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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813547/an-experimental-and-numerical-study-of-hybrid-iii-dummy-response-to-simulated-underbody-blast-impacts
#1
Karthik Somasundaram, Anil Kalra, Don Sherman, Paul Begeman, King H Yang, John M Cavanaugh
Anthropometric test devices (ATDs) such as Hybrid III dummy have been widely used in automotive crash tests to evaluate the risks of injury at different body regions. In recent years, researchers have started using automotive ATDs to study the high-speed vertical loading response caused by underbelly blast (UBB) impacts. This study analyzed the Hybrid III dummy responses to short-duration large magnitude vertical acceleration in a laboratory setup. Two unique test conditions were investigated using a horizontal sled system to simulate the UBB loading conditions...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810995/chondrocyte-viability-after-a-simulated-blast-exposure
#2
K Aaron Shaw, Peter C Johnson, David Williams, Steven D Zumbrun, Richard Topolski, Craig D Cameron
OBJECTIVES: The effects of blast exposure have gained increasing interest in the military medical community with their continued occurrence on the battlefield. The impact of the direct and indirect energy imparted from blasts to hollow viscera, as well as closed head injuries, have been well studied. However, the injury to articular cartilage has not been investigated, despite previous correlations regarding the development of osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of injury to articular chondrocytes after exposure to a simulated blast overpressure wave...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801785/-treatment-strategies-for-mass-casualty-incidents-and-terrorist-attacks-in-trauma-and-vascular-surgery-presentation-of-a-treatment-concept
#3
REVIEW
B Friemert, A Franke, D Bieler, A Achatz, D Hinck, M Engelhardt
The treatment of patients in the context of mass casualty incidents (MCI) represents a great challenge for the participating rescue workers and clinics. Due to the increase in terrorist activities it is necessary to become familiar with this new kind of threat to civilization with respect to the medical treatment of victims of terrorist attacks. There are substantial differences between a "normal" MCI and a terrorist MCI with respect to injury patterns (blunt trauma vs. penetrating/perforating trauma), the type and form of the incident (MCI=static situation vs...
August 11, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797041/repeat-low-level-blast-exposure-increases-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-trpv1-and-endothelin-1-et-1-expression-in-the-trigeminal-ganglion
#4
Elaine D Por, Melody L Sandoval, Chiquita Thomas-Benson, Teresa A Burke, Allison Doyle Brackley, Nathaniel A Jeske, Jeffery M Cleland, Brian J Lund
Blast-associated sensory and cognitive trauma sustained by military service members is an area of extensively studied research. Recent studies in our laboratory have revealed that low-level blast exposure increased expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and endothelin-1 (ET-1), proteins well characterized for their role in mediating pain transmission, in the cornea. Determining the functional consequences of these alterations in protein expression is critical to understanding blast-related sensory trauma...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795066/otolaryngological-presentations-in-times-of-terror-profile-from-a-tertiary-health-center-in-north-central-nigeria
#5
Adeyi A Adoga, Daniel D Kokong, Kenneth N Ozoilo
OBJECTIVES: To report the incidence, socio-demographic characteristics, otorhinolaryngological presentations and outcomes of management of patients at the Jos University Teaching Hospital following terror attacks. METHODS: A prospective descriptive hospital based study of consecutive patients presenting with ear, nose and throat injuries as a result of bomb blasts and ethno-religious crises within a six-year period and managed at the Jos University Teaching Hospital were studied for age, gender, ear, nose and throat presentations, injury mechanism, interventions and outcome of interventions...
July 2017: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774719/defective-methionine-metabolism-in-the-brain-after-repeated-blast-exposures-might-contribute-to-increased-oxidative-stress
#6
Peethambaran Arun, William B Rittase, Donna M Wilder, Ying Wang, Irene D Gist, Joseph B Long
Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is one of the major disabilities in Service Members returning from recent military operations. The neurobiological underpinnings of bTBI, which are associated with acute and chronic neuropathological and neurobehavioral deficits, are uncertain. Increased oxidative stress in the brain is reported to play a significant role promoting neuronal damage associated with both brain injury and neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, brains of rats exposed to repeated blasts in a shock tube underwent untargeted profiling of primary metabolism by automatic linear exchange/cold injection GC-TOF mass spectrometry and revealed acute and sub-acute disruptions in the metabolism of the essential amino acid methionine and associated antioxidants...
July 31, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762458/removal-of-cardiothoracic-war-related-shrapnel-using-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-surgery
#7
Mohammed Khalifa, Fikri M Abu-Zidan, Navidul Khan, Edward Black
This is the first report in the literature to describe removing war-related cardiothoracic shrapnel using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). War blast caused penetrating thoracic and extremity injuries in 30-year-old man. He was referred to our hospital after stabilization. Magnetic resonance imaging was required to evaluate brachial plexus injury. Large, penetrating shrapnel fragment in the right posterior chest wall, retained shrapnel in apex of the right lung, and another fragment in the pericardium were removed using VATS in staged approach...
July 2017: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759981/a-numerical-model-for-blast-injury-of-human-thorax-based-on-digitized-visible-human
#8
Xiao-Fang Li, Jiang-Ming Kuang, Si-Bing Nie, Jing Xu, Jin Zhu, Yi-He Liu
Knowledge of the pressure distribution around human thorax in blast help to understand the injury mechanisms and their assessment. To investigate the transmission mechanism of the pressure on human thorax in blast, a three dimension surface model of human thorax was constructed in this work. To increase the precious of this model, tetrahedron element division method was applied to transfer the rough 3D surface model to hexahedral elements model. Using this model, the high pressure duration was computationally solved using numerical simulation of the hexahedral elements...
July 25, 2017: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758136/a-mouse-model-of-focal-vascular-injury-induces-astrocyte-reactivity-tau-oligomers-and-aberrant-behavior
#9
Aric F Logsdon, Brandon P Lucke-Wold, Ryan C Turner, Xinlan Li, Chris E Adkins, Afroz S Mohammad, Jason D Huber, Charles L Rosen, Paul R Lockman
Neuropsychiatric symptom development has become more prevalent with 270,000 blast exposures occurring in the past 10 years in the United States. How blast injury leads to neuropsychiatric symptomology is currently unknown. Preclinical models of blast-induced traumatic brain injury have been used to demonstrate blood-brain barrier disruption, degenerative pathophysiology, and behavioral deficits. Vascular injury is a primary effect of neurotrauma that can trigger secondary injury cascades and neurodegeneration...
April 2017: Archives of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753685/effects-of-lumbar-spine-assemblies-and-body-borne-equipment-mass-on-anthropomorphic-test-device-responses-during-drop-tests
#10
Daniel Aggromito, Mark Jaffrey, Allen Chhor, Bernard Chen, Wenyi Yan
When simulating or conducting land mine blast tests on armored vehicles to assess potential occupant injury, the preference is to use the Hybrid III anthropomorphic test device (ATD). In land blast events, neither the effect of body-borne equipment (BBE) on the ATD response nor the dynamic response index (DRI) is well understood. An experimental study was carried out using a drop tower test rig, with a rigid seat mounted on a carriage table undergoing average accelerations of 161 g and 232 g over 3 ms. A key aspect of the work looked at the various lumbar spine assemblies available for a Hybrid III ATD...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750794/mediastinal-injury-is-the-strongest-predictor-of-mortality-in-mounted-blast-amongst-uk-deployed-forces
#11
A Phillip Pearce, Anthony M J Bull, Jonathon C Clasper
BACKGROUND: Blast injury has been the most common cause of morbidity and mortality encountered by UK forces during recent conflicts. Injuries sustained by blast are categorised by the injuring component of the explosion and depend upon physical surroundings. Previous work has established that head injuries and intra cavity haemorrhage are the major causes of death following exposure to under body (mounted) blast but has yet to explore the precise nature of these torso injuries nor the effect of particular injuries upon survival...
July 19, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726571/primary-blast-causes-delayed-effects-without-cell-death-in-shell-encased-brain-cell-aggregates
#12
Thomas Sawyer, Yushan Wang, David V Ritzel, Tyson Josey, Mercy Villanueva, Cory Vair, Yanfeng Song, Yimin Shei, Steven Parks, Peggy Nelson, Grant Hennes, Lori McLaws, Changyan Fan
Previous work used underwater explosive exposures to isolate the effects of shock-induced principle stress without shear on rat brain aggregate cultures. This current study has utilized simulated air blast to expose aggregates in suspension and enclosed within a spherical shell, enabling the examination of a much more complex biomechanical insult. Culture medium-filled spheres were exposed to single pulse overpressures of 15-30 psi (6-7 msec duration) and measurements within the sphere at defined sites showed complex and spatially dependent pressure changes...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706766/a-case-based-review-of-the-management-of-penetrating-brain-trauma
#13
Jason Milton, Alex Rugino, Kailash Narayan, Chris Karas, Victor Awuor
Principles of penetrating head trauma management were established by Harvey Cushing in relation to the management of penetrating brain injuries of World War One. Cushing radically debrided the scalp and skull and aggressively irrigated wound tracks to remove foreign bodies. He would then obtain water-tight closure. Cushing significantly decreased infection rates which reportedly limited the major cause of mortality due to penetrating head injuries. Many advances have been made by contributions from World War Two, Korean War, Vietnam War, and Iran/Iraq conflicts...
June 12, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696987/nutritional-supplements-for-the-treatment-and-prevention-of-sports-related-concussion-evidence-still-lacking
#14
Thomas H Trojian, David H Wang, John J Leddy
Concussions are common neurologic events that affect many athletes. Very little has been studied on the treatment of concussions with supplements and medications. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reminds us that no supplement has been proven to treat concussions. Many animal studies show that supplements have potential for improving the effects of a brain injury but none have been shown to be of consistent benefit in human studies. Animal studies on severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) may not therefore be applicable transfer to sports-related concussions (SRC)...
July 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692592/reduction-in-temporary-and-permanent-audiological-injury-through-internal-jugular-vein-compression-in-a-rodent-blast-injury-model
#15
Brian Sindelar, Michael Shinners, Sydney Sherman, Kristine Erickson, Vimal Patel, Paul Kubilis, John D Finan, Julian E Bailes
HYPOTHESIS: Internal jugular vein (IJV) compression influences not only intracranial but also intracochlear physiology and has demonstrated preclinical effectiveness in reducing acute audiological injury in a rodent blast model. However, the long-term effects in this model are unknown. BACKGROUND: Blast wave-induced audiological injury from an improvised explosive device is a leading cause of morbidity among service members in theater but there are limitations to the current protective measures...
September 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687812/blast-induced-tinnitus-and-elevated-central-auditory-and-limbic-activity-in-rats-a-manganese-enhanced-mri-and-behavioral-study
#16
Jessica Ouyang, Edward Pace, Laura Lepczyk, Michael Kaufman, Jessica Zhang, Shane A Perrine, Jinsheng Zhang
Blast-induced tinitus is the number one service-connected disability that currently affects military personnel and veterans. To elucidate its underlying mechanisms, we subjected 13 Sprague Dawley adult rats to unilateral 14 psi blast exposure to induce tinnitus and measured auditory and limbic brain activity using manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI). Tinnitus was evaluated with a gap detection acoustic startle reflex paradigm, while hearing status was assessed with prepulse inhibition (PPI) and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs)...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675101/tympanoplasty-following-blast-injury
#17
Matthew Keller, Ryan Sload, Justin Wilson, Howard Greene, Peggy Han, Sean Wise
Objectives To assess outcomes following tympanoplasty for blast-induced tympanic membrane perforations in a military population. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Tertiary care medical centers. Subjects and Methods Military personnel (N = 254) undergoing tympanoplasty for blast-related tympanic membrane perforations sustained between April 2005 and July 2014 were identified from the Expeditionary Medical Encounter Database. Descriptive statistics were obtained regarding demographics, primary and revision surgery success rates, hearing status pre- and postsurgery, and frequency of ossicular reconstruction...
June 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672137/mandibular-rami-implant-a-new-approach-in-mandibular-reconstruction
#18
Amir Jalal Abbasi, Abbas Azari, Simin Z Mohebbi, Arezoo Javani
PURPOSE: The mandible is an essential esthetic and functional component of the lower third of the face and its reconstruction has always been a challenge, especially after severe post-traumatic injuries. The purpose of the present report was to introduce a new approach of mandibular reconstruction in a patient who had lost the entire mandible except for the rami after being severely injured in a blast. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A new approach using a titanium mandibular rami implant technique was applied using computer-aided 3-dimensional virtual planning and rapid prototyping technology...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662892/glibenclamide-pretreatment-protects-against-chronic-memory-dysfunction-and-glial-activation-in-rat-cranial-blast-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Jesse A Stokum, Kaspar Keledjian, Erik Hayman, Jason K Karimy, Adam Pampori, Ziyan Imran, Seung Kyoon Woo, Volodymyr Gerzanich, J Marc Simard
Blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) affects both military and civilian populations, and often results in chronic deficits in cognition and memory. Chronic glial activation after bTBI has been linked with cognitive decline. Pharmacological inhibition of sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) with glibenclamide was shown previously to reduce glial activation and improve cognition in contusive models of CNS trauma, but has not been examined in bTBI. We postulated that glibenclamide would reduce chronic glial activation and improve long-term memory function after bTBI...
June 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657971/laryngeal-mask-airway-as-a-rescue-device-for-failed-endotracheal-intubation-during-scene-to-hospital-air-transport-of-combat-casualties
#20
Itai Shavit, Eliad Aviram, Yoav Hoffmann, Oded Biton, Elon Glassberg
BACKGROUND: Advanced airway management of combat casualties during scene-to-hospital air transport is challenging. Because of the short transport time, flight physicians of the Israeli military airborne combat evacuation unit are approved for the use of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in the event of failed endotracheal intubation (ETI). The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of LMA use during scene-to-hospital transport of combat casualties in Israel. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis of all combat casualties treated with ETI during scene-to-hospital transport over a 3-year period was carried out...
June 27, 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
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