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Ruchi Singh, Jagdish C Suri, Renuka Sharma, Tejas Suri, Tulsi Adhikari
OBJECTIVES: To examine the sleep pattern and observe differences in sleep routines, phase preferences, mood, attendance, and academic performance among different adolescent age students. Secondly, to observe the age at which sleep phase transition and changes in sleep requirement become evident. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 501 students (aged 11-15 y) of a school in Delhi, India. Students were evaluated for their sleep patterns, sleep duration, habits of napping, quality of sleep, sleepiness, depression, phase preferences by self-reported school sleep habits survey questionnaire along with school performance and attendance...
March 16, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Haley Adams, Gayathri Narasimham, John Rieser, Sarah Creem-Regehr, Jeanine Stefanucci, Bobby Bodenheimer
As virtual reality expands in popularity, an increasingly diverse audience is gaining exposure to immersive virtual environments (IVEs). A significant body of research has demonstrated how perception and action work in such environments, but most of this work has been done studying adults. Less is known about how physical and cognitive development affect perception and action in IVEs, particularly as applied to preteen and teenage children. Accordingly, in the current study we assess how preteens (children aged 8-12 years) and teenagers (children aged 15-18 years) respond to mismatches between their motor behavior and the visual information presented by an IVE...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Marisa E Hilliard, Sahar S Eshtehardi, Charles G Minard, Rana Saber, Debbe Thompson, Lefkothea P Karaviti, Yuliana Rojas, Barbara J Anderson
BACKGROUND: Supportive parent involvement for adolescents' type 1 diabetes (T1D) self-management promotes optimal diabetes outcomes. However, family conflict is common and can interfere with collaborative family teamwork. Few interventions have used explicitly strengths-based approaches to help reinforce desired management behaviors and promote positive family interactions around diabetes care. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this protocol was to describe the development of a new, strengths-based behavioral intervention for parents of adolescents with T1D delivered via a mobile-friendly Web app called Type 1 Doing Well...
March 13, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Rebecca C Windle, Michael Windle
INTRODUCTION: Numerous cross-sectional and shorter-term longitudinal studies have supported the role of drinking motives as potent proximal predictors of alcohol phenotypes (e.g., alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking). However, missing from this literature is a focus both on the stability of drinking motives across young adulthood and on adolescent precursors of drinking motives. METHODS: We investigated the adequacy of using a latent trait-state model (LTSM) to investigate three-wave data on social, enhancement, and coping motives for drinking with a community sample of young adults (N = 1004) at the mean ages of 23...
March 6, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Thomas H Inge, Lori M Laffel, Todd M Jenkins, Marsha D Marcus, Natasha I Leibel, Mary L Brandt, Morey Haymond, Elaine M Urbina, Lawrence M Dolan, Philip S Zeitler
Importance: Because of the substantial increase in the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in the pediatric population and the medical complications of this condition, therapies are urgently needed that will achieve better glycemic control than standard medical management. Objective: To compare glycemic control in cohorts of severely obese adolescents with type 2 diabetes undergoing medical and surgical interventions. Design, Setting, and Participants: A secondary analysis of data collected by the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) and Treatment Options of Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) consortia was performed...
March 12, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Brittany M Charlton, Andrea L Roberts, Margaret Rosario, Sabra L Katz-Wise, Jerel P Calzo, Donna Spiegelman, S Bryn Austin
OBJECTIVES: Young women who are sexual minorities (eg, bisexual and lesbian) are approximately twice as likely as those who are heterosexual to have a teen pregnancy. Therefore, we hypothesized that risk factors for teen pregnancy would vary across sexual orientation groups and that other potential risk factors exist that are unique to sexual minorities. METHODS: We used multivariable log-binomial models gathered from 7120 young women in the longitudinal cohort known as the Growing Up Today Study to examine the following potential teen pregnancy risk factors: childhood maltreatment, bullying victimization and perpetration, and gender nonconformity...
March 12, 2018: Pediatrics
Joseph R Cohen, Ryan C Shorey, Suvarna V Menon, Jeff R Temple
OBJECTIVES: With our study we aimed to (1) understand what factors uniquely conferred risk for physical and sexual forms of teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration and (2) create a screening algorithm to quantify perpetration risk on the basis of these factors. METHODS: A total of 1031 diverse public high school students living in Southeast Texas participated in our study (56% female; 29% African American, 28% white, and 31% Hispanic). Self-report measures concerning TDV and associated risk factors were completed annually for 6 years...
March 12, 2018: Pediatrics
Shaylan K Govind, Neil H Merritt
BACKGROUND: The objective of our study was to identify the most common mechanisms of injury leading to death in our pediatric population. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of fatally injured children 0-17 years old treated at our trauma center during 2000-2015. RESULTS: The mortality rate in our population was 8% (n = 103). Fifty-five percent were male. The majority (76%) of fatal injuries were blunt. Overall, motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) were the most common mechanism of injury (61%), followed by assault/abuse (9%)...
March 6, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Jody C Gan
Service learning experiences abroad provide an excellent opportunity for seasoned health educators to share their skills with underresourced communities in other parts of the world while enriching their own professional development. Health educators have not traditionally participated in short-term medical service trips, which have become a popular humanitarian effort, yet their contributions can expand the scope of these efforts. With our responsibilities often focused on assessing needs, planning, implementing, and evaluation, seasoned health educators can provide guidance for new initiatives and share health promotion materials and other resources with communities in other parts of the world...
March 1, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
Nick Wasylyshyn, Brett Hemenway Falk, Javier O Garcia, Christopher N Cascio, Matthew Brook O'Donnell, C Raymond Bingham, Bruce Simons-Morton, Jean M Vettel, Emily B Falk
Individuals react differently to social experiences; for example, people who are more sensitive to negative social experiences, such as being excluded, may be more likely to adapt their behavior to fit in with others. We examined whether functional brain connectivity during social exclusion in the fMRI scanner can be used to predict subsequent conformity to peer norms. Adolescent males (n = 57) completed a two-part study on teen driving risk: a social exclusion task (Cyberball) during an fMRI session and a subsequent driving simulator session in which they drove alone and in the presence of a peer who expressed risk-averse or risk-accepting driving norms...
February 1, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Jessica M Kramer, Christine Helfrich, Melissa Levin, I-Ting Hwang, Preethy S Samuel, Ann Carrellas, Ariel E Schwartz, Aleksandrina Goeva, Eric D Kolaczyk
AIM: Project TEAM (Teens making Environment and Activity Modifications) teaches transition-age young people with developmental disabilities, including those with co-occurring intellectual or cognitive disabilities, to identify and resolve environmental barriers to participation. We examined its effects on young people's attainment of participation goals, knowledge, problem-solving, self-determination, and self-efficacy. METHOD: We used a quasi-experimental, repeated measures design (initial, outcome, 6-week follow-up) with two groups: (1) Project TEAM (28 males, 19 females; mean age 17y 6mo); and (2) goal-setting comparison (21 males, 14 females; mean age 17y 6mo)...
March 12, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Ta-Cheng Hung, Yi-Hung Liao, Yung-Shen Tsai, Lisa Ferguson-Stegall, Chia-Hua Kuo, Chung-Yu Chen
Despite heat imposes considerable physiological stress to human body, hot water immersion remains as a popular relaxation modality for athletes. Here we examined the lingering effect of hot tub relaxation after training on performance-associated measures and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) in junior archers. Ten national level archers, aged 16.6 ± 0.3 years (M = 8, F = 2), participated in a randomized counter-balanced crossover study after baseline measurements. In particular, half participants were assigned to the hot water immersion (HOT) group, whereas another halves were assigned to the untreated control (CON) group...
March 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Jennifer Utter, Nicole Larson, Melissa N Laska, Megan Winkler, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether perceived cooking skills in emerging adulthood predicts better nutrition a decade later. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the Project Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults longitudinal study. Participants reported on adequacy of cooking skills in 2002-2003 (age 18-23 years) and subsequently reported on nutrition-related outcomes in 2015-2016 (age 30-35 years) (n = 1,158). Separate regression models were used to examine associations between cooking skills at age 18-23 years and each subsequent outcome...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Jiafu Li, Ying Zhang, Tingting Sun, Huawei Hao, Hao Wu, Lili Wang, Yuxing Chen, Limin Xing, Zhiguang Niu
In our study, health risk levels of different age groups of residents living in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) posed by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in atmosphere and soil were evaluated. The toxic equivalent concentrations of PCDD/Fs (TEQ) in surrounding atmosphere and soil of studied MSWI were 0.05-0.12 pg I-TEQ Nm-3 and 7.622-15.450 ng I-TEQ kg-1 , respectively. The PCDFs/PCDDs (F/D) values of PCDD/Fs in surrounding atmosphere of studied MSWI ranged from 0...
March 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ivy L Pike, Charles Hilton, Matthias Österle, Owuor Olungah
Recently, strong pleas have emerged to place the health of adolescents on the global health agenda. To reposition adolescence front and center, scholars argue that we must work toward a richly contextualized approach that considers the role that social environments play in shaping the final stages of growth and development. We aim to contribute to this deeper understanding of the social determinants of global adolescent health by offering a case study of three nomadic pastoralist communities from northern Kenya...
February 23, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Julia E Napier, Michael S Lund, Douglas L Armstrong, Denise McAloose
The Amur leopard ( Panthera pardus orientalis) is one of the most critically endangered leopards on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature red list. The primary objective of this retrospective study was to identify common and significant causes of morbidity and mortality in the North American Amur leopard zoo population. This information provides insights that contribute to their improved care, health, and medical management and, ultimately, affects the sustainability of this leopard subspecies in the wild...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Carina Curti Galhardi, Thelma Simões Matsukura
This study aimed to shed light on the daily reality of adolescents in relation to drugs, at a Center for Psychosocial Care for Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAPSad) and the other contexts in which they circulate, analyzed from their own perspective. The study included eight adolescents 12 to 18 years of age enrolled in the CAPSad in a medium-sized city in the interior of São Paulo State, Brazil. Data collection used an identification form for the adolescents and family network and a semi-structured interview. Data analysis used the collective subject discourse (CSD) technique...
March 5, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Jerica M Berge, Megan R Winkler, Nicole Larson, Jonathan Miller, Ann F Haynos, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
BACKGROUND: Although previous cross-sectional research has revealed potential harmful outcomes associated with parent encouragement to diet, it is unclear whether these effects are long lasting and whether they are transmitted to the next generation. The main aim of the current study was to examine longitudinal associations between exposure to parent encouragement to diet in adolescence and weight-related and emotional health outcomes in adulthood and to examine whether intergenerational transmission of encouragement to diet occurs...
March 6, 2018: Pediatrics
Megan L Ranney, Julie Bromberg, Alyssa Hozey, T Charles Casper, Michael J Mello, Anthony Spirito, Thomas H Chun, James G Linakis
OBJECTIVE: Problem behaviors such as substance use and peer aggression frequently co-exist, and are common among youth seen in emergency departments (EDs). EDs are increasingly urged to screen for both psychological distress and problem behaviors. To inform screening and intervention efforts, we aimed to identify classes of problematic substance use and peer aggression in a sample of adolescents from 16 pediatric EDs, and to examine the relative prevalence of psychological distress in identified classes...
March 2, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
Nicholas J Carson, Meredith Gansner, Jeane Khang
Digital media (also called "new media") have become an important ecosystem in which adolescents develop biologically, psychologically, and socially. When assessing adolescents in the psychiatric interview, a nuanced understanding of digital media use can inform a more accurate formulation. However, there are few published resources to help the psychiatrist assess the impact of digital media during the initial adolescent interview. The authors propose an innovation on the traditional psychiatric assessment that addresses teen Internet use and digital media habits...
April 2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
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