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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788111/acute-assessment-of-traumatic-brain-injury-and-post-traumatic-stress-after-exposure-to-a-deployment-related-explosive-blast
#1
Monty T Baker, John C Moring, Willie J Hale, Jim Mintz, Stacey Young-McCaughan, Richard A Bryant, Donna K Broshek, Jeffrey T Barth, Robert Villarreal, Cynthia L Lancaster, Steffany L Malach, Jose M Lara-Ruiz, William Isler, Alan L Peterson
Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are two of the signature injuries in military service members who have been exposed to explosive blasts during deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan. Acute stress disorder (ASD), which occurs within 2-30 d after trauma exposure, is a more immediate psychological reaction predictive of the later development of PTSD. Most previous studies have evaluated service members after their return from deployment, which is often months or years after the initial blast exposure...
May 18, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775632/controlled-delivery-of-a-focal-adhesion-kinase-inhibitor-results-in-accelerated-wound-closure-with-decreased-scar-formation
#2
Kun Ma, Sun Hyung Kwon, Jagannath Padmanabhan, Dominik Duscher, Artem A Trotsyuk, Yixiao Dong, Mohammed Inayathullah, Jayakumar Rajadas, Geoffrey C Gurtner
Formation of scars following wounding or trauma represents a significant healthcare burden costing the economy billions of dollars every year. Activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has been shown to play a pivotal role in transducing mechanical signals to elicit fibrotic responses and scar formation during wound repair. We have previously shown that inhibition of FAK using local injections of a small molecule FAK inhibitor (FAKI) can attenuate scar development in a hypertrophic scar model. Clinical translation of FAKI therapy has been challenging, however, due to the lack of an effective drug delivery system for extensive burn injuries, blast injuries, and large excisional injuries...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774825/dietary-zinc-modulates-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Angus Scrimgeour, Christopher Carrigan, Michelle Lynn Condlin, Maria L Urso, Roland M van den Berg, Herman P M van Helden, Scott J Montain, Marloes J A Joosen
Animal models of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) provide opportunity to examine the extent to which dietary interventions can be used to improve recovery after injury. Animal studies also suggest that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a role in tissue remodeling post-TBI. Because dietary zinc (Zn) improved recovery in non-blast mTBI models, and the MMPs are Zn-requiring enzymes, we evaluated the effects of low- and adequate Zn diets on MMP expression and behavioral responses, following exposure to a single blast...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769370/improving-survivability-from-blast-injury-shifting-the-goalposts-and-the-need-for-interdisciplinary-research
#4
EDITORIAL
A Phill Pearce, Jon Clasper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747165/bones-heal-teeth-don-t-the-involvement-of-dentists-in-the-acute-and-long-term-management-of-patients-injured-in-the-manchester-arena-bomb
#5
L Timms, J May
This paper outlines the involvement of dentists in the treatment of patients following the terror attack at Manchester Arena on 22 May 2017. It predominantly describes the role of the authors - a paediatric dental consultant and maxillofacial surgery dental core trainee (DCT). As a result of the incident a number of patients suffered oro-facial injuries, with many treated at Central Manchester Foundation Trust Hospitals' Manchester Royal Infirmary and Royal Manchester Children's Hospital. The major incident response of the trust is discussed, as are the presentation of blast injuries and corresponding NHS guidance...
May 11, 2018: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707463/demonstration-of-the-effectiveness-of-augmented-reality-telesurgery-in-complex-hand-reconstruction-in-gaza
#6
Max J Greenfield, Joshua Luck, Michael L Billingsley, Richard Heyes, Oliver J Smith, Afshin Mosahebi, Abu Khoussa, Ghassan Abu-Sittah, Nadine Hachach-Haram
Augmented reality (AR) is defined as "a technology that superimposes a computer-generated image on a user's view of the real world, thus providing a composite view."1 This case report describes how emerging AR telesurgery technologies may be used to facilitate international surgeon-surgeon collaboration and training. Here, we illustrate how a remote surgeon in Beirut, Lebanon, was able to offer assistance to a surgeon in Gaza, Palestine, during a complex hand reconstruction case following a bomb-blast injury in an 18-year-old male...
March 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701827/differential-responses-of-the-hpa-axis-to-mild-blast-traumatic-brain-injury-in-male-and-female-mice
#7
Ashley L Russell, M Riley Richardson, Bradly M Bauman, Ian M Hernandez, Samantha Saperstein, Robert J Handa, T John Wu
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects 10 million people world-wide, annually. TBI is linked to increased risk of psychiatric disorders. TBI induced by explosive devices has a unique phenotype. Over 1/3 of people exposed to blast-induced (b)TBI have prolonged neuroendocrine deficits, shown by anterior pituitary dysfunction. Dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is linked to increased risk for psychiatric disorders. Not only is there limited information on how the HPA axis responds to mild (m)bTBI, sex differences are understudied...
April 25, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688085/music-therapy-applied-to-complex-blast-injury-in-interdisciplinary-care-a-case-report
#8
Rebecca Vaudreuil, Luis Avila, Joke Bradt, Paul Pasquina
PURPOSE: Music therapy has a long history of treating the physiological, psychological, and neurological injuries of war. Recently, there has been an increase in the use of music therapy and other creative arts therapies in the care of combat injured service members returning to the United States from Iraq and Afghanistan, especially those with complex blast-related injuries. This case report describes the role of music therapy in the interdisciplinary rehabilitation of a severely injured service member...
April 24, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680818/fatal-head-and-neck-injuries-in-military-underbody-blast-casualties
#9
Sarah K Stewart, A P Pearce, Jon C Clasper
INTRODUCTION: Death as a consequence of underbody blast (UBB) can most commonly be attributed to central nervous system injury. UBB may be considered a form of tertiary blast injury but is at a higher rate and somewhat more predictable than injury caused by more classical forms of tertiary injury. Recent studies have focused on the transmission of axial load through the cervical spine with clinically relevant injury caused by resultant compression and flexion. This paper seeks to clarify the pattern of head and neck injuries in fatal UBB incidents using a pragmatic anatomical classification...
April 21, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667607/blunt-abdominal-trauma-following-gunshot-wound-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Myftar Torba, Arben Gjata, Francesco Rulli, Ilir Kajo, Sotir Ceka, Afron Mici
Blunt abdominal trauma following gunshot wound. Case report and literature review Introduction: Similarly to blast weapons, every firearm produces explosion at the moment of shooting, which can cause injuries in every region of the body. The aim of this paper is to present the mechanism of blunt abdominal injury following gunshot wounds, bringing this uncommon disease to the clinicians' attention and to review the literature available. CASE REPORT: A patient developed a delayed bowel perforation following a gunshot injury of the abdomen without breaking of the peritoneum...
April 20, 2018: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666201/guidelines-for-conducting-epidemiological-studies-of-blast-injury
#11
Dan Bieler, I Cernak, L Martineau, S Bjarnason, A Franke, E Kirkman, M J Leggieri, H Orru, S Ouellet, M Philippens, M G Risling, J-C Sarron, S Skriudalen, J A Teland, S Watts, R Gupta
Blast injuries are often caused by more than one mechanism, do not occur in isolation, and typically elicit a secondary multi-system response. Research efforts often do not separate blast injuries caused by blast waves from those caused by blunt force trauma and other mechanisms. 15 experts from nine different NATO nations developed in the HFM Research Task Group (RTG; HFM-234 (RTG)) 'Environmental Toxicology of Blast Exposures: Injury Metrics, Modelling, Methods and Standards' Guidelines for Conducting Epidemiological Studies of Blast Injury...
April 17, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662732/institutional-review-of-hemorrhagic-pelvic-emergencies-effectively-managed-with-percutaneous-arterial-embolization
#12
Muhammad Azeemuddin, Raza Sayani, Nauman Turab, Syed M Mustahsan, Mohammad Hasan, Dawar B Khan, Fatima Mubarak
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to review the results of pelvic arterial embolization (PAE) performed in the interventional radiology suite. METHOD: The data of all patients in whom pelvic angioembolization was performed was collected from July 2011 to June 2017. Procedures were performed by an experienced interventional radiologist. The clinical and laboratory data, as well as the outcome data, were obtained from the medical records of our hospital. The following parameters were collected for each patient, including the age, gender, presenting symptoms, site of bleeding, catheters used for embolization, material used for embolization, previous computed tomography (CT) scan and/or focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) ultrasound, average hemoglobin before the procedure, and patient clinical status on discharge...
February 15, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662272/effect-of-bulk-modulus-on-deformation-of-the-brain-under-rotational-accelerations
#13
S Ganpule, N P Daphalapurkar, M Pirtini Cetingul, K T Ramesh
Traumatic brain injury such as that developed as a consequence of blast is a complex injury with a broad range of symptoms and disabilities. Computational models of brain biomechanics hold promise for illuminating the mechanics of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and for developing preventive devices. However, reliable material parameters are needed for models to be predictive. Unfortunately, the properties of human brain tissue are difficult to measure, and the bulk modulus of brain tissue in particular is not well-characterized...
January 2018: Shock Waves
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662256/analysis-of-combat-casualties-admitted-to-the-emergency-department-during-the-negotiation-of-the-comprehensive-colombian-process-of-peace
#14
Carlos A Ordoñez, Ramiro Manzano Nunez, Michael W Parra, Juan Pablo Herrera, Maria Paula Naranjo, Sara Sofia Escobar, Marisol Badiel, Monica Morales, Cecibel Cevallos, Juan G Bayona, Alvaro Ignacio Sanchez, Juan Carlos Puyana, Alberto F García
Aim: Our objective was to describe the variations in casualties admitted to the emergency department during the period of the negotiation of the comprehensive peace agreement in Colombia between 2011 and 2016. Methods: A retrospective study of all hostile military casualties managed at a regional Level I trauma center from January 2011 to December 2016. Patients were subsequently divided into two groups: those seen before the declaration of the process of peace truce (November 2012) and those after (negotiation period)...
December 30, 2017: Colombia Médica: CM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649942/blocking-tnf-%C3%AE-expression-prevents-blast-induced-excitatory-inhibitory-synaptic-imbalance-and-pv-interneuron-loss-in-the-hippocampus
#15
Weihua Wang, Alexander Kevin Zinsmaier, Ethan Firestone, Ruizhu Lin, Tatiana A Yatskievych, Sungchil Yang, Jinsheng Zhang, Shaowen Bao
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of neurological disorder and death in civilian and military populations (citation?). It comprises two components-direct injury from the traumatic impact and secondary injury from ensuing neural inflammatory responses. Blocking tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), a central regulator of neural inflammation, has been shown to improve functional recovery after TBI. However, the mechanisms underlying those therapeutic effects are still poorly understood. Here we examined effects of 3,6'-dithiothalidomide (dTT), a potentially therapeutic TNF-α inhibitor, in mice with blast-induced TBI...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648986/a-single-primary-blast-induced-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rodent-model-causes-cell-type-dependent-increase-in-nadph-oxidase-isoforms-in-vulnerable-brain-regions
#16
Kakulavarapu V Rama Rao, Stephanie Iring, Daniel Younger, Matthew Kuriakose, Maciej Skotak, Eren Alay, Raj K Gupta, Namas Chandra
Blast-induced Traumatic Brain Injury (bTBI) is a leading cause of morbidity in soldiers on the battlefield and in the training sites with long-term neurological and psychological pathologies. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated activation of oxidative stress pathways following blast injury, but their distribution among different brain regions and their impact on the pathogenesis of bTBI have not been explored. The present study examined the protein expression of two isoforms: NADPH oxidase 1 and 2 (NOX1, NOX2), corresponding superoxide production, a downstream event of NOX activation, and the extent of lipid peroxidation adducts of 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) to a range of proteins...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648979/long-term-functional-and-structural-consequences-of-primary-blast-overpressure-to-the-eye
#17
Rachael Allen, Cara T Motz, Andrew Feola, Kyle Chesler, Raza Haider, Sringanesh Ramachandra Rao, Lara Skelton, Steven Fliesler, Machelle T Pardue
Acoustic blast overpressure (ABO) injury in military personnel and civilians is often accompanied by delayed visual deficits. However, most animal model studies dealing with blast-induced visual defects have focused on short-term (≤1 month) changes. Here, we evaluated long-term (≤8 months) retinal structure and function deficits in rats with ABO injury. Adult male Long Evans rats were subjected to ABO from a single blast (∼ 190 dB SPL, ∼ 63 kPa, @80 psi), generated by a shock tube device. Retinal function (electroretinography), visual function (optokinetic tracking), retinal thickness (spectral domain-optical coherence tomography), and spatial cognition/exploratory motor behavior (Y-maze) were measured at 2, 4, 6, and 8 months post-blast...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645011/corrigendum-to-successful-use-of-intrapelvic-quikclot-in-life-threatening-blast-injury-trauma-case-rep-12-2017-59-62
#18
Naveen Virin Goddard, Demetrius Evriviades
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.tcr.2017.10.021.].
April 2018: Trauma Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644287/successful-use-of-intrapelvic-quikclot-in-life-threatening-blast-injury
#19
Naveen Virin Goddard, Demetrius Evriviades
Patients that suffer multiple traumatic injuries often present with uncontrollable haemorrhage and rapidly descend into a viscous death triad consisting of hypothermia, coagulopathy and acidosis. Initial surgical intervention does not aim to provide conclusive repair, but instead strives to stop blood loss while priority is given to correct the patient's metabolic state (Duchesne et al., 2010). However in some cases of massive polytrauma, gaining surgical control of bleeding can be incredibly difficult. As a result a number of topical haemostatic agents were developed for use in military and civilian settings...
December 2017: Trauma Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643122/guidelines-for-using-animal-models-in-blast-injury-research
#20
Sarah Watts, E Kirkman, D Bieler, S Bjarnason, A Franke, R Gupta, M J Leggieri, H Orru, S Ouellet, M Philippens, J-C Sarron, S Skriudalen, J A Teland, M Risling, I Cernak
Blast injury is a very complex phenomenon and frequently results in multiple injuries. One method to investigate the consequences of blast injuries is with the use of living systems (animal models). The use of animals allows the examination and evaluation of injury mechanisms in a more controlled manner, allowing variables such as primary or secondary blast injury for example, to be isolated and manipulated as required. To ensure a degree of standardisation across the blast research community a set of guidelines which helps researchers navigate challenges of modelling blast injuries in animals is required...
April 10, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
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