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Infant chronic lung disease

Chiharu Ota, Hoeke A Baarsma, Darcy E Wagner, Anne Hilgendorff, Melanie Königshoff
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most common chronic lung diseases in infants caused by pre- and/or postnatal lung injury. BPD is characterized by arrested alveolarization and vascularization due to extracellular matrix remodeling, inflammation, and impaired growth factor signaling. WNT signaling is a critical pathway for normal lung development, and its altered signaling has been shown to be involved in the onset and progression of incurable chronic lung diseases in adulthood, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
Sonia Halioui-Louhaichi, Ons Azzabi, Nadia Mattoussi, Hasna Labiadh, Khadija Bousseta, Neji Tebib, Taher Gargah, Sayda Ben Becher, Mohamed Ridha Barbouch, Mohamed Bejaoui, Ahmed Maherzi
Background Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are a group of heterogeneous and relatively rare diseases. Aim to determine the clinical characteristics, outcome and genetic data of primary immunodeficiencies in pediatrics patients. Methods A retrospective, descriptive and multicentered study, enrolling 33 children presenting a PID in Tunis, during a period of 22 years (1991-2012). Resultats a masculine predominance has been noticed with a sex ratio at 2,3. Consanguinity was found in 71% of family cases. History of early infant deaths was found in 42% of cases...
April 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
Ze D Jiang, Cui Wang
AIM: To examine brainstem auditory function at 36-37weeks of postconceptional age in preterm infants who are diagnosed to have neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD). STUDY DESIGN: Preterm infants, born at 31 and less weeks of gestation, were studied at 36-37weeks of postconceptional age when they were diagnosed to have neonatal CLD. Brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) was recorded and analyzed at different click rates. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls at the same postconceptional age, the CLD infants showed a slightly increase in BAER wave V latency...
September 28, 2016: Early Human Development
M B Azad, B L Moyce, L Guillemette, C D Pascoe, B Wicklow, J M McGavock, A J Halayko, V W Dolinsky
Diabetes is an increasingly common complication of pregnancy. In parallel with this trend, a rise in chronic lung disease in children has been observed in recent decades. While several adverse health outcomes associated with exposure to diabetes in utero have been documented in epidemiological and experimental studies, few have examined the impact of diabetes in pregnancy on offspring lung health and respiratory disease. We provide a comprehensive overview of current literature on this topic, finding suggestive evidence that exposure to diabetes in utero may have adverse effects on lung development...
August 19, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
A L Slogrove, L Frigati, D M Gray
With improved prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV, paediatric HIV disease is less common. However, the number of HIV exposed but uninfected infants is growing. Exposure to maternal HIV impacts infant respiratory health through an increase in known risk factors such as increased preterm birth and low birth weight, suboptimal breastfeeding, increased psychosocial stressors and increased exposure to infective pathogens. Exposure to the HIV virus and altered maternal immune environment result in immunologic changes in the infant that may contribute to respiratory disease risk...
August 19, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
David G Sweet, Virgilio Carnielli, Gorm Greisen, Mikko Hallman, Eren Ozek, Richard Plavka, Ola Didrik Saugstad, Umberto Simeoni, Christian P Speer, Máximo Vento, Gerard H A Visser, Henry L Halliday
Advances in the management of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) ensure that clinicians must continue to revise current practice. We report the third update of the European Guidelines for the Management of RDS by a European panel of expert neonatologists including input from an expert perinatal obstetrician based on available literature up to the beginning of 2016. Optimizing the outcome for babies with RDS includes consideration of when to use antenatal steroids, and good obstetric practice includes methods of predicting the risk of preterm delivery and also consideration of whether transfer to a perinatal centre is necessary and safe...
September 21, 2016: Neonatology
Yi-Han Hsiao, Chin-Hung Wei, Szu-Wen Chang, Lung Chang, Yu-Wei Fu, Hung-Chang Lee, Hsuan-Liang Liu, Chun-Yan Yeung
BACKGROUND: Juvenile polyposis syndrome, a rare disorder in children, is characterized with multiple hamartomatous polyps in alimentary tract. A variety of manifestations include bleeding, intussusception, or polyp prolapse. In this study, we present an 8-month-old male infant of juvenile polyposis syndrome initially presenting with chronic anemia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature. METHODS: We report a rare case of an 8-month-old male infant who presented with chronic anemia and gastrointestinal bleeding initially...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Silvia Caimmi, Amelia Licari, Davide Caimmi, Anna Rispoli, Eugenio Baraldi, Fiorella Calabrese, Gian Luigi Marseglia
BACKGROUND: Childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) is a heterogeneous group of rare disorders characterized by abnormal imaging findings, impaired gas exchange; and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (NEHI) is a unique sub-group, which is more prevalent in infants and children younger than 2 years of age, and typically manifests with chronic tachypnea, retractions, hypoxemia and failure to thrive. NEHI insidiously appears in the first year of life, subtly masquerading as one of the more common lung diseases of childhood...
September 15, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Josep Figueras-Aloy, Paolo Manzoni, Bosco Paes, Eric A F Simões, Louis Bont, Paul A Checchia, Brigitte Fauroux, Xavier Carbonell-Estrany
INTRODUCTION: The REGAL (RSV Evidence-a Geographical Archive of the Literature) series provide a comprehensive review of the published evidence in the field of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in Western countries over the last 20 years. This second publication covers the risk and burden of RSV infection in preterm infants born at <37 weeks' gestational age (wGA) without chronic lung disease or congenital heart disease. METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken for articles published between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2015...
September 14, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Meihua Jin, Juyoung Lee, Kyung-Yup Lee, Zhengyong Jin, Jhang Ho Pak, Han-Suk Kim
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a main chronic lung disease commonly occurs in preterm infants. BPD is characterized by impaired alveolarization and vascularization of the developing lung. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway is known to play an important role during lung vascular development. In the present study, we examined whether the regulation of TGF-β-ALK-Smad signaling pathway influence on the disruption of pulmonary vascular development in newborn rats as hyperoxia-induced BPD model...
September 12, 2016: Experimental Lung Research
Vijay Kodadhala, Alemeshet Gudeta, Aklilu Zerihun, Odene Lewis, Sohail Ahmed, Jhansi Gajjala, Alicia Thomas
Tuberculosis (TB) infection in pregnant women and newborn babies is always challenging. Appropriate treatment is pivotal to curtail morbidity and mortality. TB diagnosis or exposure to active TB can be emotionally distressing to the mother. Circumstances can become more challenging for the physician if the mother's TB status is unclear. Effective management of TB during pregnancy and the postpartum period requires a multidisciplinary approach including pulmonologist, obstetrician, neonatologist, infectious disease specialist, and TB public health department...
2016: Case Reports in Pulmonology
Lannae Strueby, Bernard Thébaud
Advances in perinatal care allow the survival of ever more premature infants. By approaching the biological limit of viability, survival free of injury becomes more challenging. As a consequence, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), the chronic lung disease of prematurity, remains one of the main complications in infants born before 28 weeks' gestation. Currently, there is no treatment for BPD. Recent progress in understanding the biology of stem cells has opened unprecedented therapeutic options to mitigate lung injury and promote lung growth...
September 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Elena Priante, Laura Moschino, Veronica Mardegan, Paolo Manzoni, Sabrina Salvadori, Eugenio Baraldi
Despite notable advances in the survival and management of preterm infants in recent decades, chronic lung disease remains a common complication. Approximately one in three infants born preterm (< 32 weeks of gestation) are hospitalized with respiratory problems (mainly due to infections) in their first 2 years of life, and the risk of childhood wheezing is three times higher in this population. By comparison with infants born at term, there seems to be a higher incidence of respiratory morbidity in those born preterm, even in the absence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and in late-preterm babies...
September 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Brian A Darlow, P J Graham, Maria Ximena Rojas-Reyes
BACKGROUND: Vitamin A is necessary for normal lung growth and the integrity of respiratory tract epithelial cells. Preterm infants have low vitamin A status at birth and this has been associated with an increased risk of developing chronic lung disease. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate supplementation with vitamin A on the incidence of death or neonatal chronic lung disease and long-term neurodevelopmental disability in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants compared with a control (placebo or no supplementation), and to consider the effect of the supplementation route, dose, and timing...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Winston M Manimtim, Douglas C Rivard, Ashley K Sherman, Brent E Cully, Brenton D Reading, Charisse I Lachica, Linda L Gratny
BACKGROUND: Tracheobronchomalacia prevalence in premature infants on prolonged mechanical ventilation is high. OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of tracheobronchomalacia diagnosed by tracheobronchography in ventilator-dependent infants, and describe the demographic, clinical and dynamic airway characteristics of those infants with tracheobronchomalacia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective review studies 198 tracheobronchograms performed from 1998 to 2011 in a cohort of 158 ventilator-dependent infants <2 years of age...
August 19, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Karen Whitfield, Claudia Barkeij, Angela North
AIM: To present a case of an extremely premature infant and the role that the specialist neonatal pharmacist has on the quality of care of these patients. METHOD: Interventions and recommendations made by the pharmacists over the admission of a triplet born at 23 weeks and 5 days gestation were recorded. The type of interventions were categorised and classified for risk using a consequence/probability matrix.1 RESULTS: The patient required admission to the intensive care unit and subsequently the special care unit for a period of 163 days before discharge home...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Sarah L Harris, Nicola C Austin, Malcolm Battin, Roland Broadbent, John Horwood, Ross Keenan, Scott Wells, Carole Spencer, Patricia Graham, Lianne J Woodward, Brian A Darlow
AIMS: To describe the survival, in-hospital morbidity, brain metrics and two-year neurodevelopmental outcomes of two extremely preterm cohorts and discuss the contribution of changes in clinical practice to these outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective comparative cohort study, of two cohorts of neonates born <28 weeks gestation: 47 infants born 1998-2000 and 39 infants 2006-2009. RESULTS: Comparing historical to the contemporary cohort respectively, admission temperature (35...
2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
Yu-Cheng Wang, Oi-Wa Chan, Ming-Chou Chiang, Peng-Hong Yang, Shih-Ming Chu, Jen-Fu Hsu, Ren-Huei Fu, Reyin Lien
BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is often considered a life-saving measure in critically ill neonates. The smallest and least mature infants tend to receive the largest amount of transfusions. RBC transfusion itself has also been suggested as an independent risk factor of poor clinical outcome in critical patients. Our aim is to study if there are associations between RBC transfusion and in-hospital mortality, short-term morbidities, and late neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) preterm infants...
July 5, 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
K K McLaurin, A M Farr, S W Wade, D R Diakun, D L Stewart
OBJECTIVE: Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which causes lower respiratory tract infections, is the leading cause of hospitalization among children <1 year old in the United States. Risk factors for RSV hospitalization include premature birth and younger chronologic age, along with several comorbid conditions. However, in terms of RSV hospitalization costs, premature infants are rarely studied separately from full-term infants. The objective of this study is to describe the cost and severity of RSV hospitalizations among preterm and full-term infants without chronic lung disease or other high-risk conditions...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Charitharth Vivek Lal, Colm Travers, Zubair H Aghai, Peter Eipers, Tamas Jilling, Brian Halloran, Waldemar A Carlo, Jordan Keeley, Gabriel Rezonzew, Ranjit Kumar, Casey Morrow, Vineet Bhandari, Namasivayam Ambalavanan
Alterations of pulmonary microbiome have been recognized in multiple respiratory disorders. It is critically important to ascertain if an airway microbiome exists at birth and if so, whether it is associated with subsequent lung disease. We found an established diverse and similar airway microbiome at birth in both preterm and term infants, which was more diverse and different from that of older preterm infants with established chronic lung disease (bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Consistent temporal dysbiotic changes in the airway microbiome were seen from birth to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants...
2016: Scientific Reports
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