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Health behavior change

Anna N Chard, Matthew C Freeman
Evidence of the impact of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in schools (WinS) interventions on pupil absence and health is mixed. Few WinS evaluations rigorously report on output and outcome measures that allow for comparisons of effectiveness between interventions to be made, or for an understanding of why programs succeed. The Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene for Health and Education in Laotian Primary Schools (WASH HELPS) study was a randomized controlled trial designed to measure the impact of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Laos WinS project on child health and education...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
(no author information available yet)
In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper deals with the fundamentals of PRM from a physiological perspective, looking at the human mechanisms both physical and behavioral which are at the base of PRM physicians' work. After a discussion on the development and evolution of PRM that leads to its unique and specific approach, the mechanisms considered include: - repairing processes (and potential of recovery evaluation): repairing processes are mainly related to the quantity and natural history of diseases and impairments, while potential of recovery is also linked to the individual and environmental factors; PRM physicians work on impairments to favor healing or recovery, and propose rehabilitation if there is a potential of recovery: this is related to the prognostic role of PRM physicians; - learning processes: PRM is the specialty of teaching new physical ways and behavioral approaches to make patients participate at best through improvement of impairments and modification of activities; in this perspective, during repair and rehabilitation processes, PRM physicians and the rehabilitation team are teachers of new motor and behavioral strategies; - compensatory processes (adaptation/habilitation/rehabilitation): PRM physicians teach patients how to adapt to the new (acquired) health condition using compensatory mechanisms based on other body structures/functions, behavioral changes and/or assistive devices (or technical aids) (prosthesis and orthosis); during growth PRM physicians aim at allowing a complete (and compensatory) development of the intact function, not to be impaired by the original disease; compensatory processes are related to activities; - management skills: PRM physicians are managers of people and resources; they manage patients and their caregivers, to teach and allow them to reach the best possible participation, also focusing on maintenance; they lead the team, with the aim to make it function at best for the sake of the patient; finally, they manage resource allocation for the functioning of patients and team; - communication skills: PRM physicians need to develop very good communication skills, so to teach, inform and educate patients and their caregivers: this will allow the proper behavioural changes and also the correct physical compensations...
April 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Rui Zhang, Ling Chen, Ya Deng Cui, Ge Li
In China, migrants with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have become a serious problem in the field of AIDS prevention. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of interventions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection prevention for migrants in China and to identify factors associated with intervention efficacy. A computerized literature search of the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wan Fang, and PubMed databases was conducted to collect related articles published in China. Only self-control intervention studies or studies containing sections regarding self-control interventions wherein the method of intervention was health education were included...
December 2018: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
Shu-Han You, Szu-Chieh Chen, Chung-Min Liao
Background: It has been found that health-seeking behavior has a certain impact on influenza infection. However, behaviors with/without risk perception on the control of influenza transmission among age groups have not been well quantified. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess to what extent, under scenarios of with/without control and preventive/protective behaviors, the age-specific network-driven risk perception influences influenza infection. Materials and methods: A behavior-influenza model was used to estimate the spread rate of age-specific risk perception in response to an influenza outbreak...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Hayden B Bosworth, Barbara Ngouyombo, Jan Liska, Leah L Zullig, Caroline Atlani, Anne C Beal
Lipid-lowering medications have been shown to be efficacious, but adherence is suboptimal. This is a narrative, perspective review of recently published literature in the field of medication adherence research for lipid-lowering medications. We provide an overview of the impact of suboptimal adherence and use a World Health Organization framework (patient, condition, therapy, socioeconomic, and health system-related systems) to discuss factors that influence hyperlipidemia treatment adherence. Further, the review involves an evaluation of intervention strategies to increase hyperlipidemia treatment adherence with a special focus on mHealth interventions, patient reminders on packaging labels, nurse- and pharmacist-led interventions, and health teams...
2018: Patient Preference and Adherence
Paulina Bondaronek, Ghadah Alkhaldi, April Slee, Fiona L Hamilton, Elizabeth Murray
BACKGROUND: Within the new digital health landscape, the rise of health apps creates novel prospects for health promotion. The market is saturated with apps that aim to increase physical activity (PA). Despite the wide distribution and popularity of PA apps, there are limited data on their effectiveness, user experience, and safety of personal data. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review and content analysis was to evaluate the quality of the most popular PA apps on the market using health care quality indicators...
March 21, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Hugh Cameron McCall, Chris G Richardson, Fjola Dogg Helgadottir, Frances S Chen
BACKGROUND: Treatment rates for social anxiety, a prevalent and potentially debilitating condition, remain among the lowest of all major mental disorders today. Although computer-delivered interventions are well poised to surmount key barriers to the treatment of social anxiety, most are only marginally effective when delivered as stand-alone treatments. A new, Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention called Overcome Social Anxiety was recently created to address the limitations of prior computer-delivered interventions...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Jillian Pugatch, Emily Grenen, Stacy Surla, Mary Schwarz, Heather Cole-Lewis
BACKGROUND: The rise in usage of and access to new technologies in recent years has led to a growth in digital health behavior change interventions. As the shift to digital platforms continues to grow, it is increasingly important to consider how the field of information architecture (IA) can inform the development of digital health interventions. IA is the way in which digital content is organized and displayed, which strongly impacts users' ability to find and use content. While many information architecture best practices exist, there is a lack of empirical evidence on the role it plays in influencing behavior change and health outcomes...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
J S Litt, K Alaimo, M Buchenau, A Villalobos, D H Glueck, T Crume, L Fahnestock, R F Hamman, J R Hebert, T G Hurley, J Leiferman, K Li
BACKGROUND: Engaging in health-promoting behaviors (e.g., healthy fruit- and vegetable-rich diet, physical activity) and living in supportive social and built environments are consistently and significantly associated with reductions in cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and other chronic diseases. Interventions to change diet and physical activity behaviors should aim to educate individuals, change the environments in which people live, work and recreate, improve access, availability, and affordability of healthy foods, and create safe places the facilitate active lifestyles...
March 18, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Miriam Harter, Sebastian Mosch, Hans-Joachim Mosler
BACKGROUND: Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is a widely used, community-based approach to tackle open defecation and its health-related problems. Although CLTS has been shown to be successful in previous studies, little is known about how CLTS works. We used a cross-sectional case study to identify personal, physical, and social context factors and psychosocial determinants from the Risks, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, and Self-Regulation (RANAS) model of behavior change, which are crucial for latrine ownership and analyze how participation in CLTS is associated with those determinants...
March 21, 2018: BMC Public Health
Marit K Zinöcker, Inge A Lindseth
The dietary pattern that characterizes the Western diet is strongly associated with obesity and related metabolic diseases, but biological mechanisms supporting these associations remain largely unknown. We argue that the Western diet promotes inflammation that arises from both structural and behavioral changes in the resident microbiome. The environment created in the gut by ultra-processed foods, a hallmark of the Western diet, is an evolutionarily unique selection ground for microbes that can promote diverse forms of inflammatory disease...
March 17, 2018: Nutrients
Allah Bukhsh, Muhammad Sarfraz Nawaz, Hafiz Sajjad Ahmed, Tahir Mehmood Khan
BACKGROUND: Diabetes self-care activities, like, healthy diet, regular exercise, self-monitoring of blood glucose, and rational use of medicines are considered to play a vital role in establishing euglycemia. Health literacy among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Pakistan is very low, which is the most likely cause for poor clinical outcomes. This study is designed to investigate the impact of pharmacist-led educational intervention on glycemic control, self-care activities and disease knowledge among T2DM patients in Pakistan...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
James White, Mika Kivimäki, G David Batty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2018: Epidemiology
Rebecca Simon, Sharon W Lahiri
OBJECTIVE: To identify provider recommendations and barriers in obesity management in a multicenter academic health system with extensive weight-loss management resources. METHODS: A 26-question online survey was sent to attending physicians, trainees, and advanced practice providers in primary care specialties (internal medicine, family medicine, women's health) and endocrinology. RESULTS: The survey response rate was 26% (111/430). Of respondents, 50% were internal medicine, 24% family medicine, 16% women's health, and 9% endocrinology...
March 21, 2018: Endocrine Practice
Lisanna Lamb, Nadja Affenzeller, Lynn Hewison, Kevin James McPeake, Helen Zulch, Daniel S Mills
Adherence to the advice of medical practitioners is critical to successful treatment outcomes and has been much researched in human health, but is less well studied in the veterinary and clinical animal behavior fields. Given that the management of behavior problems often requires substantial change in established client behavior, it is likely that adherence is a substantive issue affecting success. However, little is known about the relationships between relevant factors, and there is no established way of assessing these...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Leili Shafiei, Parvaneh Taymoori, Afshin Maleki, Kourosh Sayehmiri
Background: The effect of instructional models on the changing behavior of consuming fruit and vegetables in the prevention of diseases caused by consumption of foods including rice, contaminated with toxic metals, has not been investigated in Iran yet. Objective: To compare an Ecological-social model (ECO) group and Control group in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption. Methods: This research involved implementation of a six-month randomized controlled educational interventionist program into a group of Ecological-social framework along with a control group, totally summing up to 160 women between 18 and 50 years of age in Ilam, Iran in 2014...
December 2017: Electronic Physician
Lucy Mackillop, Jane Elizabeth Hirst, Katy Jane Bartlett, Jacqueline Susan Birks, Lei Clifton, Andrew J Farmer, Oliver Gibson, Yvonne Kenworthy, Jonathan Cummings Levy, Lise Loerup, Oliver Rivero-Arias, Wai-Kit Ming, Carmelo Velardo, Lionel Tarassenko
BACKGROUND: Treatment of hyperglycemia in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with improved maternal and neonatal outcomes and requires intensive clinical input. This is currently achieved by hospital clinic attendance every 2 to 4 weeks with limited opportunity for intervention between these visits. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine whether the use of a mobile phone-based real-time blood glucose management system to manage women with GDM remotely was as effective in controlling blood glucose as standard care through clinic attendance...
March 20, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Shaheen A Abdulkareem, Ellen-Wien Augustijn, Yaseen T Mustafa, Tatiana Filatova
BACKGROUND: Millions of people worldwide are exposed to deadly infectious diseases on a regular basis. Breaking news of the Zika outbreak for instance, made it to the main media titles internationally. Perceiving disease risks motivate people to adapt their behavior toward a safer and more protective lifestyle. Computational science is instrumental in exploring patterns of disease spread emerging from many individual decisions and interactions among agents and their environment by means of agent-based models...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Alpesh A Patel, Shah-Nawaz M Dodwad, Barrett S Boody, Surabhi Bhatt, Jason W Savage, Wellington K Hsu, Nan E Rothrock
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, cohort study. OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate validity of PROMIS physical function, pain interference, and pain behavior computer adaptive tests (CATs) in surgically treated lumbar stenosis patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: There has been increasing attention given to patient reported outcomes associated with spinal interventions. Historical patient outcome measures have inadequate validation, demonstrate floor/ceiling effects, and infrequently used due to time constraints...
March 19, 2018: Spine
Morgan Walls, Howard Cabral, Emily Feinberg, Michael Silverstein
OBJECTIVE: Depression is highly prevalent among caregivers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We examined the association between caregiver depressive symptom trajectories and changes in child ADHD symptoms. METHODS: We analyzed data from a randomized trial of 2 ADHD care management systems for children aged 6 to 12 years and their caregivers (n = 156 dyads). Child ADHD symptoms were measured using the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham rating scale (SNAP-IV)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
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