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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550456/what-doesn-t-work-for-whom-exploring-heterogeneity-in-responsiveness-to-the-family-check-up-in-early-childhood-using-a-mixture-model-approach
#1
William E Pelham, Thomas J Dishion, Jenn-Yun Tein, Daniel S Shaw, Melvin N Wilson
This study applied latent class analysis to a family-centered prevention trial in early childhood to identify subgroups of families with differential responsiveness to the Family Check-Up (FCU) intervention. The sample included 731 families with 2-year-olds randomized to the FCU or control condition and followed through age 5 with yearly follow-up assessments. A two-step mixture model was used to examine whether specific constellations of family characteristics at age 2 (baseline) were related to intervention response across ages 3, 4, and 5...
May 27, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550353/health-policy-responsiveness-lessons-learned-from-maryland-and-prince-george-s-county
#2
Byron Sogie-Thomas, John Sankofa, Crystal Reed, Kweisi Mfume, Lauren Abla Doamekpor
Effective, timely, and intentional policy efforts can significantly impact and improve the public's health and reduce racial and ethnic health disparities across the nation. Creating and implementing responsive policies at the state and county level is essential to supporting community efforts to improve health behaviors and health outcomes, particularly for communities of color who bear the brunt of disease risk and negative health outcomes. Using policy examples from the State of Maryland and Prince George's County, the largest and wealthiest predominately African-American county in the USA, this case study highlights the importance of state and county policy action when presented with opportunities to affect long-lasting, positive change...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550001/more-than-a-text-message-dismantling-digital-triggers-to-curate-behavior-change-in-patient-centered-health-interventions
#3
Frederick Muench, Amit Baumel
Digital triggers such as text messages, emails, and push alerts are designed to focus an individual on a desired goal by prompting an internal or external reaction at the appropriate time. Triggers therefore have an essential role in engaging individuals with digital interventions delivered outside of traditional health care settings, where other events in daily lives and fluctuating motivation to engage in effortful behavior exist. There is an emerging body of literature examining the use of digital triggers for short-term action and longer-term behavior change...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549760/perception-of-food-consumed-at-home-and-dietary-intake-a-nationwide-study-from-brazil
#4
Maria Fernanda Gombi-Vaca, Paula Martins Horta, Bruna Kulik Hassan, Thalita Fialho da Rocha, Laurits Rohden Skov, Eliseu Verly-Jr
Perception of food consumed is a key factor in acknowledging the need for behavioral change to improve diet quality. We analyzed family dietary intake according to the head of household's perception of satisfaction with food consumed by the family. Households (n = 13,351) that participated in the Brazilian Household Budget Survey and the National Dietary Survey were classified as satisfied or dissatisfied with the food consumed in the home. We compared the family dietary intake of the two groups considering their socio-demographic characteristics...
May 23, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549270/the-effects-of-early-life-adversity-on-the-immune-system
#5
REVIEW
Martha M C Elwenspoek, Annette Kuehn, Claude P Muller, Jonathan D Turner
Early life adversity (ELA) is associated with a higher risk for diseases in adulthood. Although the pathophysiological effects of ELA are varied, there may be a unifying role for the immune system in all of the long-term pathologies such as chronic inflammatory disorders (autoimmune diseases, allergy, and asthma). Recently, significant efforts have been made to elucidate the long-term effects ELA has on immune function, as well as the mechanisms underlying these immune changes. In this review, we focus on data from human studies investigating immune parameters in relation to post-natal adverse experiences...
May 17, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547663/pediatric-predispositional-genetic-risk-communication-potential-utility-for-prevention-and-control-of-melanoma-risk-as-an-exemplar
#6
Yelena P Wu, Darren Mays, Wendy Kohlmann, Kenneth P Tercyak
Predispositional genetic testing among minor children is intensely debated due to the potential benefits and harms of providing this type of genetic information to children and their families. Existing guidelines on pediatric genetic testing state that predispositional testing could be appropriate for minors if preventive services exist that mitigate children's risk for or severity of the health condition in question. We use the example of hereditary melanoma to illustrate the rationale for and potential application of genetic risk communication for an adult-onset cancer to a pediatric population where childhood behaviors may reduce risk of disease later in life...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545456/towards-an-equitable-healthcare-in-china-evaluating-the-productive-efficiency-of-community-health-centers-in-jiangsu-province
#7
Lulin Zhou, Xinglong Xu, Henry Asante Antwi, Linna Wang
BACKGROUND: While the demand for the health service keeps escalating at the grass root or rural areas of China, a substantial portion of healthcare resources remains stagnant in the more developed cities and this has entrenched health inequity in many parts of China. At its conception, the Deepening Health Care Reform in 2012 China was intended to flush out these discrepancies and promote a more equitable and efficient distribution of health resources. Nearly half a decade of this reform, there are uncertainties as to whether the attainment of the objectives of the reform is in sight...
May 25, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545131/major-changes-in-microbial-diversity-and-community-composition-across-gut-sections-of-a-juvenile-panchlora-cockroach
#8
Erin A Gontang, Frank O Aylward, Camila Carlos, Tijana Glavina Del Rio, Mansi Chovatia, Alison Fern, Chien-Chi Lo, Stephanie A Malfatti, Susannah G Tringe, Cameron R Currie, Roberto Kolter
Investigations of gut microbiomes have shed light on the diversity and genetic content of these communities, and helped shape our understanding of how host-associated microorganisms influence host physiology, behavior, and health. Despite the importance of gut microbes to metazoans, our understanding of the changes in diversity and composition across the alimentary tract, and the source of the resident community are limited. Here, using community metagenomics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we assess microbial community diversity and coding potential in the foregut, midgut, and hindgut of a juvenile Panchlora cockroach, which resides in the refuse piles of the leaf-cutter ant species Atta colombica...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544860/behavioral-processes-in-long-lag-intervention-studies
#9
Dale T Miller, Jennifer E Dannals, Julian J Zlatev
We argue that psychologists who conduct experiments with long lags between the manipulation and the outcome measure should pay more attention to behavioral processes that intervene between the manipulation and the outcome measure. Neglect of such processes, we contend, stems from psychology's long tradition of short-lag lab experiments where there is little scope for intervening behavioral processes. Studying process in the lab invariably involves studying psychological processes, but in long-lag field experiments it is important to study causally relevant behavioral processes as well as psychological ones...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544230/cardiac-diabetes-self-management-program-for-australians-and-taiwanese-a-randomized-blocked-design-study
#10
Chiung-Jung Jo Wu, Huei-Chuan Sung, Anne M Chang, John Atherton, Karam Kostner, Steven M McPhail
Cardiac disease and type 2 diabetes are prevalent diseases globally. Cardiac rehabilitation and diabetes self-management programs empower patients' self-management to improve their health outcomes. However, inappropriate delivery modes and continuing low participation rates indicate some programs are less than optimal. A previous study demonstrated the feasibility of incorporating telephone and text messages into a cardiac-diabetes self-management program in Australia; however, the program did not specifically address patients' cultural backgrounds...
May 25, 2017: Nursing & Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543652/what-s-the-use-disparate-purposes-of-u-s-federal-bioethics-commissions
#11
Jenny Dyck Brian, Robert Cook-Deegan
In the forty-year history of U.S. bioethics commissions, these government-sanctioned forums have often demonstrated their power to address pressing problems and to enable policy change. For example, the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, established in 1974, left a legacy of reports that were translated into regulations and had an enormous practical impact. And the 1982 report Splicing Life, by the President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research, became the basis for the National Institutes of Health's Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee as well as for the Food and Drug Administration's developing "Points to Consider" when contemplating the introduction of recombinant DNA into human beings...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542615/taking-dietary-habits-into-account-a-computational-method-for-modeling-food-choices-that-goes-beyond-price
#12
Rahmatollah Beheshti, Jessica C Jones-Smith, Takeru Igusa
Computational models have gained popularity as a predictive tool for assessing proposed policy changes affecting dietary choice. Specifically, they have been used for modeling dietary changes in response to economic interventions, such as price and income changes. Herein, we present a novel addition to this type of model by incorporating habitual behaviors that drive individuals to maintain or conform to prior eating patterns. We examine our method in a simulated case study of food choice behaviors of low-income adults in the US...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542455/factors-influencing-interest-in-recreational-sports-participation-and-its-rural-urban-disparity
#13
Chiehfeng Chen, Liang-Ting Tsai, Ching-Feng Lin, Chun-Ching Huang, Yao-Tsung Chang, Ruey-Yu Chen, Shu-Yu Lyu
OBJECTIVES: Recreational sports are important leisure activities. However, most studies investigating barrier factors and motivation for participation in recreational sports have been limited to specific areas (e.g., a city or school) or demographic groups (e.g., adolescents). Therefore, this study set out to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the behavioral and socioeconomic factors influencing interest in recreational sports participation in Taiwan, as well as to evaluate the effect of any urban-rural divide...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542245/identifying-corals-displaying-aberrant-behavior-in-fiji-s-lau-archipelago
#14
Anderson B Mayfield, Chii-Shiarng Chen, Alexandra C Dempsey
Given the numerous threats against Earth's coral reefs, there is an urgent need to develop means of assessing reef coral health on a proactive timescale. Molecular biomarkers may prove useful in this endeavor because their expression should theoretically undergo changes prior to visible signs of health decline, such as the breakdown of the coral-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium) endosymbiosis. Herein 13 molecular- and physiological-scale biomarkers spanning both eukaryotic compartments of the anthozoan-Symbiodinium mutualism were assessed across 70 pocilloporid coral colonies sampled from reefs of Fiji's easternmost province, Lau...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542098/comparison-of-oxygen-consumption-rates-of-nondegenerate-and-degenerate-human-ivd-cells
#15
Sarah E Cisewski, Yongren Wu, Brooke J Damon, Barton L Sachs, Michael J Kern, Hai Yao
STUDY DESIGN: In vitro measurements of the oxygen consumption rates (OCR) of human intervertebral disc (IVD) cells. OBJECTIVE: To determine the differences in the OCR of nondegenerate and degenerate human annulus fibrosus (AF), nucleus pulposus (NP), and cartilage endplate (CEP) cells at different glucose concentrations. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The avascular nature of the IVD creates a delicate balance between rate of nutrient transport through the matrix and rate of disc cell consumption necessary to maintain tissue health...
May 24, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541080/state-special-education-criteria-for-identifying-intellectual-disability-a-review-following-revised-diagnostic-criteria-and-rosa-s-law
#16
Patrick J McNicholas, Randy G Floyd, Isaac L Woods, Leah J Singh, Meredith S Manguno, Kathrin E Maki
Across the last century, the condition known as intellectual disability (ID) has been labeled by assorted terms, its key features have varied, and recommendations for its identification have been divided. In light of recent changes to the diagnostic criteria for ID and to federal legislation, this study was designed to compile and summarize information about the state special education criteria for this condition and its associated assessment process, as they guide school-based and associated practices. Authors independently double-coded components of all ID regulations and guidelines from the 50 United States and the District of Columbia in pairs, which was then checked and corrected for inconsistencies...
May 25, 2017: School Psychology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540101/health-status-and-lifestyle-habits-of-us-medical-students-a-longitudinal-study
#17
B J Brehm, S S Summer, J C Khoury, A T Filak, M A Lieberman, J E Heubi
BACKGROUND: Evidence shows that physicians and medical students who engage in healthy lifestyle habits are more likely to counsel patients about such behaviors. Yet medical school is a challenging time that may bring about undesired changes to health and lifestyle habits. AIMS: This study assessed changes in students' health and lifestyle behaviors during medical school. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In a longitudinal study, students were assessed at both the beginning and end of medical school...
November 2016: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538259/cardiometabolic-correlates-of-physical-activity-and-sedentary-patterns-in-us-youth
#18
Gabrielle P Jenkins, Kelly R Evenson, Amy H Herring, Derek Hales, June Stevens
INTRODUCTION: Daily or weekly averages of physical activity and sedentary behavior could mask patterns of behavior throughout the week that independently impact cardiovascular health. We examined associations between day-to-day physical activity and sedentary behavior latent classes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in US youth. METHODS: Data were from 3,984 youth ages 6-17y from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2006) and from previously published accelerometry latent classes characterizing average counts/minute and percent of wear time in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior...
May 20, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537945/making-sense-of-effective-partnerships-among-senior-leaders-in-the-national-health-service
#19
Mahima Mitra, Timothy Hoff, Paul Brankin, Sue Dopson
BACKGROUND: Changing health care systems depend on strong organizational leadership that realizes the collaborative potential of both physician and nonphysician leaders. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to seek insight into the everyday health care leader experience by examining 24 physician and nonphysician leaders working in the U.K. National Health Service. We explored (a) how they make sense of and act with respect to specific collaborative tensions in their interactions and (b) which aspects of their everyday leadership contexts heighten the probability for producing and resolving such tensions...
May 22, 2017: Health Care Management Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537772/health-related-behaviors-moderate-the-association-between-age-and-self-reported-health-literacy-among-taiwanese-women
#20
Tuyen-Van Duong, Kristine Sørensen, Jürgen M Pelikan, Stephan Van den Broucke, I-Feng Lin, Ying-Chin Lin, Hsiao-Ling Huang, Peter Wushou Chang
The role of health-related behaviors in the association between age and health literacy has not been well-elucidated. The present cross-sectional study evaluated the interactions between age and health-related behaviors in a 942 women in Taiwan between February and October 2013. Women aged 18-78 years were randomly sampled and recruited from the national administrative system. Self-reported health literacy was measured by the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q47) in Mandarin, asking about socio-demographics and essential health-related behaviors (watching health-related television, community involvement)...
May 24, 2017: Women & Health
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