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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937955/military-blast-injury-and-chronic-neurodegeneration-research-presentations-from-the-2015-international-state-of-the-science-meeting
#1
Denes Agoston, Peethambaran Arun, Patrick Bellgowan, Steven Broglio, Robert Cantu, David Cook, Uade Olaghere da Silva, Dara Dickstein, Gregory Elder, Elizabeth Fudge, Sam Gandy, Jessica Gill, John F Glenn, Raj K Gupta, Sidney Hinds, Stuart Hoffman, Theresa Lattimore, Alexander Lin, Kun Ping Lu, Joseph Maroon, David Okonkwo, Daniel Perl, Meghan Robinson, Charles Rosen, Douglas Smith
Blast-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a signature injury of recent military conflicts, leading to increased Department of Defense (DoD) interest in its potential long-term effects, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). The DoD Blast Injury Research Program Coordinating Office convened the 2015 International State-of-the-Science Meeting to discuss the existing evidence regarding a causal relationship between TBI and CTE. Over the course of the meeting, experts across government, academia, and the sports community presented cutting edge research on the unique pathological characteristics of blast-related TBI, blast-related neurodegenerative mechanisms, risk factors for CTE, potential biomarkers for CTE, and treatment strategies for chronic neurodegeneration...
September 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937953/the-biological-basis-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-following-blast-injury-a-literature-review
#2
Matt Aldag, Regina C Armstrong, Faris Bandak, Patrick S F Bellgowan, Timothy Bentley, Sean Biggerstaff, Katrina Caravelli, Joan Cmarik, Alicia Crowder, Thomas J DeGraba, Travis A Dittmer, Richard G Ellenbogen, Colin Greene, Raj K Gupta, Ramona Hicks, Stuart Hoffman, Robert C Latta, Michael J Leggieri, Donald Marion, Robert Mazzoli, Michael McCrea, John O'Donnell, Mark Packer, James B Petro, Todd E Rasmussen, Wendy Sammons-Jackson, Richard Shoge, Victoria Tepe, Ladd A Tremaine, James Zheng
The United States Department of Defense Blast Injury Research Program Coordinating Office organized the 2015 International State-of-the-Science meeting to explore links between blast-related head injury and the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Before the meeting, the planning committee examined articles published between 2005 and October 2015 and prepared this literature review, which summarized broadly CTE research and addressed questions about the pathophysiological basis of CTE and its relationship to blast- and nonblast-related head injury...
September 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937952/modeling-the-long-term-consequences-of-repeated-blast-induced-mild-traumatic-brain-injuries
#3
Denes V Agoston
Repeated mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) caused by playing collision sports or by exposure to blasts during military operations can lead to late onset, chronic diseases such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a progressive neurodegenerative condition that manifests in increasingly severe neuropsychiatric abnormalities years after the last injury. Currently, because of the heterogeneity of the clinical presentation, confirmation of a CTE diagnosis requires post-mortem examination of the brain. The hallmarks of CTE are abnormal accumulation of phosphorylated tau protein, TDP-43 immunoreactive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions, and astroglial abnormalities, but the pathomechanism leading to these terminal findings remains unknown...
September 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933213/repeated-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-potential-mechanisms-of-damage
#4
Brooke Fehily, Melinda Fitzgerald
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) represents a significant public healthcare concern, accounting for the majority of all head injuries. While symptoms are generally transient, some patients go on to experience long-term cognitive impairments and additional mild impacts can result in exacerbated and persisting negative outcomes. To date, studies using a range of experimental models have reported chronic behavioral deficits in the presence of axonal injury and inflammation following repeated mTBI; assessments of oxidative stress and myelin pathology have thus far been limited...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924266/effects-of-bomb-blast-injury-on-the-ears-the-aga-khan-university-hospital-experience
#5
Talha Ahmed Qureshi, Mohammad Sohail Awan, Nabeel Hamayun Hassan, Agha Hussain Aftab, Syed Adnan Ali
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency and effects of blast-related otologic injuries. METHODS: his retrospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised charts of patients who were victims of bomb explosions between January 2011 and July 2013. Frequency and percentages were reported using cross tabulation with size of bomb, distance of person from blast and the presence of victim in open or closed space. Association of associated variables were also analysed...
September 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923525/morphological-and-functional-characterization-of-the-hemocytes-from-the-pearl-oyster-pteria-hirundo-and-their-immune-responses-against-vibrio-infections
#6
Graziela Cleuza Vieira, Patrícia Mirella da Silva, Margherita Anna Barracco, Augusto Ferrari Hering, Marcos Caivano Pedroso de Albuquerque, Jaqueline da Rosa Coelho, Éder Carlos Schmidt, Zenilda Laurita Bouzon, Rafael Diego Rosa, Luciane Maria Perazzolo
Hemocyte populations of the pearl oyster Pteria hirundo were characterized at morphological, ultrastructural and functional levels. Three main hemocyte populations were identified: hyalinocytes, granulocytes and blast-like cells. Hyalinocytes were the most abundant population (88.2%) characterized by the presence of few or no granules in the cytoplasm and composed by two subpopulations, large and small hyalinocytes. Comparatively, granulocytes represented 2.2% of the hemocyte population and were characterized by the presence of numerous large electron-lucid granules in the cytoplasm...
September 16, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922174/evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-facebook-to-impact-the-knowledge-of-evidence-based-employment-practices-by-individuals-with-traumatic-brain-injury-a-knowledge-translation-random-control-study
#7
Katherine J Inge, Carolyn W Graham, James W McLaughlin, Doug Erickson, Paul Wehman, Hannah E Seward
BACKGROUND: Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) experience difficulty with obtaining and maintaining employment post-injury. Although vocational rehabilitation (VR) can be one option to provide individuals with TBI support and services to lead to successful employment outcomes, information about these services can be difficult and confusing to navigate. Providing information on evidence-based employment practices to individuals with TBI through social media could be an effective approach...
September 14, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900205/apoe4-associated-phospholipid-dysregulation-contributes-to-development-of-tau-hyper-phosphorylation-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Jiqing Cao, Farida El Gaamouch, James S Meabon, Kole D Meeker, Li Zhu, Margaret B Zhong, John Bendik, Gregory Elder, Ping Jing, Jiahong Xia, Wenjie Luo, David G Cook, Dongming Cai
The apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) genotype combines with traumatic brain injury (TBI) to increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's Disease (AD). However, the underlying mechanism(s) is not well-understood. We found that after exposure to repetitive blast-induced TBI, phosphoinositol biphosphate (PIP2) levels in hippocampal regions of young ApoE3 mice were elevated and associated with reduction in expression of a PIP2 degrading enzyme, synaptojanin 1 (synj1). In contrast, hippocampal PIP2 levels in ApoE4 mice did not increase after blast TBI...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893848/a-review-of-10-years-of-scapula-injuries-sustained-by-uk-military-personnel-on-operations
#9
Darren C Roberts, D M Power, S A Stapley
BACKGROUND: Scapula fractures are relatively uncommon injuries, mostly occurring due to the effects of high-energy trauma. Rates of scapula fractures are unknown in the military setting. The aim of this study is to analyse the incidence, aetiology, associated injuries, treatment and complications of these fractures occurring in deployed military personnel. METHODS: All UK military personnel returning with upper limb injuries from Afghanistan and Iraq were retrospectively reviewed using the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine database and case notes (2004-2014)...
September 11, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885966/the-effect-of-anthropomorphic-test-device-lower-leg-surrogate-selection-on-impact-mitigating-system-evaluation-in-low-and-high-rate-loading-conditions
#10
Cheryl E Quenneville, Ed Fournier, Nicholas Shewchenko
INTRODUCTION: The lower legs are at risk of substantial injury during events such as frontal automotive crashes and antivehicular mine blasts. Loading to occupants can be assessed using an instrumented anthropomorphic test device (ATD), whose measurements can be compared to established injury criteria. NATO's AEP-55 STANAG 4569 recognizes two surrogates for lower leg injury assessments from impacts with intruding floor pans resulting from underbelly blast loads; (1) the rigid Hybrid III instrumented lower leg, and; (2) the compliant MILitary Lower eXtremity (MIL-LX)...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885938/hidden-hearing-injury-the-emerging-science-and-military-relevance-of-cochlear-synaptopathy
#11
Victoria Tepe, Christopher Smalt, Jeremy Nelson, Thomas Quatieri, Kenneth Pitts
INTRODUCTION: The phenomenon recently described as "hidden hearing loss" was the subject of a meeting co-hosted by the Department of Defense Hearing Center of Excellence and MIT Lincoln Laboratory to consider the potential relevance of noise-related synaptopathic injury to military settings and performance, service-related injury scenarios, and military medical priorities. Participants included approximately 50 researchers and subject matter experts from academic, federal, and military laboratories...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871369/self-inflicted-explosive-death-by-intra-oral-detonation-of-a-firecracker-a-case-report
#12
Musa Aubrey Makhoba, Lorraine du Toit-Prinsloo
Self-inflicted explosive deaths due to detonation of fireworks are rare. In this case report, a peculiar case of an elderly male who discharged a firecracker inside his mouth, resulting in fatal blast induced craniofacial injuries, is described. There is paucity of published data describing fireworks-related suicidal and/or non-suicidal deaths. Even scantier data is present specifically describing fireworks-related blast induced neurotrauma and the mechanism(s) of injury involved in such cases. This case report emphasizes the severe damage that a commercially available explosive, the so-called "Gorilla Bomb", can cause, and raises questions about the relative ease of its acquisition...
September 5, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871350/-approach-to-liver-spleen-and-pancreatic-injuries-including-damage-control-surgery-of-terrorist-attacks
#13
REVIEW
G A Stavrou, M J Lipp, K J Oldhafer
BACKGROUND: Terrorist attacks have outreached to Europe with more and more attacks on civilians. Derived from war surgery experience and from lessons learned from major incidents, it seems mandatory for every surgeon to improve understanding of the special circumstances of trauma following a terrorist attack and its' management. METHOD: A short literature review is followed by outlining the damage control surgery (DCS) principle for each organ system with practical comments from the perspective of a specialized hepatobiliary (HPB) surgery unit...
September 4, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868045/primary-blast-induced-changes-in-akt-and-gsk3%C3%AE-phosphorylation-in-rat-hippocampus
#14
Yushan Wang, Thomas W Sawyer, Yiu Chung Tse, Changyang Fan, Grant Hennes, Julia Barnes, Tyson Josey, Tracy Weiss, Peggy Nelson, Tak Pan Wong
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to blast from improvised explosive devices has been a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, the mechanisms of primary blast-induced TBI are not well understood. The Akt signal transduction pathway has been implicated in various brain pathologies including TBI. In the present study, the effects of simulated primary blast waves on the phosphorylation status of Akt and its downstream effector kinase, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), in rat hippocampus, were investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866319/the-effect-of-blast-overpressure-on-the-mechanical-properties-of-a-chinchilla-tympanic-membrane
#15
Junfeng Liang, Zachery A Yokell, Don U Nakmaili, Rong Z Gan, Hongbing Lu
The rupture of tympanic membrane (TM) has long been viewed as an indicator of blast injury, especially for hearing loss. However, little is known about damage to the TM caused by blast with pressure lower than the rupture threshold. In this paper, we present our study on the effect of blast overpressure on the static mechanical properties of TM. Chinchilla was used as the animal model and exposed to multiple blasts with pressures lower than the rupture threshold of the TM. Using a micro-fringe projection method, we observed the alteration of the static mechanical properties of post-blast chinchilla's TMs as compared to those of control TMs...
August 18, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851546/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-integration-of-canonical-traumatic-brain-injury-secondary-injury-mechanisms-with-tau-pathology
#16
REVIEW
Jacqueline R Kulbe, Edward D Hall
In recent years, a new neurodegenerative tauopathy labeled Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE), has been identified that is believed to be primarily a sequela of repeated mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), often referred to as concussion, that occurs in athletes participating in contact sports (e.g. boxing, American football, Australian football, rugby, soccer, ice hockey) or in military combatants, especially after blast-induced injuries. Since the identification of CTE, and its neuropathological finding of deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau protein, mechanistic attention has been on lumping the disorder together with various other non-traumatic neurodegenerative tauopathies...
August 26, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838022/-characteristics-and-treatment-strategies-for-penetrating-injuries-on-the-example-of-gunshot-and-blast-victims-without-ballistic-body-armour-in-afghanistan-2009%C3%A2-%C3%A2-2013
#17
Christoph Güsgen, Arnulf Willms, Ines Richardsen, Dan Bieler, Erwin Kollig, Robert Schwab
Much like other countries, Germany has recently seen terrorist attacks being planned, executed or prevented at the last minute. This highlights the need for expertise in the treatment of penetrating torso traumas by bullets or explosions. Data on the treatment of firearm injuries and, even more so, blast injuries often stems from crises or war regions. However, it is difficult to compare injuries from such regions with injuries from civilian terrorist attacks due to the ballistic body protection (protective vests, body armour) worn by soldiers...
August 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832592/air-blast-injuries-killed-the-crew-of-the-submarine-h-l-hunley
#18
Rachel M Lance, Lucas Stalcup, Brad Wojtylak, Cameron R Bass
The submarine H.L. Hunley was the first submarine to sink an enemy ship during combat; however, the cause of its sinking has been a mystery for over 150 years. The Hunley set off a 61.2 kg (135 lb) black powder torpedo at a distance less than 5 m (16 ft) off its bow. Scaled experiments were performed that measured black powder and shock tube explosions underwater and propagation of blasts through a model ship hull. This propagation data was used in combination with archival experimental data to evaluate the risk to the crew from their own torpedo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831517/-terrorist-attack-trauma-an-individual-entity-of-polytrauma-a-10-year-update
#19
REVIEW
C Güsgen, A Franke, S Hentsch, E Kollig, R Schwab
The incidence of terrorist attacks is increasing worldwide, and they have also become a permanent threat in European cities. Due to its complexity, terrorist attack trauma places high demands on the strategy of surgical treatment. The combination of various mechanisms, explosions and gunshot injuries, with the characteristic pressure (blast) damage and a high proportion of penetrating trauma with simultaneous burns are characteristic features. Unlike in military conflicts, injuries to people of all ages and without ballistic body protection (body armor) are to be expected...
August 22, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828401/abnormalities-in-dynamic-brain-activity-caused-by-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-are-partially-rescued-by-the-cannabinoid-type-2-receptor-inverse-agonist-smm-189
#20
Yu Liu, Samuel S McAfee, Natalie M Guley, Nobel Del Mar, Wei Bu, Scott A Heldt, Marcia G Honig, Bob M Moore, Anton Reiner, Detlef H Heck
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can cause severe long-term cognitive and emotional deficits, including impaired memory, depression, and persevering fear, but the neuropathological basis of these deficits is uncertain. As medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus play important roles in memory and emotion, we used multi-site, multi-electrode recordings of oscillatory neuronal activity in local field potentials (LFPs) in awake, head-fixed mice to determine if the functioning of these regions was abnormal after mTBI, using a closed-skull focal cranial blast model...
July 2017: ENeuro
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