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Microbiome AND cancer

Xiaozhou Fan, Alexander V Alekseyenko, Jing Wu, Brandilyn A Peters, Eric J Jacobs, Susan M Gapstur, Mark P Purdue, Christian C Abnet, Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon, George Miller, Jacques Ravel, Richard B Hayes, Jiyoung Ahn
OBJECTIVE: A history of periodontal disease and the presence of circulating antibodies to selected oral pathogens have been associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer; however, direct relationships of oral microbes with pancreatic cancer have not been evaluated in prospective studies. We examine the relationship of oral microbiota with subsequent risk of pancreatic cancer in a large nested case-control study. DESIGN: We selected 361 incident adenocarcinoma of pancreas and 371 matched controls from two prospective cohort studies, the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II and the National Cancer Institute Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial...
October 14, 2016: Gut
Nurdan Tözün, Eser Vardareli
Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. These cancers are the end result of a complex interplay between gene and environment. Bacteria, parasites, and viruses have been implicated in some cancers. Recent data have put at focus the gut microbiome as the key player firing tumorigenesis. Experimental and human studies have provided evidence on the role of microbiota in cancer development. Although subject to changes in different settings such as antibiotic treatment, diet or lifestyle, our microbiome is quite stable and is capable of increasing susceptibility to cancer or decrease and halt its progression...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Tsuyoshi Hamada, NaNa Keum, Reiko Nishihara, Shuji Ogino
Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) is an integrative field that utilizes molecular pathology to incorporate interpersonal heterogeneity of a disease process into epidemiology. In each individual, the development and progression of a disease are determined by a unique combination of exogenous and endogenous factors, resulting in different molecular and pathological subtypes of the disease. Based on "the unique disease principle," the primary aim of MPE is to uncover an interactive relationship between a specific environmental exposure and disease subtypes in determining disease incidence and mortality...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
Caroline H Johnson, Mary E Spilker, Laura Goetz, Scott N Peterson, Gary Siuzdak
The role of the host microbiome has come to the forefront as a potential modulator of cancer metabolism and could be a future target for precision medicine. A recent study revealed that in colon cancer, bacteria form polysaccharide matrices called biofilms at a high frequency in the proximal colon. Comprehensive untargeted and stable isotope-assisted metabolomic analysis revealed that the bacteria utilize polyamine metabolites produced from colon adenomas/carcinomas to build these protective biofilms and may contribute to inflammation and proliferation observed in colon cancer...
October 11, 2016: Cancer Research
Briony E Forbes
The last two years of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) research has yielded a vast literature highlighting the central role IGFs factors play in processes such as development, growth, aging and neurological function. It also provides our latest understanding of how IGF system perturbation is linked to diseases including growth deficiency, cancer, and neurological and cardiovascular diseases. A snapshot of the highlights is presented in this review, focussing on the topics of IGFs and growth, comparative and structural biology to understand insulin-like peptide function, IGFs and cancer, and IGFs and neurological function...
September 30, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Jiqiao Yang, Qiuwen Tan, Qingyu Fu, Yaojie Zhou, Yuanyuan Hu, Shenli Tang, Yuting Zhou, Junhui Zhang, Juanjuan Qiu, Qing Lv
Gastrointestinal microbiome plays as a symbiont which provides protection effect against invading pathogens, aids in the immune system development, nutrient reclamation and absorption as well as molecule breakdown. And it may avert carcinogenesis through these biological activities. By now, studies have been carried out to elaborate the association between gastrointestinal microbiome and breast cancer. It has been implicated that breast cancer was substantially associated with estrogen-dependent and estrogen-independent functions of gastrointestinal microbiome...
October 5, 2016: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
Allison L Richards, Michael B Burns, Adnan Alazizi, Luis B Barreiro, Roger Pique-Regi, Ran Blekhman, Francesca Luca
Many studies have demonstrated the importance of the gut microbiota in healthy and disease states. However, establishing the causality of host-microbiota interactions in humans is still challenging. Here, we describe a novel experimental system to define the transcriptional response induced by the microbiota in human cells and to shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying host-gut microbiota interactions. In primary human colonic epithelial cells, we identified over 6,000 genes that change expression at various time points following co-culturing with the gut microbiota of a healthy individual...
July 2016: MSystems
Wei Liu, Jimmy W Crott, Lin Lyu, Anna C Pfalzer, Jinchao Li, Sang-Woon Choi, Yingke Yang, Joel B Mason, Zhenhua Liu
Obesity is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Our previous study indicated that obesity increases activity of the pro-tumorigenic Wnt-signaling. Presently, we sought to further advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which obesity promotes CRC by examining associations between microbiome, inflammation and Wnt-signaling in Apc(+/1638N) mice whose obesity was induced by one of two modalities, diet- or genetically-induced obesity. Three groups were employed: Apc(+/1638N)Lepr(+/+) fed a low fat diet (10% fat), Apc(+/1638N)Lepr(+/+) fed a high fat diet (60% fat, diet-induced obesity), and Apc(+/1638N)Lepr(db/db) fed a low fat diet (genetically-induced obesity)...
2016: Journal of Cancer
Pourya Gholizadeh, Hosein Eslami, Mehdi Yousefi, Mohammad Asgharzadeh, Mohammad Aghazadeh, Hossein Samadi Kafil
The oral cavity is inhibited by many of the bacterial species. Some of them have a key role in the development of oral disease. Interrelationships between oral microbiome and systemic conditions such as head-and-neck cancer have become increasingly appreciated in recent years. Emerging evidence also suggests a link between periodontal disease and oral cancer, and the explanation being that chronic inflammation could be a major factor in both diseases. Squamous cell carcinoma is that the most frequently occurring malignancy of the oral cavity and adjacent sites, representing over 90% of all cancers...
September 28, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Kathryn P Haley, Jennifer A Gaddy
Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomachs of greater than 50% of the world's human population making it arguably one of the most successful bacterial pathogens. Chronic H. pylori colonization results in gastritis in nearly all patients; however in a subset of people, persistent infection with H. pylori is associated with an increased risk for more severe disease outcomes including B-cell lymphoma of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) and invasive adenocarcinoma. Research aimed at elucidating determinants that mediate disease progression has revealed genetic differences in both humans and H...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Andrea K Miyahira, Sameek Roychowdhury, Sangeeta Goswami, Joseph E Ippolito, Saul J Priceman, Colin C Pritchard, Karen S Sfanos, Sumit K Subudhi, Jonathan W Simons, Kenneth J Pienta, Howard R Soule
INTRODUCTION: The 2016 Coffey-Holden Prostate Cancer Academy (CHPCA) Meeting, "Beyond Seed and Soil: Understanding and Targeting Metastatic Prostate Cancer," was held from June 23 to June 26, 2016, in Coronado, California. METHODS: For the 4th year in a row, the Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) hosted the CHPCA Meeting, a think tank-structured scientific conference, which focuses on a specific topic of critical unmet need on the biology and treatment of advanced prostate cancer...
September 28, 2016: Prostate
Sachin Goyal, Pratima Nangia-Makker, Lulu Farhana, Yingjie Yu, Adhip Pn Majumdar
Over the past two decades there has been remarkable progress in cancer diagnosis, treatment and screening. The basic mechanisms leading to pathogenesis of various types of cancers are also understood better and some patients, if diagnosed at a particular stage go on to lead a normal pre-diagnosis life. Despite these achievements, racial disparity in some cancers remains a mystery. The higher incidence, aggressiveness and mortality of breast, prostate and colorectal cancers (CRCs) in African-Americans as compared to Caucasian-Americans are now well documented...
September 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
Thierry Pédron, Giulia Nigro, Philippe J Sansonetti
Metagenomic analysis of the human intestinal microbiome has provided a wealth of information that allowed an exceptionally detailed description of its microbial content and physiological potential. It also set the basis for studies allowing correlation of alterations in the balance of this microbiota and the occurrence of a certain number of emerging diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, obesity and diabetes, and possibly colorectal cancer. The time has come to give the intestinal microbiota in symbiosis with its host an experimental dimension...
November 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Richard D Beger, Warwick Dunn, Michael A Schmidt, Steven S Gross, Jennifer A Kirwan, Marta Cascante, Lorraine Brennan, David S Wishart, Matej Oresic, Thomas Hankemeier, David I Broadhurst, Andrew N Lane, Karsten Suhre, Gabi Kastenmüller, Susan J Sumner, Ines Thiele, Oliver Fiehn, Rima Kaddurah-Daouk
INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND TO METABOLOMICS: Metabolomics is the comprehensive study of the metabolome, the repertoire of biochemicals (or small molecules) present in cells, tissues, and body fluids. The study of metabolism at the global or "-omics" level is a rapidly growing field that has the potential to have a profound impact upon medical practice. At the center of metabolomics, is the concept that a person's metabolic state provides a close representation of that individual's overall health status...
2016: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Yuko Tsuruta, Laura Q Rogers, Helen Krontiras, William E Grizzle, Andrew D Frugé, Robert A Oster, Heidi R Umphrey, Lee W Jones, Maria Azrad, Wendy Demark-Wahnefried
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a known risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer and is associated with poorer prognosis for premenopausal and postmenopausal patients; however, the aetiological mechanisms are unknown. Preclinical studies support weight loss via caloric restriction and increased physical activity as a possible cancer control strategy, though few clinical studies have been conducted. We undertook a feasibility trial among women recently diagnosed with stage 0-II breast cancer hypothesising that presurgical weight loss would be feasible, safe and result in favourable changes in tumour markers and circulating biomarkers...
September 15, 2016: BMJ Open
Inhae Kang, Teresa Buckner, Neil F Shay, Liwei Gu, Soonkyu Chung
Ellagic acid (EA) is a naturally occurring polyphenol found in some fruits and nuts, including berries, pomegranates, grapes, and walnuts. EA has been investigated extensively because of its antiproliferative action in some cancers, along with its anti-inflammatory effects. A growing body of evidence suggests that the intake of EA is effective in attenuating obesity and ameliorating obesity-mediated metabolic complications, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and atherosclerosis...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
AbdelRahman Mahmoud Aly, AbdelReheem Adel, Ahmed Osama El-Gendy, Tamer M Essam, Ramy K Aziz
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes debilitating liver diseases, which may progress to cirrhosis and cancer, and claims 500,000 annual lives worldwide. While HCV epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapy are being deeply studied, rare attention is given to reciprocal interactions between HCV infection , HCV-induced chronic liver diseases, and the human gut microbiome. As Egypt has the world's highest prevalence of HCV infections, we launched this study to monitor differences in the gut microbial community composition of Egyptian HCV patients that may affect, or result from, the patients' liver state...
2016: Gut Pathogens
Angela B Javurek, William G Spollen, Sarah A Johnson, Nathan J Bivens, Karen H Bromert, Scott A Givan, Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Gut dysbiosis may result in various diseases, such as metabolic and neurobehavioral disorders. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A (BPA) and ethinyl estradiol (EE), especially during development, may also increase the risk for such disorders. An unexplored possibility is that EDC-exposure might alter the gut microbial composition. Gut flora and their products may thus be mediating factors for the disease-causing effects of these chemicals. To examine the effects of EDCs on the gut microbiome, female and male monogamous and biparental California mice (Peromyscus californicus) were exposed to BPA (50 mg/kg feed weight) or EE (0...
September 13, 2016: Gut Microbes
Helena Mendes-Soares, Michael Mundy, Luis Mendes Soares, Nicholas Chia
BACKGROUND: The explosive growth of microbiome research has yielded great quantities of data. These data provide us with many answers, but raise just as many questions. 16S rDNA-the backbone of microbiome analyses-allows us to assess α-diversity, β-diversity, and microbe-microbe associations, which characterize the overall properties of an ecosystem. However, we are still unable to use 16S rDNA data to directly assess the microbe-microbe and microbe-environment interactions that determine the broader ecology of that system...
2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Belén Herreros Martínez
Growing research on the human microbiome, even beyond the gastrointestinal area, is not surprising mainly due to significant advances in study methods. Current reporting in this area is so intensive that clinicians are changing the unsuitable "bacterial flora" expression for more appropriate terms such as "microbiota" (the entire microbial community colonizing an ecologic niche), "microbiome" (their collective genome), or "dysbiosis" (microbial composition imbalance with respect to the normatively considered pattern)...
September 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
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