpi, Giuseppina Campisciano, Nunzia Zanotta, Zelinda Tredici, Secondo Guaschino, Felice Petraglia, Annalisa Pieralli, Giovanni Sisti, Francesco De Seta, Manola Comar
The composition of vaginal microbiome in menopause and cancer survivor women changes dramatically leading to genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) in up to 7% of patients. Recent reports suggest that laser therapy may be valuable as a not hormonal therapeutic modality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of fractional CO2 laser treatment on the vaginal secretory pathway of a large panel of immune mediators, usually implicated in tissue remodeling and inflammation, and on microbiome composition in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors...
March 1, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Shaomin Zou, Lekun Fang, Mong-Hong Lee
Gastrointestinal microbiome, containing at least 100 trillion bacteria, resides in the mucosal surface of human intestine. Recent studies show that perturbations in the microbiota may influence physiology and link to a number of diseases, including colon tumorigenesis. Colorectal cancer (CRC), the third most common cancer, is the disease resulting from multi-genes and multi-factors, but the mechanistic details between gut microenvironment and CRC remain poorly characterized. Thanks to new technologies such as metagenome sequencing, progress in large-scale analysis of the genetic and metabolic profile of gut microbial has been possible, which has facilitated studies about microbiota composition, taxonomic alterations and host interactions...
February 2018: Gastroenterology Report
Jing Gao, Kang Xu, Hongnan Liu, Gang Liu, Miaomiao Bai, Can Peng, Tiejun Li, Yulong Yin
The gut microbiota influences the health of the host, especially with regard to gut immune homeostasis and the intestinal immune response. In addition to serving as a nutrient enhancer, L-tryptophan (Trp) plays crucial roles in the balance between intestinal immune tolerance and gut microbiota maintenance. Recent discoveries have underscored that changes in the microbiota modulate the host immune system by modulating Trp metabolism. Moreover, Trp, endogenous Trp metabolites (kynurenines, serotonin, and melatonin), and bacterial Trp metabolites (indole, indolic acid, skatole, and tryptamine) have profound effects on gut microbial composition, microbial metabolism, the host's immune system, the host-microbiome interface, and host immune system-intestinal microbiota interactions...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Seung Yoon Yang, Min Soo Cho, Nam Kyu Kim
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world, and it exhibits differences in incidence, pathogenesis, molecular pathways, and outcome depending on the location of the tumor. Differences in the microbiome, clinical characteristics, and chromosomal and molecular characteristics have been reported between the right and left side of the colon. Areas covered: This review focuses on the latest developments in epidemiological and chromosomal and molecular studies, which have enhanced our understanding on the underlying genetic and immunological differences between the right-sided colon and the left-sided colorectum in metastatic colorectal cancer...
February 19, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Jincheng Wang, Lili Tang, Hongyuan Zhou, Jun Zhou, Travis C Glenn, Chwan-Li Shen, Jia-Sheng Wang
Green tea polyphenols (GTP) have been shown to exert a spectrum of health benefits to animals and humans. It is plausible that the beneficial effects of GTP are a result of its interaction with the gut microbiota. This study evaluated the effect of long-term treatment with GTP on the gut microbiota of experimental rats and the potential linkage between changes of the gut microbiota with the beneficial effects of GTP. Six-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into three dosing regimens (0, 0...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Divya Nagarajan, Stephanie E B McArdle
Breast cancer is a very heterogeneous disease, both at a molecular and a histological level. Five intrinsic subtypes were initially identified-Luminal-A, Luminal-B, HER2⁺, Triple negative/basal like (TNBC) and normal like-subsequently expanded to seven (Basal-like-1 and 2, mesenchymal, mesenchymal stem-like, luminal androgen receptor, immuno-modulatory and unstable). Although genetic and epigenetic changes are key pathogenic events, the immune system plays a substantial role in promoting progression and metastasis...
February 11, 2018: Biomedicines
David G Huntsman, Marc Ladanyi
As the cancer genomics of most major cancer types have been comprehensively catalogued over the past decade through a variety of national and international efforts, the delineation of cancer subtypes has been refined, and our understanding of critical cancer drivers and of the potentially targetable vulnerabilities they create has grown tremendously. The 2018 Annual Review Issue of The Journal of Pathology provides in-depth assessments of how these pan-genomic approaches have enabled advances in cancer classification, targeted therapy selection, and assessment of cancer progression, all of which are now genomically informed, using several cancer types as examples...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Pathology
Jessica S Citronberg, Keith R Curtis, Emily White, Polly A Newcomb, Katherine Newton, Charlotte Atkinson, Xiaoling Song, Johanna W Lampe, Meredith Aj Hullar
The mechanisms by which obesity increases cancer risk are unclear, but some lines of evidence suggest that gut microbial communities (GMC) may contribute to chronic inflammation in obese individuals through raised systemic levels of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We evaluated associations of the GMC in stool with plasma LPS-binding protein (LBP, a measure of LPS) and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in 110 premenopausal women in the United States. Diet was assessed using 3-day food records and GMCs were evaluated using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
February 12, 2018: ISME Journal
Meenakshi Rajpoot, Anil K Sharma, Anil Sharma, Girish Kumar Gupta
The human body is a home to more than 1 trillion microbes with a diverse variety of commensal microbes that play a crucial role towards the health of the individual. These microbes occupy different habitats such as gut, skin, vagina, oral etc. Not only the types and abundance of microbes are different in different organs, but also these may differ in different individuals. The genome of these microbiota and their ecosystem constitute to form a microbiome. Factors such as diet, environment, host genetics etc...
February 6, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Christine M Dejea, Payam Fathi, John M Craig, Annemarie Boleij, Rahwa Taddese, Abby L Geis, Xinqun Wu, Christina E DeStefano Shields, Elizabeth M Hechenbleikner, David L Huso, Robert A Anders, Francis M Giardiello, Elizabeth C Wick, Hao Wang, Shaoguang Wu, Drew M Pardoll, Franck Housseau, Cynthia L Sears
Individuals with sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) frequently harbor abnormalities in the composition of the gut microbiome; however, the microbiota associated with precancerous lesions in hereditary CRC remains largely unknown. We studied colonic mucosa of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), who develop benign precursor lesions (polyps) early in life. We identified patchy bacterial biofilms composed predominately of Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis Genes for colibactin ( clbB ) and Bacteroides fragilis toxin ( bft ), encoding secreted oncotoxins, were highly enriched in FAP patients' colonic mucosa compared to healthy individuals...
February 2, 2018: Science
T Requena, M C Martínez-Cuesta, C Peláez
Diet has shaped microbiota profiles through human evolution. Traditional gut microbiomes are described to be driven by high levels of Prevotella. In the present, however, it is consistently described a lower microbial richness in urban industrialized populations compared with individuals living in rural settings, Bacteroides being predominant among urban-industrial gut microbiomes. Components of diet are highly influential in shaping the gut microbiota, being fiber, fat, proteins, polyphenols and micronutrients differentially metabolized by generalist and specialized microorganisms alone or through the phenomenon of cross-feeding...
February 21, 2018: Food & Function
Fred K Tabung, Lisa S Brown, Teresa T Fung
Purpose of review: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a global public health problem, with an estimated 1.4 million cases diagnosed worldwide in 2012. Evidence suggests that diet may be important for primary prevention. Recent findings: The 2017 WCRF/AICR Continuous Update Project on colorectal cancer concluded that there is convincing evidence linking several individual dietary factors with CRC risk but the evidence for dietary patterns was limited and inconclusive. Also, previous reviews and meta-analyses have not critically synthesized various dietary patterns...
December 2017: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
Jessica da Gama Duarte, Katherine Woods, Miles C Andrews, Andreas Behren
Within the immune system multiple mechanisms balance the need for efficient pathogen recognition and destruction with the prevention of tissue damage by excessive, inappropriate or even self-targeting (auto)immune reactions. This immune homeostasis is a tightly regulated system which fails during tumor development, often due to the hijacking of its essential self-regulatory mechanisms by cancer cells. It is facilitated not only by tumor intrinsic properties, but also by the microbiome, host genetics and other factors...
February 2, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
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