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Michael S Nirenberg, Kewal Krishan, Tanuj Kanchan
Foot impressions are of utmost importance in crime scene investigations. Foot impressions are available in the form of barefoot prints, sock-clad footprints, and as impressions within footwear. Sometimes suspects leave their footwear at the crime scene, and the insole of this footwear may contain the foot impression of the suspect which may be important evidence linking him or her to the crime. The task of identification based on the analysis of footprints can be challenging when the footprints belonging to one of the identical twin is available for examination...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Christelle Lenain, Carolyn A de Graaf, Ludo Pagie, Nils L Visser, Marcel de Haas, Sandra S de Vries, Daniel Peric-Hupkes, Bas van Steensel, Daniel S Peeper
Cellular senescence is a mechanism that virtually irreversibly suppresses the proliferative capacity of cells in response to various stress signals. This includes the expression of activated oncogenes, which causes Oncogene-Induced Senescence (OIS). A body of evidence points to the involvement in OIS of chromatin reorganization, including the formation of senescence-associated heterochromatic foci (SAHF). The nuclear lamina (NL) is an important contributor to genome organization and has been implicated in cellular senescence and organismal aging...
September 15, 2017: Genome Research
Hyeonsoo Park, Joonsoo Kim, Youngjin Jeon, Byoungho Lee, Hwi Kim
Huygens' principle states that point sources are the basis of optical wave field generation, and an array of point sources with complex amplitudes that are separated by subwavelength distances can generate a desired optical field distribution. In field synthesis based on the Huygens' principle, the construction of ideal point sources has been overlooked when compared to other elements in optical field synthesis engineering, such as complex modulation. However, the construction of ideal point sources should be considered an important goal because the use of non-ideal point sources generates considerable optical noise in the background of the synthesized field distribution...
September 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Bin Huang, Haoshuo Chen, Nicolas K Fontaine, Roland Ryf, Ian Giles, Guifang Li
We propose a new architecture for using long-period fiber gratings (LPGs) to induce strong mode mixing with low loss for space-division multiplexing. In this architecture, LPGs are installed in step-index (SI) few-mode fibers that support more modes than the transmission fiber. Such a design could significantly reduce losses due to coupling from the highest-order mode group to cladding modes. In our experiment, efficient mixing of three spatial modes over a broad bandwidth was achieved by a mechanical long-period grating on a SI fiber that supports eight spatial modes...
September 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Sagi Frishman, Meir Razvag, Aharon J Agranat
We present wavelength selective switching with a rise time of 25 ns implemented in a slab waveguide constructed in a KLTN:Cu crystal. The waveguide was fabricated by implantations of alpha particles at 2.1 MeV which produced a 0.5 μm thick cladding layer with reduced refractive index at 4.5 μm underneath the crystal surface. This demonstrates the feasibility of implementing electroholography in waveguides maintaining the performance obtained in bulk crystals, providing in potential the basis for constructing integrated photonic circuits which incorporate interconnected electroholographic wavelength selective switches and electrical wavelength tuning devices for employing wavelength addressing routing schemes in computer networks, in particular for relieving the bandwidth bottlenecks in data center networks...
September 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Yung-Da Chiu, Chao-Wei Wu, Chia-Chin Chiang
In this study, we propose a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) humidity sensor fabricated using the phase mask method to produce a TFBG that was then etched with five different diameters of 20, 35, 50, 55 and 60 μm, after which piezoelectric inkjet technology was used to coat the grating with graphene oxide. According to the experimental results, the diameter of 20 μm yielded the best sensitivity. In addition, the experimental results showed that the wavelength sensitivity was -0.01 nm/%RH and the linearity was 0...
September 15, 2017: Sensors
Yang Zhang, Fang Wang, Zhihui Duan, Zexu Liu, Zigeng Liu, Zhenlin Wu, Yiying Gu, Changsen Sun, Wei Peng
A compact and low-power consuming fiber-optic anemometer based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) coated tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) is presented. TFBG as a near infrared in-fiber sensing element is able to excite a number of cladding modes and radiation modes in the fiber and effectively couple light in the core to interact with the fiber surrounding mediums. It is an ideal in-fiber device used in a fiber hot-wire anemometer (HWA) as both coupling and sensing elements to simplify the sensing head structure...
September 14, 2017: Sensors
Ignacio Del Villar, Matthew Partridge, Wenceslao Eduardo Rodriguez, Omar Fuentes, Abian Bentor Socorro, Silvia Diaz, Jesus Maria Corres, Stephen Wayne James, Ralph Peter Tatam
The diameter of long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs) fabricated in optical fibers with a low cutoff wavelength was be reduced by hydrofluoric acid etching, enhancing the sensitivity to refractive index by more than a factor of 3, to 2611 nm/refractive index unit in the range from 1.333 to 1.4278. The grating period selected for the LPFGs allowed access to the dispersion turning point at wavelengths close to the visible range of the optical spectrum, where optical equipment is less expensive. As an example of an application, a pH sensor based on the deposition of a polymeric coating was analyzed in two situations: with an LPFG without diameter reduction and with an LPFG with diameter reduction...
September 13, 2017: Sensors
Binbin Luo, Yangfei Xu, Shengxi Wu, Mingfu Zhao, Pengjun Jiang, Shenghui Shi, Zhonghao Zhang, Yin Wang, Linlin Wang, Yong Liu
A novel immunosensor for detecting Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was developed using excessively tilted fiber grating (Ex-TFG) coated with gold nanospheres (AuNs). AuNs were coated on the Ex-TFG surface via Au-S bonds using 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS), and the activated staphylococcal protein A (SPA) was linked to AuNs by covalent bonds via cysteamine. AuNs greatly enhanced the impact of the analyte on the fiber cladding mode through the local surface Plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect, thus improving the detection limit and sensitivity of the immunosensor...
September 1, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Chen Chen, Lilong Pang, Qingming Lu, Lei Wang, Yang Tan, Zhiguang Wang, Feng Chen
Swift heavy ion irradiation has been widely used to modify refractive indices of optical materials for waveguide fabrication. In this work, we propose refractive index engineering by swift heavy ion (Ar) irradiation via electronic energy deposition to construct waveguides of diverse geometries in LiNbO3 crystal. The feasibility to modulate the refractive index of LiNbO3 crystal at variable depths through electronic energy depositions of argon ions at different energies has been experimentally explored. The surface and cladding-like optical waveguides with thicknesses of ~13, ~36 and ~23 μm have been produced by using swift Ar ion irradiation at single energy of ~120, ~240, and double energy of (120 + 240) MeV, respectively...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Fan Wu, Tao Chen, Haojun Wang, Defu Liu
Using Ni60 alloy, C, TiN and Mo mixed powders as the precursor materials, in situ synthesized Ti(C,N) particles reinforcing Ni-based composite coatings are produced on Ti6Al4V alloys by laser cladding. Phase constituents, microstructures and wear properties of the composite coatings with 0 wt % Mo, 4 wt % Mo and 8 wt % Mo additions are studied comparatively. Results indicate that Ti(C,N) is formed by the in situ metallurgical reaction, the (Ti,Mo)(C,N) rim phase surrounding the Ti(C,N) ceramic particle is synthesized with the addition of Mo, and the increase of Mo content is beneficial to improve the wear properties of the cladding coatings...
September 6, 2017: Materials
V Mahajan, T Samra, G D Puri
OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of anaesthetic depth control using Closed Loop Anaesthesia Delivery System (CLADS) and Target Controlled Infusion (TCI) in patients with moderate to severe left ventricular dysfunction (LVSD). DESIGN: Randomized control trial. PATIENTS: Forty ASA III/IV adult patients with moderate to severe LVSD scheduled for open heart surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Propofol was administered using CLADS or TCI for maintaining BIS of 50...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Zhi Hao Jiang, Lei Kang, Douglas H Werner
The ability to achieve simultaneous control over the various electromagnetic properties of dielectric waveguides, including mode confinement, polarization, scattering signature, and crosstalk, which are critical to system miniaturization, diversity in functionality, and non-invasive integration, has been a highly sought after yet elusive goal. Currently existing methods, which rely on three-dimensional artificial cores or claddings and/or structural chirality, provide efficient paths for obtaining either highly confined modes, optical activity, or a low-scattering signature, but at the expense of increased propagation loss, form factor and weight...
August 25, 2017: Nature Communications
Sakhee Kotecha, Catherine Buchan, Kerry Parker, Jo Toghill, Eldho Paul, Belinda Miller, Matthew Naughton, Gregory Snell, Eli Dabscheck
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The benefits of domiciliary non-invasive ventilation (NIV) post lung transplantation (LTx) have not previously been described. This was a single-centre retrospective audit of patients requiring domiciliary NIV post-LTx. Our aim was to describe indications for NIV and outcomes in chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) and diaphragmatic palsy. METHODS: All patients requiring domiciliary NIV post-LTx between 2010 and June 2016 were assessed...
August 24, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
M Jiang, J W Zheng, H Y Xiao, Z J Liu, X T Zu
ZrC and TiC have been proposed to be alternatives to SiC as fuel-cladding and structural materials in nuclear reactors due to their strong radiation tolerance and high thermal conductivity at high temperatures. To unravel how the presence of defects affects the thermo-physical properties under irradiation, first-principles calculations based on density function theory were carried out to investigate the mechanical and thermal properties of defective ZrC, TiC and SiC. As compared with the defective SiC, the ZrC and TiC always exhibit larger bulk modulus, smaller changes in the Young's and shear moduli, as well as better ductility...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jinhui Yuan, Zhe Kang, Feng Li, Guiyao Zhou, Xianting Zhang, Chao Mei, Xinzhu Sang, Qiang Wu, Binbin Yan, Xian Zhou, Kangping Zhong, Kuiru Wang, Chongxiu Yu, Chao Lu, Hwa Yaw Tam, P K A Wai
Deep-ultraviolet (UV) second-harmonics (SHs) have important applications in basic physics and applied sciences. However, it still remains challenging to generate deep-UV SHs especially in optical fibers. Here, for the first time, we experimentally demonstrate the deep-UV SH generations (SHGs) by combined degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) and surface nonlinearity polarization in an in-house designed and fabricated air-silica photonic crystal fiber (PCF). When femtosecond pump pulses with average input power P av of 650 mW and center wavelength λ p of 810, 820, 830, and 840 nm are coupled into the normal dispersion region close to the zero-dispersion wavelength of the fundamental mode of the PCF, the anti-Stokes waves induced by degenerate FWM process are tunable from 669 to 612 nm...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yoshito Yamada, Kevin Windirsch, Linus Dubs, David Kenkel, Jae-Hwi Jang, Ilhan Inci, Andreas Boss, Tereza Martinu, Bart Vanaudenaerde, Walter Weder, Wolfgang Jungraithmayr
BACKGROUND: Several mouse lung transplantation (Tx) models have been proposed for the study of chronic airway fibrosis (CAF), the most prevalent complication seen in human lung transplant recipients, termed chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). Alternatively, it has been called for to establish an experimental animal model for restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS), another phenotype of CLAD. However, these mouse transplant models exhibit significant heterogeneity in consistency and reproducibility...
August 18, 2017: Transplantation
Fang-Yu Lai, Po-An Tu, Shih-Torng Ding, Min-Jung Lin, Shen-Chang Chang, En-Chung Lin, Ling-Ling Lo, Pei-Hwa Wang
Objective: The aim of this study was to create a set of microsatellite markers with high polymorphism for the genetic monitoring and genetic structure analysis of local goose populations. Methods: Novel microsatellite markers were isolated from the genomic DNA of white Roman geese using short tandem repeated probes. The DNA segments, including short tandem repeats, were tested for their variability among four populations of geese from the Changhua Animal Propagation Station (CAPS)...
August 16, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Dae Woong Kim, Dong Ho Lee, Jung-Su Kim, Seok Su Sohn, Hyoung Seop Kim, Sunghak Lee
Pure Ti or Ti alloys are recently spot-lighted in construction industries because they have excellent resistance to corrosions, chemicals, and climates as well as various coloring characteristics, but their wide applications are postponed by their expensiveness and poor formability. We present a new fabrication process of Ti/Al clad sheets by bonding a thin Ti sheet on to a 5052 Al alloy melt during vertical-twin-roll casting. This process has merits of reduced production costs as well as improved tensile properties...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Naoki Kanazawa, Taichi Goto, Koji Sekiguchi, Alexander B Granovsky, Caroline A Ross, Hiroyuki Takagi, Yuichi Nakamura, Hironaga Uchida, Mitsuteru Inoue
In the fifty years since the postulation of Moore's Law, the increasing energy consumption in silicon electronics has motivated research into emerging devices. An attractive research direction is processing information via the phase of spin waves within magnonic-logic circuits, which function without charge transport and the accompanying heat generation. The functional completeness of magnonic logic circuits based on the majority function was recently proved. However, the performance of such logic circuits was rather poor due to the difficulty of controlling spin waves in the input junction of the waveguides...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
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