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Maze procedure

Manoela V Fogaça, Alline C de Campos, Ludmila D Coelho, Ronald S Duman, Francisco S Guimarães
Repeated injections of cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychotomimetic compound present in the Cannabis sativa plant, attenuate the anxiogenic effects induced by Chronic Unpredictable Stress (CUS). The specific mechanisms remain to be fully understood but seem to involve adult hippocampal neurogenesis and recruitment of endocannabinoids. Here we investigated for the first time if the behavioral and pro-neurogenic effects of CBD administered concomitant the CUS procedure (14 days) are mediated by CB1 , CB2 or 5HT1A receptors, as well as CBD effects on dendritic remodeling and on intracellular/synaptic signaling (fatty acid amide hydrolase - FAAH, Akt, GSK3β and the synaptic proteins Synapsin Ia/b, mGluR1 and PSD95)...
March 3, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Sacha Salzberg, Maximillian Emmert
Left atrial appendage closure was originally described by Madden in 1949 who was the first to perform appendix amputation. This was a very invasive procedure with poor outcome, but preformed for stroke prevention. Much later, it was James Cox whom described the Cox-Maze procedure, which included multiple incisions to create a maze like pathway for the electrical impulse to go undisturbed from the sinus node down to the atrio-ventricular node. Since then cardiac surgeons stopped focusing on the left atrial appendage and went on about seemingly more important things...
December 2017: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
Olga Lipatova, Matthew M Campolattaro, Dawndra C Dixon, Ayse Durak
Many studies provide evidence that differences in spatial learning exist between males and females. However, it is necessary to consider non-mnemonic factors that may influence these findings. The present experiment investigated acquisition, retention, and the effects of stress on response- and place-learning in male and female rats. Rats were trained in an open-field tower maze. Procedures were used to minimize stress in the rats, and their ability to solve place- or response-learning in the maze was determined by analyzing a response variable (i...
February 24, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Anna Rylova, Mervyn Maze
Xenon possesses some, but not all, of the clinical features of an ideal anesthetic agent. Besides well-known advantages of rapid awakening, stable hemodynamics and lack of biotransformation, preclinical data lead to the expectation of xenon's advantageous use for settings of acute ongoing brain injury; a single randomized clinical trial using an imaging biomarker for assessing brain injury corroborated xenon's preclinical efficacy in protecting the brain from further injury. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms and hence the putative applications of xenon for brain protection in neurosurgery...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Danielle A Lopes, Thaissa M O Souza, José S de Andrade, Mariana F S Silva, Hanna K M Antunes, Luciana Le Seur Maluf, Isabel C Céspedes, Milena B Viana
Environmental enrichment (EE) is an animal management technique, which seems to improve adaptation to the experimental conditions of housing in laboratory animals. Previous studies have pointed to different beneficial effects of the procedure in the treatment of several disorders, including psychiatric conditions such as depression. The anxiolytic effects induced by EE, on the other hand, are not as clear. In fact, it has been proposed that EE acts as a mild stressor agent. To better understand the relationship of EE with anxiety-related responses, the present study exposed rats to one week of EE and subsequently tested these animals in the inhibitory avoidance and escape tasks of the elevated T-maze (ETM)...
February 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Pece Kocovski, Phuc T Dang, Claretta S D'Souza, Christopher E Stamper, Matthew W Hale, Jacqueline M Orian
Oral gavage is commonly used in pre-clinical drug evaluation, but is potentially aversive and may induce behavioral effects independent of compounds under investigation. This study examined the combined effects of repeated oral gavage and disease induction on anxiety-like behavior in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis. The C57BL/6J and NOD/ShiLtJ EAE variants were exposed to sham-EAE induction or untreated control conditions, and either daily oral gavage or home cage conditions...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Krista L Wahlstrom, Mary L Huff, Eric B Emmons, John H Freeman, Nandakumar S Narayanan, Christa K McIntyre, Ryan T LaLumiere
Although evidence suggests that the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dorsal hippocampus (DH) work together to influence the consolidation of spatial/contextual learning, the circuit mechanism by which the BLA selectively modulates spatial/contextual memory consolidation is not clear. The medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) is a critical region in the hippocampus-based system for processing spatial information. As an efferent target of the BLA, the mEC is a candidate by which the BLA influences the consolidation of such learning...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Huiqi Jiang, Henrik Hultkvist, Jonas Holm, Farkas Vanky, Yanqi Yang, Rolf Svedjeholm
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim was to investigate the role of underlying heart disease on preoperative NT-proBNP levels in patients admitted for adult cardiac surgery, after adjusting for the known confounders age, gender, obesity and renal function. The second aim was to investigate the predictive value of preoperative NT-proBNP with regard to severe postoperative heart failure (SPHF) and postoperative mortality. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study based on preoperative NT-proBNP measurements in an unselected cohort including all patients undergoing first time surgery for coronary artery disease (CAD; n = 2226), aortic stenosis (AS; n = 406) or mitral regurgitation (MR; n = 346) from April 2010 to August 2016 in the southeast region of Sweden (n = 2978)...
2018: PloS One
Minoru Yoshida, Jin-Yong Lee, Masahiko Satoh, Chiho Watanabe
This study examined the effects on neurobehavioral function of exposure to low-level mercury vapor (Hg0), methylmercury (MeHg) in female mice and the combination of Hg0 and MeHg during postnatal development. Postnatal mice were exposed to Hg0 at a mean concentration of 0.188 mg/m3 Hg0 and supplied with food containing 3.85 μg/g of MeHg from day 2 to day 28 after delivery. The combined exposure group was exposed to both Hg0 and MeHg, using the same procedure. When their offspring reached the age of 11 weeks, behavioral analyses were performed...
2018: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Yuan Wang, Shaowei Yin, Hang Xue, Yating Yang, Nan Zhang, Ping Zhao
Advancements in fetal intervention procedures have led to increases in the number of pregnant women undergoing general anesthesia during the second trimester-a period characterized by extensive proliferation of fetal neural stem cells (NSCs). However, few studies have investigated the effects of mid-gestational sevoflurane exposure on fetal NSC proliferation or postnatal learning and memory function. In the present study, pregnant rats were randomly assigned to a control group (C group), a low sevoflurane concentration group (2%; L group), a high sevoflurane concentration group (3...
January 31, 2018: Developmental Biology
Yosuke Ishii, Shun-Ichiro Sakamoto, Yasuo Miyagi, Yasuhiro Kawase, Toshiaki Otsuka, Takashi Nitta
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the 22-year experience of the relationship between the pre-operative left atrial diameter (LAD) and atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after AF surgery. METHODS: Between November 1993 and April 2015, 244 patients underwent AF surgery concomitant with mitral valve surgery, and were completely followed in our institute. The full-maze procedure was performed in 231 patients and pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) in 13...
February 1, 2018: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Gena M Grospe, Phillip M Baker, Michael E Ragozzino
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder marked by severe motor deficits and reduced striatal dopamine levels. PD patients also commonly exhibit cognitive flexibility impairments, e.g. probabilistic reversal learning deficits that limit daily living. However, less is known about how decreased striatal dopamine signaling affects cognitive flexibility. Past studies indicate that the rat dorsomedial striatum is a striatal subregion that supports cognitive flexibility. Because PD patients exhibit probabilistic reversal learning deficits, the present experiment investigated whether the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injected into the dorsomedial striatum of male Long-Evans rats affects the acquisition and/or reversal learning of a spatial discrimination using a probabilistic learning procedure (80/20)...
January 24, 2018: Neuroscience
Gaowen Li, Gang Wang, Jing Shi, Xueyi Xie, Ning Fei, Ling Chen, Na Liu, Mingxin Yang, Jianchun Pan, Wu Huang, Ying Xu
trans-Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol enriched in grape seed and skin, has been extensively investigated for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-psychiatric properties. The present study examined the effects of trans-resveratrol on ameliorating anxiety-like behaviors and fear memory deficits induced by time-dependent sensitization (TDS) procedure, which is a classical animal model for mimicking posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The results suggested that trans-resveratrol at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg (via gavage, i...
January 23, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Celeste Y C Wu, Francesca M Lerner, Alexandre Couto E Silva, Harlee E Possoit, Tsung-Han Hsieh, Jake T Neumann, Alireza Minagar, Hung Wen Lin, Reggie H C Lee
BACKGROUND: Evaluating mild to moderate cognitive impairment in a global cerebral ischemia (i.e. cardiac arrest) model can be difficult due to poor locomotion after surgery. For example, rats who undergo surgical procedures and are subjected to the Morris water maze may not be able to swim, thus voiding the experiment. New Method: We established a modified behavioral spontaneous alternation T-maze test. The major advantage of the modified T-maze protocol is its relatively simple design that is powerful enough to assess functional learning/memory after ischemia...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Christopher R Brown, Michael R Brown
Intrathoracic common carotid artery bifurcations are an anatomic anomaly with such rarity that only six cases have been reported to date. The true incidence of and preferred treatment options for a diseased intrathoracic common carotid artery bifurcation or internal carotid artery (ICA) have not been clearly described. This case report describes a 72-year-old man who experienced a postoperative right hemispheric stoke after an aortic valve replacement, radiofrequency maze procedure, and left atrial appendage clip...
September 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery Cases and Innovative Techniques
Grzegorz Suwalski, Robert Emery, Jakub Mróz, Kamil Kaczejko, Leszek Gryszko, Andrzej Cwetsch, Andrzej Skrobowski
OBJECTIVES: In patients referred to off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting, pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) may be used for those with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF), an alternative to the Maze procedure. However, the success rate of PVI in persistent AF is limited. The study assesses the prognostic value of focal epicardial electrocardiography of the pulmonary veins (PVs) for surgical ablation results. METHODS: We mapped 140 PV in 35 cases undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting...
January 15, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Yenela Garcia, Nashelly Esquivel
To evaluate several cognitive parameters during the execution of behavioral tasks assessing cognitive function in laboratory animals, the parameters are reported within a range. This situation entails that each laboratory must establish the conditions under which the behavioral task to evaluate the cognitive function can be carried out. C57BL/6 and BALB/c inbred strains are used more often in behavioral studies relating to anxiety, stress, fear and cognitive function. The aim of this work was to compare the behavioral response of mice of the strains BALB/c and C57BL/6 to evaluate memory and learning as cognitive functions...
January 18, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Jose M Sanchez, Ghannam Al-Dosari, Sherman Chu, Ramin Beygui, Tobias Deuse, Nitish Badhwar, Randall J Lee
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. The incidence of AF increases with age and is associated with increased stroke, heart failure and mortality. Persistent and long standing persistent AF is difficult to treat and often refractory to medical therapy and catheter ablation. Areas covered: This article reviews the historical development of the surgical Cox-MAZE procedure and current hybrid and minimally invasive surgical approaches for the treatment of persistent and long standing persistent AF...
February 2018: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
Chia-Chen Wu, Jen-Ping Chang, Mien-Cheng Chen, Cheng-I Cheng, Wen-Jung Chung
Background: The radiofrequency (RF) maze procedure can effectively restore sinus rhythm in most patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) and mitral disease. However, long-term results and predictors for late AF recurrence are still under investigation. Methods: From December 1995 to November 2011, 207 consecutive patients with persistent AF and mitral disease underwent RF maze procedure and concomitant mitral surgery. The mean age was 54±12.4 year-old...
December 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Hong Ni, Su-Hong Chen, Li-Li Li, Mei-Fang Jin
The mechanism of linking neonatal seizures with long-term brain damage is unclear, and there is no effective drug to block this long-term pathological process. Recently, the fat-derived hormone leptin has been appreciated for its neuroprotective function in neurodegenerative processes, although less is known about the effects of leptin on neonatal seizure-induced brain damage. Here, we developed a "twist" seizure model by coupling pilocarpine-induced neonatal status epilepticus (SE) with later exposure to penicillin to test whether leptin treatment immediately after neonatal SE would exert neuroprotective effects on cognition, seizure threshold and hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting, as well if leptin had any influence on the expression of zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) and calcium homeostasis-related CB-D28k in the hippocampus...
December 26, 2017: Epilepsy Research
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