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Glaucoma, retina, uveitis

Mark P Breazzano, Ann E Barker-Griffith
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To report a case of cutaneous malignant melanoma with cerebral metastasis found to have vitreoretinal metastasis upon referral for neovascular glaucoma. METHODS: The clinical history and ocular examination findings, including histologic, cytologic, genetic, and immunohistochemical features of the vitreoretinal metastatic tumor, were reviewed. Additionally, the histologic and immunohistochemical features of the primary skin tumor and brain metastasis were also assessed...
December 2015: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
Justin Wise, Okan Toygar, Zélia M Corrêa, Daniel M Miller, Robert A Sisk
PURPOSE: To report a case of inadvertent subretinal cannulation of ab externo suture trabeculotomy surgery associated with serous macular detachment. METHODS: Retrospective case report. Ophthalmic examination and portable spectral domain optical coherence tomography (Envisu C2300; Bioptogen, Morrisville, NC) were performed under general anesthesia. RESULTS: A 5-year-old girl with uveitis secondary to oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis underwent trabeculotomy surgery of the left eye for steroid-induced glaucoma refractory to medical management...
March 10, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Carsten Heinz, Katy Kogelboom, Arnd Heiligenhaus
PURPOSE: Secondary glaucoma is a common complication in patients with uveitis. Heidelberg Retina Tomography (HRT) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness on optical coherence tomography (OCT) are widely used for examining optic nerve head changes. We evaluated these parameters in patients with uveitis and secondary glaucoma and with inflammatory papillary leakage on fluorescein angiography. METHODS: Prospective single-center analysis of patients with uveitis, evaluating the impact of optic disc leakage on objective optic disc imaging parameters...
February 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Wai-Ching Lam, David A Albiani, Pradeepa Yoganathan, John Chanchiang Chen, Amin Kherani, David Al Maberley, Alejandro Oliver, Theodore Rabinovitch, Thomas G Sheidow, Eric Tourville, Leah A Wittenberg, Chris Sigouin, Darryl C Baptiste
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the real-world use, efficacy, and safety of one or more dexamethasone intravitreal implant(s) 0.7 mg (DEX implant) in patients with macular edema (ME). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with ME secondary to retinal disease treated at ten Canadian retina practices, including one uveitis center. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), intraocular pressure (IOP), glaucoma and cataract surgery, and safety data were collected from the medical charts of patients with ≥3 months of follow-up after the initial DEX implant...
2015: Clinical Ophthalmology
Sonali T Nagendran, Paul T Finger
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To report outcomes of intravitreal bevacizumab therapy in radiation-associated neovascular glaucoma (NVG). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this retrospective interventional case series, 12 eyes with NVG after radiation therapy for ocular malignancy were treated with periodic intravitreal injections of 1.25 mg bevacizumab. Outcome measures included changes in iris neovascularization, intraocular pressure (IOP), visual acuity, and pain. RESULTS: One month after the first injection, iris neovascularization regressed in nine of 12 eyes (75%), and IOP decreased in eight of 12 eyes (67%) by a mean of 10...
February 2015: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Marcus Karlstetter, Rebecca Scholz, Matt Rutar, Wai T Wong, Jan M Provis, Thomas Langmann
Resident microglial cells can be regarded as the immunological watchdogs of the brain and the retina. They are active sensors of their neuronal microenvironment and rapidly respond to various insults with a morphological and functional transformation into reactive phagocytes. There is strong evidence from animal models and in situ analyses of human tissue that microglial reactivity is a common hallmark of various retinal degenerative and inflammatory diseases. These include rare hereditary retinopathies such as retinitis pigmentosa and X-linked juvenile retinoschisis but also comprise more common multifactorial retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and uveitis as well as neurological disorders with ocular manifestation...
March 2015: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Xiaowu Gu, Alaina Reagan, Allen Yen, Faizah Bhatti, Alex W Cohen, Michael H Elliott
Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), the signature protein of caveolae is expressed in several cell types in the adult retina and is linked to ocular pathologies including uveitis, diabetic retinopathy, and primary open angle glaucoma. Genetic ablation of Cav-1 causes retinal functional deficits due to disruptions in environmental homeostasis. To better understand Cav-1 function in the retina, we examined its expression/localization during postnatal retinal development. From P0-P5, Cav-1 was detected only in the developing superficial retinal vessels, in hyaloid and choroidal vasculature, and in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)...
2014: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Antonio Sesar, Ivan Cavar, Anita Pusić Sesar, Mia Zorić Geber, Irena Sesar, Katia Novak Laus, Zoran Vatavuk, Zdravko Mandić
The aim of present study was to analyze early postoperative changes in the macular area using optical coherence tomography (OCT) after uncomplicated glaucoma filtration surgery. This prospective study included 32 patients (34 eyes) with open-angle glaucoma, which underwent trabeculectomy with or without use of mitomycin C. Exclusion criteria were macular edema, uveitis, age-related macular degeneration, blurred optical media, secondary glaucoma and angle-closure glaucoma. All standard clinical examinations were made before surgery, at the 2nd day, 1 week and 1 month after surgery...
September 2013: Collegium Antropologicum
Tatsuya Mimura, Yuichi Kaji, Hidetaka Noma, Hideharu Funatsu, Shinseiro Okamoto
The sirtuins are a highly conserved family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent histone deacetylases that helps regulate the lifespan of diverse organisms. The human genome encodes seven different sirtuins (SIRT1-7), which share a common catalytic core domain but possess distinct N- and C-terminal extensions. Dysfunction of some sirtuins have been associated with age-related diseases, such as cancer, type II diabetes, obesity-associated metabolic diseases, neurodegeneration, and cardiac aging, as well as the response to environmental stress...
November 2013: Experimental Eye Research
Elizabeth M Curto, Anne J Gemensky-Metzler, Heather L Chandler, David A Wilkie
PURPOSE: To characterize and describe the histopathologic findings in equine globes enucleated due to glaucoma. METHODS: Medical records at The Ohio State University from 1999 to 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. Signalment, history, and treatment data were collected, and histologic slides of enucleated globes were examined and lesions recorded. Twenty-three eyes from 23 horses were eligible for inclusion in this study. RESULTS: The majority of affected horses were > 15 years of age (65%)...
September 2014: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Svetlana V Jovanović, Zorica D Jovanović, Filip M Radotić, Suncica B Srećković, Svetlana S Paunović, Jasmina D Stojanović
Two clinical forms of the "white spot" syndrome in patients with posterior uveitis in definitive and presumable ocular sarcoidosis were analyzed. Group 1 was characterized by periphlebitis and discrete white spots around the vein of the retina, so-called "candle-wax", whereas group 2 showed yellow-orange solitary nodules located at the choroid, i.e. multifocal choroiditis. Visual acuity and the severity of clinical presentation were assessed in both groups. Visual acuity, Snellen equivalent was 0.52 +/- 0.36 in group 1 and 0...
June 2012: Acta Clinica Croatica
Seyed-Mojtaba Abtahi, Farzan Kianersi, Mohammad-Ali Abtahi, Seyed-Hossein Abtahi, Arash Zahed, Hamid-Reza Fesharaki, Zahra-Alsadat Abtahi, Shahzad Baradaran, Mehdi Mazloumi, Saeed Naghiabadi
Patients suffering from Urbach-Wiethe syndrome (UWS), also known as lipoid proteinosis or hyalinosis cutis et mucosae, may have an ophthalmologist involved in the diagnosis and management of their disease. Along with moniliform blepharosis as a pathognomonic feature of the disease, an ophthalmologist may encounter other manifestations of UWS in any part of the eye such as cornea; conjunctiva; sclera; trabecular meshwork; iris/pupil; lens and zonular fibers; retina; nasolacrimal duct. This paper provides a review on the pathogenesis and the diverse ocular manifestations seen in UWS patients...
2012: Case Reports in Medicine
Almudena Crooke, Fernando Huete-Toral, Alejandro Martínez-Águila, Basilio Colligris, Jesus Pintor
INTRODUCTION:   The pineal indole-derived hormone melatonin is a modulator of circadian and seasonal rhythms with an important role in ocular health and disease. This could be due to specific melatonin receptors that have been identified in structures such as cornea, lens, ciliary body, retina, choroid and sclera. In addition, a local synthesis of melatonin occurs in several of these ocular tissues. AREAS COVERED: The authors review existing literature on the most common animal models where ocular melatonin actions have been tested...
October 2012: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Nikolaos G Papaioannou, Richard R Dubielzig
Fifty cases of Shih Tzu ocular vitreoretinopathy were selected from the database of the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin. Cases with severe coexisting conditions (e.g. corneal disease, uveitis or endophthalmitis) were excluded. Microscopical changes were evaluated and immunohistochemistry was used to define spindle cells, gliosis and the presence of basement membranes in the vitreous. Expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin and smooth muscle actin was also performed. The mean age of the 50 cases was 10...
February 2013: Journal of Comparative Pathology
Jan Blom, Thomas J Giove, Winnie W Pong, Todd A Blute, William D Eldred
PURPOSE: Adrenomedullin (ADM) is a small, secreted peptide often associated with vasodilation. However, ADM can also function as a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator, and studies suggest ADM is upregulated in the eye in several ocular diseases. However, no studies to date have described an ADM signaling pathway in the retina. METHODS: PCR, immunocytochemistry, nitric oxide imaging, western blots, and a nitrite assay were used to determine the localization of the components of the ADM signaling pathway in the mouse retina...
2012: Molecular Vision
Marc D de Smet
Intraocular implants developed for ocular inflammation which release glucocorticoids for a prolonged period within the vitreous cavity make use of either a bioerodible polymer (dexamethasone in polylactic acid-coglycolic acid matrix) or non-erodible implantable device (fluocinolone acetonide, FA, in a polyvinyl acetate/silicone laminate). Pharmacologically, both steroids are similar in their binding characteristics to glucocorticoid receptors (GR), their ability to transactivate the GR complex and their vitreous half-lives...
2012: Developments in Ophthalmology
Xiaoman Li, Mark E McClellan, Masaki Tanito, Philippe Garteiser, Rheal Towner, David Bissig, Bruce A Berkowitz, Steven J Fliesler, Michael L Woodruff, Gordon L Fain, David G Birch, M Suhaib Khan, John D Ash, Michael H Elliott
Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), an integral component of caveolar membrane domains, is expressed in several retinal cell types, including photoreceptors, retinal vascular endothelial cells, Müller glia, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. Recent evidence links Cav-1 to ocular diseases, including autoimmune uveitis, diabetic retinopathy, and primary open angle glaucoma, but its role in normal vision is largely undetermined. In this report, we show that ablation of Cav-1 results in reduced inner and outer retinal function as measured, in vivo, by electroretinography and manganese-enhanced MRI...
May 11, 2012: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Abdullah G Alotaibi, Essam A Osman, Khalid H Allam, Ahmed M Abdel-Rahim, Khaled K Abu-Amero
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the number and characteristics of patients attending the Accident/Emergency (A/E) Department of a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, and to determine their route of referral, and pattern of ocular emergency cases. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out using the records and history of all patients attending the A/E at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH) in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in July 2010. Data collected included time of arrival, age, gender, source of referral, principal diagnosis, attending doctor, action taken, and discharge plan...
December 2011: Saudi Medical Journal
Roman Dunavoelgyi, Karin Dieckmann, Andreas Gleiss, Stefan Sacu, Karl Kircher, Michael Georgopoulos, Dietmar Georg, Martin Zehetmayer, Richard Poetter
PURPOSE: To evaluate side effects of hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy for patients with choroidal melanoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred and twelve patients with choroidal melanoma unsuitable for ruthenium-106 brachytherapy or local resection were treated stereotactically at the Medical University of Vienna between 1997 and 2007 with a Linac with 6-MV photon beams in five fractions with 10, 12, or 14 Gy per fraction. Examinations for radiogenic side effects were performed at baseline and every 3 months in the first 2 years, then every 6 months until 5 years and then once a year thereafter until 10 years after radiotherapy...
May 1, 2012: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Michael R R Boehm, Patrick Oellers, Solon Thanos
The immune system protects organisms against environmental and endogenous pathogens. By complex mechanisms, it regulates the homeostasis of inflammatory processes and tissue repair mechanisms. In the retina, these pathways can result in an irreversible tissue scar, which is related to malfunction and loss of function. In the aging retina, inflammation plays a major role and causes adverse effects. Several ophthalmological diseases contain aspects of maladjusted inflammatory processes. This review summarizes the general function of the immune system and its regulatory mechanisms in the vitreoretinal compartment...
August 2011: Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets
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