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fetal therapy

Tiago Cardoso, Andrew Adler, Bengt Mattsson, Deirdre B Hoban, Sara Nolbrant, Jenny Nelander Wahlestedt, Agnete Kirkeby, Shane Grealish, Anders Björklund, Malin Parmar
Dopamine (DA) neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are a promising unlimited source of cells for cell replacement therapy in Parkinson´s disease (PD). A number of studies have demonstrated functionality of DA neurons originating from hESCs when grafted to the striatum of rodent and non-human primate models of PD. However, several questions remain in regard to their axonal outgrowth potential and capacity to integrate into host circuitry. Here, VM patterned hESC-derived progenitors were grafted into the midbrain of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats, and analyzed at 6, 18 and 24 weeks for a time-course evaluation of specificity and extent of graft-derived fiber outgrowth as well as potential for functional recovery...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Michael M Aziz, Ankita Kulkarni, Oluwafisayo Tunde-Agbede, Carlos W Benito, Yinka Oyelese
OBJECTIVE: To determine if women who present to the labor and delivery unit at 23 0/7 to 36 6/7 weeks gestation with threatened preterm labor (TPTL) are more likely to be dehydrated than women who present at the same gestational age for other reasons. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: An academic medical center in the northeastern United States. PARTICIPANTS: All women at preterm gestational ages 23 0/7 to 36 6/7 weeks who presented to the labor and delivery unit for care in 2014...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
Rose Masaba, Craig B Borkowf, Sonali Girde, Clement Zeh, Richard Ndivo, Isabella Nyang'au, Kevin Achola, Timothy K Thomas, Shirley Lee Lecher
BACKGROUND: For HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is known to reduce the mother's risk of passing the infection to her child. However, concerns remain about possible associations between various components of different ART regimens and adverse fetal and infant outcomes. As part of a clinical trial in western Kenya for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, pregnant women received one of two different ART regimens. METHODS: The original PMTCT study conducted in Kenya enrolled 522 HIV-infected, ART-naive pregnant women...
July 31, 2018: AIDS
C Feeney, N Stanford, S Lee, S Barry
Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is an inherited metabolic disorder that results in poorly mineralised bones and teeth. Clinical symptoms vary widely from mild dental anomalies to fatal fetal defects. The most common dental symptoms include exfoliation of the primary incisors before the age of three with little or no root resorption, large pulp chambers, alveolar bone loss and thin dentinal walls. There is generally minimal periodontal inflammation associated with the bony destruction and tooth loss. The general dental practitioner is usually the first clinician to spot signs of the milder forms of HPP...
June 22, 2018: British Dental Journal
Cynthia Bean, Sharonda Harris, Augustina Addison, Kedra Wallace
HELLP syndrome is a disorder associated with serious maternal morbidity and mortality. Distinguishing HELLP from other pregnancy related disorders is often challenging and may result in delay of treatment. Differential diagnoses include acute fatty liver of pregnancy, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, antiphospholipid syndrome, and hemolytic uremic syndrome, and are reviewed in this chapter. While there is not any current treatment for HELLP, the mainstay of treatment involves maternal stabilization and timely delivery...
July 11, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Ming-Sum Lee, Avetis Hekimian, Tanya Doctorian, Lewei Duan
BACKGROUND: A growing number of young women are exposed to statins during their first trimester of pregnancy. The goal of this study is to examine if first trimester statin exposure is associated with an increase in risk of fetal congenital cardiac anomalies. METHODS: In a cohort of 379,238 pregnancies, we examined the risk of fetal congenital cardiac anomalies in association with maternal exposure to statin therapy during the first trimester of pregnancy using logistic regression models and propensity score matching methods...
July 4, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Sze Pheh Yeap, Hugh Harley, Richard Thompson, Kate Diana Williamson, John Bate, Farah Sethna, Geoffrey Farrell, William Bill Hague
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Clinical syndromes associated with biallelic mutations of bile acid (BA) transporters usually present in childhood. Subtle mutations may underlie intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and oral contraceptive steroid(OCS)-induced cholestasis. In 5 women with identified genetic mutations of such transporters, with 8 observed pregnancies complicated by ICP, we examined relationships between transporter mutations, clinical phenotypes and treatment outcomes. METHODS: Gene mutation analysis for BA transporter deficiencies was performed using Next Generation/Sanger sequencing, with analysis for gene deletions/duplications...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Iris Ribitsch, Rupert L Mayer, Monika Egerbacher, Simone Gabner, Maciej M Kańduła, Julie Rosser, Eva Haltmayer, Ulrike Auer, Sinan Gültekin, Johann Huber, Andrea Bileck, David P Kreil, Christopher Gerner, Florien Jenner
Osteoarthritis (OA), a degenerative joint disease characterized by progressive cartilage degeneration, is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide owing to the limited regenerative capacity of adult articular cartilage. Currently, there are no disease-modifying pharmacological or surgical therapies for OA. Fetal mammals, in contrast to adults, are capable of regenerating injured cartilage in the first two trimesters of gestation. A deeper understanding of the properties intrinsic to the response of fetal tissue to injury would allow us to modulate the way in which adult tissue responds to injury...
July 6, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Guihua Wang, Bo He, Wen Hu, Kexin Liu, Xiaohan Gong, Hao Kou, Yu Guo, Hui Wang
Anti-thyroid drugs (ATDs) therapy is necessary for pregnant women with hyperthyroidism. However, there is a lack of studies on developmental toxicity of ATDs. In this study, we observed the developmental toxicity of fetal liver induced by prenatal methimazole exposure (PME) in mice, and explored the potential mechanism. Pregnant Kunming mice were administered intragastrically with 4.5 or 18 mg/kg·d methimazole from gestational day (GD) 9~18. After PME, the birth weights of the offspring mice were decreased, and the liver morphology, development indexes and metabolic function were all altered in different degree in the PME fetuses...
July 7, 2018: Toxicology
Sarit Polsky, Mengdi Wu, Bruce W Bode, Stephanie N DuBose, Robin S Goland, David M Maahs, Nicole C Foster, Anne L Peters, Carol J Levy, Viral N Shah, Roy W Beck
BACKGROUND: Gestational tight glycemic control is critical for women with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Limited data exist on the adoption and retention of diabetes technologies among women in different parity strata. METHODS: We compared T1D management between T1D Exchange clinic registry participants (mean age 28 ± 9 years, 84% white non-Hispanic, and median T1D duration 13 years) who were pregnant at enrollment or year 1 follow-up ("recently pregnant" between 2010 and 2013, n = 214), ever (but not recently) pregnant (n = 1540), and never pregnant (n = 2586)...
July 10, 2018: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Khalil M Chahine, Baha M Sibai
Chronic hypertension in pregnancy is traditionally classified according to degree of blood pressure (BP) elevation. Alternatively, stratifying women as high or low risk based on the etiology of hypertension, baseline work-up, and comorbid medical conditions will better inform clinicians about thresholds to initiate antihypertensive therapy, target BPs, frequency of antepartum visits, and timing of delivery. Women classified as high-risk chronic hypertension as described here require stricter BP management and more frequent follow-up visits as their associated rates of adverse maternal and/or fetal/neonatal outcomes appear higher than women classified as low-risk chronic hypertension...
July 9, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Kahinho P Muyayalo, Zhi-Hui Li, Gil Mor, Ai-Hua Liao
Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is a growing problem worldwide. In a majority of cases, the cause remains unknown but there is increasing evidence that immunologic factors play an important role. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy has been proposed to have immune modulatory effects and therefore been applicable for the treatment of patients with RSA. Although its efficacy is still controversial, several recent studies suggest that IVIg treatment may improve pregnancy outcomes. CD4+ T cells and their related cytokines play an important role in maternal-fetal immune regulation, and an imbalance of Th17/Treg cell ratio has been proposed as a cause for RSA...
July 9, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Jane K Cleal, Emma M Lofthouse, Bram G Sengers, Rohan M Lewis
Placental amino acid transfer is a complex process that is essential for fetal development. Impaired amino acid transfer causes fetal growth restriction, which may have lifelong health consequences. Trans-epithelial transfer of amino acids across the placental syncytiotrophoblast requires accumulative, exchange and facilitated transporters on the apical and basal membranes to work in concert. However, transporters alone do not determine amino acid transfer and factors that affect substrate availability, such as blood flow and metabolism may also become rate-limiting for transfer...
July 8, 2018: Journal of Physiology
N D Paauw, A T Lely, J A Joles, A Franx, P G Nikkels, M Mokry, B B van Rijn
Background: Posttranslational modification of histone tails such as histone 3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27ac) is tightly coupled to epigenetic regulation of gene expression. To explore whether this is involved in placenta pathology, we probed genome-wide H3K27ac occupancy by chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) in healthy placentas and placentas from pathological pregnancies with fetal growth restriction (FGR). Furthermore, we related specific acetylation profiles of FGR placentas to gene expression changes...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
Joseph J Smolich, Jonathan P Mynard
BACKGROUND: The glucocorticosteroid betamethasone is routinely administered prior to anticipated preterm birth to enhance lung maturation. While betamethasone also increases fetal pulmonary blood flow and reduces pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), we investigated whether alterations in right ventricular (RV) function and ductal characteristic impedance (Zc ) additionally contributed to rises in pulmonary flow. METHODS: Anesthetized preterm fetal lambs with (n = 10) or without (n = 8) betamethasone pretreatment were instrumented with a pulmonary trunk micromanometer and ductus arteriosus and left pulmonary artery (PA) flow probes to calculate Zc , and obtain RV output and hydraulic power...
July 9, 2018: Pediatric Research
Valérie Désilets, Isabelle De Bie, François Audibert
OBJECTIF: Décrire les méthodes actuelles d'évaluation et de prise en charge de l'anasarque fœtoplacentaire non immune en mettant l'accent sur les étiologies traitables ou récurrentes. RéSULTATS: Offrir de meilleurs services de counseling et de prise en charge en cas d'anasarque fœtoplacentaire non immune diagnostiquée en période prénatale. DONNéES: La littérature publiée a été récupérée au moyen de recherches menées dans PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, et la Bibliothèque Cochrane en 2017 à l'aide de mots-clés (« non-immune hydrops fetalis », « fetal hydrops », « fetal therapy », « fetal metabolism »)...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Anupkumar R Anvikar, Irene Kuepfer, Vinitkumar Mishra, Jane Bruce, Tushar Arya, Deb Ranjan Mishra, Sanjib Mohanty, Rajesh Mohanty, Bina Srivastava, Suryakant Sharma, Neelima Mishra, Brian Greenwood, Daniel Chandramohan, Neena Valecha
BACKGROUND: In India, the recommended first-line treatment for malaria in the second and third trimester of pregnancy is artesunate + sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS+SP). However, data on safety and efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in pregnancy is limited. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of AS+SP and artesunate + mefloquine (AS+MQ) for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum in pregnancy in India. METHODS: This open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted from October 2010 to December 2013 at three sites in India (Ranchi and Jamshedpur in Jharkhand state, and Rourkela in Odisha state)...
July 4, 2018: Malaria Journal
Ahmet Namazov, Leonti Grin, Resul Karakus, Mehmet Uludogan, Habibe Ayvaci
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to assess the effects of maternal nifedipine administration on placental and fetal blood flow. METHODS: A total of 29 patients with preterm labor diagnosis admitted to the tertiary care center, Zeynep Kamil Hospital, were evaluated. Before and 24-48 h after administration of oral nifedipine, Doppler ultrasound scan was carried out to measure fetal middle cerebral artery, ductus venosus, umbilical artery, and maternal uterine artery blood flow...
July 3, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Stine G Kristensen, Peter Humaidan, Kevin Coetzee
Mitochondria, known as the energy factories in all cells, are key regulators of multiple vital cellular processes and affect all aspects of mammalian reproduction, being essential for oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryonic development. Mitochondrial dysfunction is consequently implicated in disease as well as age-related infertility. Since mitochondria are inherited exclusively from the mother, the female gamete is central to reproductive outcome and therapeutic interventions, such as mitochondrial replacement therapies (MRT), and development of new diagnostic tools...
June 28, 2018: Panminerva Medica
Chuan Qin, Yun Guo, De-Gang Yang, Ming-Liang Yang, Liang-Jie Du, Jian-Jun Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Spinal cord injury (SCI) has long been a subject of great interest in a wide range of scientific fields. Several attempts have been made to demonstrate motor function improvement in rats with SCI after transplantation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). This systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to summarize the effects of iPSC on locomotor recovery in rat models of SCI. METHODS: We searched the publications in the PubMed, Medline, Science Citation Index, Cochrane Library, CNKI, and Wan-fang databases and the China Biology Medicine disc...
June 29, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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