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Dechun Zhou, Xuemei Bai, Hang Zhou
Ho(3+)/Tm(3+) co-doped 50TeO2-25GeO2-3WO3-5La2O3-3Nb2O5-5Li2O-9BaF2 glass fiber is prepared with the rod-tube drawing method of 15 μm core diameter and 125 μm inner cladding diameter applied in the 2.0 μm-infrared laser. The 2.0 μm luminescence properties of the core glass are researched and the fluorescence intensity variation for different Tm(3+) doping concentration is systematically analyzed. The results show that the 2.0 μm luminescence of Ho(3+) is greatly influenced by the doping concentration ratio of Ho(3+) to Tm(3+) and that the maximum fluorescence intensity of the core glass can be obtained and its emission cross section can reach 0...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Esrom Kifle, Xavier Mateos, Javier Rodríguez Vázquez de Aldana, Airan Ródenas, Pavel Loiko, Sun Yung Choi, Fabian Rotermund, Uwe Griebner, Valentin Petrov, Magdalena Aguiló, Francesc Díaz
Depressed-index channel waveguides with a circular and photonic crystal cladding structures are prepared in a bulk monoclinic Tm:KLu(WO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub> crystal by 3D direct femtosecond laser writing. The channel waveguide structures are characterized and laser operation is achieved using external mirrors. In the continuous-wave mode, the maximum output power of 46 mW is achieved at 1912 nm corresponding to a slope efficiency of 15.2% and a laser threshold of only 21 mW. Passive Q-switching of a waveguide with a circular cladding is realized using single-walled carbon nanotubes...
March 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Christophe Caucheteur, Clotilde Ribaut, Viera Malachovska, Ruddy Wattiez
Surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) optical fiber biosensors constitute a miniaturized counterpart to the bulky prism configuration and offer remote operation in very small volumes of analyte. They are a cost-effective and relatively straightforward technique to yield in situ (or even possibly in vivo) molecular detection. They are usually obtained from a gold-coated fiber segment for which the core-guided light is brought into contact with the surrounding medium, either by etching (or side-polishing) or by using grating coupling...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Christian Kelb, Martin Körner, Oswald Prucker, Jürgen Rühe, Eduard Reithmeier, Bernhard Roth
We present a full-polymer respiratory monitoring device suited for application in environments with strong magnetic fields (e.g., during an MRI measurement). The sensor is based on the well-known evanescent field method and consists of a 1 mm plastic optical fiber with a bent region where the cladding is removed and the fiber is coated with poly-dimethylacrylamide (PDMAA). The combination of materials allows for a mass-production of the device by spray-coating and enables integration in disposable medical devices like oxygen masks, which we demonstrate here...
March 4, 2017: Sensors
Ryan Warburton, Constantin Aniculaesei, Matteo Clerici, Yoann Altmann, Genevieve Gariepy, Richard McCracken, Derryck Reid, Steve McLaughlin, Marco Petrovich, John Hayes, Robert Henderson, Daniele Faccio, Jonathan Leach
Recording processes and events that occur on sub-nanosecond timescales poses a difficult challenge. Conventional ultrafast imaging techniques often rely on long data collection times, which can be due to limited device sensitivity and/or the requirement of scanning the detection system to form an image. In this work, we use a single-photon avalanche detector array camera with pico-second timing accuracy to detect photons scattered by the cladding in optical fibers. We use this method to film supercontinuum generation and track a GHz pulse train in optical fibers...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Amir Arbabi, Andrei Faraon
We present a set of universal relations which relate the local transmission, reflection, and polarization conversion coefficients of a general class of non-magnetic passive ultrathin metasurfaces. We show that these relations are a result of equal forward and backward scattering by single layer ultrathin metasurfaces, and they lead to confinement of the transmission, reflection, and polarization conversion coefficients to limited regions of the complex plane. Using these relations, we investigate the effect of the presence of a substrate, and show that the maximum polarization conversion efficiency for a transmissive metasurface decreases as the refractive index contrast between the substrate and cladding layer increases...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ping Yan, Junyi Sun, Yusheng Huang, Dan Li, Xuejiao Wang, Qirong Xiao, Mali Gong
We designed and fabricated a high-power cladding light stripper (CLS) by combining a fiber-etched CLS with a cascaded polymer-recoated CLS. The etched fiber reorganizes the numerical aperture (NA) distribution of the cladding light, leading to an increase in the leakage power and a flatter distribution of the leakage proportion in the cascaded polymer-recoated fiber. The index distribution of the cascaded polymer-recoated fiber is carefully designed to ensure an even leakage of cladding light. More stages near the index of 1...
March 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Huu-Dat Nguyen, Airán Ródenas, Javier R Vázquez de Aldana, Guillermo Martín, Javier Martínez, Magdalena Aguiló, Maria Cinta Pujol, Francesc Díaz
We report mid-infrared LiNbO<sub>3</sub> depressed-index microstructured cladding waveguides fabricated by three-dimensional laser writing showing low propagation losses (~1.5 dB/cm) at 3.68 µm wavelength for both the transverse electric and magnetic polarized modes, a feature previously unachieved due to the strong anisotropic properties of this type of laser microstructured waveguides and which is of fundamental importance for many photonic applications. Using a heuristic modeling-testing iteration design approach which takes into account cladding induced stress-optic index changes, the fabricated cladding microstructure provides low-loss single mode operation for the mid-IR for both orthogonal polarizations...
February 20, 2017: Optics Express
He Hao, Juanjuan Ren, Hongyi Chen, Iam Choon Khoo, Ying Gu, Qihuang Gong
The control and enhancement of the spontaneous emission (SE) of emitters embedded in subwavelength structures are fundamentally interesting and of practical interest. For example, in plasmonic lasers and on-chip single photon sources, a large SE rate and the active modulation of SE over a very broad spectral band are highly desired functionalities. In this paper, we demonstrate by an explicit theoretical calculation that a plasmonic waveguide cladded with liquid crystals (LCs) and low-index metamaterials can give rise to an enhancement in the intrinsic SE rate γ<sub>0</sub> of more than two orders of magnitude...
February 20, 2017: Optics Express
Z Yan, Q Sun, C Wang, Z Sun, C Mou, K Zhou, D Liu, L Zhang
We have investigated experimentally and numerically the temperature and refractive index (RI) sensitivity characteristics of excessively tilted fiber gratings (Ex-TFGs) in detail. Both results have shown that the temperature and RI sensitivities of Ex-TFGs are mode order dependent. For temperature sensitivity, the higher order cladding mode of Ex-TFG exhibited lower temperature sensitivity, quantitatively, the temperature sensitivities of TM cladding modes at the resonance wavelength around 1550nm are 9pm/°C, 6...
February 20, 2017: Optics Express
J A Crosse
Topological insulators subject to a time-reversal-symmetry-breaking perturbation are predicted to display a magneto-electric effect that causes the electric and magnetic induction fields to mix at the material's surface. This effect induces polarization rotations of between ≈1-10 mrad per interface in an incident plane-polarized electromagnetic wave normal to a multilayered structure. Here we show, theoretically and numerically, that by using a waveguide geometry with a topological insulator guide layer and magneto-dielectric cladding it is possible to achieve rotations of ≈100 mrad and generate an elliptical polarization with only a three-layered structure...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
David Ruttens, An Martens, Sofie Ordies, Stijn E Verleden, Arne P Neyrinck, Robin Vos, Marc Boada Collado, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Geert M Verleden, Dirk Van Raemdonck
BACKGROUND: Donation after cardiac death (DCD) to overcome the donor organ shortage is well accepted in the clinical setting, although long-term outcome after DCD lung transplantation (LTx) remains largely unknown. METHODS: In this retrospective study, DCD LTx recipients (n=59) were compared with a cohort of donation after brain-death (DBD) LTx recipients (n=331) transplanted between February 2007 and September 2013; follow-up was until January 1st 2016. Short-term (duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU stay, hospital stay and highest PGD score within 72 hours) and long-term (CLAD-free and overall survival) follow-up were compared over a median follow-up of 50...
February 15, 2017: Transplantation
Xin Lu, Hang Qu, Maksim Skorobogatiy
We report an all-polymer flexible piezoelectric fiber that uses both judiciously chosen geometry and advanced materials in order to enhance fiber piezoelectric response. The microstructured/nanostructured fiber features a soft hollow polycarbonate core surrounded by a spiral multilayer cladding consisting of alternating layers of piezoelectric nanocomposites (polyvinylidene enhanced with BaTiO3, PZT, or CNT) and conductive polymer (carbon-filled polyethylene). The conductive polymer layers serve as two electrodes, and they also form two spatially offset electric connectors on the fiber surface designed for the ease of connectorization...
February 28, 2017: ACS Nano
Thomas A Wall, Roger P Chu, Joshua W Parks, Damla Ozcelik, Holger Schmidt, Aaron R Hawkins
Ridge and buried channel waveguides (BCWs) made using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition SiO2 were fabricated and tested after being subjected to long 85°C water baths. The water bath was used to investigate the effects of any water absorption in the ridge and BCWs. Optical mode spreading and power throughput were measured over a period of three weeks. The ridge waveguides quickly absorbed water within the critical guiding portion of the waveguide. This caused a nonuniformity in the refractive index profile, leading to poor modal confinement after only seven days...
April 2016: Optical Engineering: the Journal of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers
Daniel C Chambers, Debra Enever, Sharon Lawrence, Marian J Sturm, Richard Herrmann, Stephanie Yerkovich, Michael Musk, Peter M A Hopkins
Chronic lung transplant rejection (termed chronic lung allograft dysfunction [CLAD]) is the main impediment to long-term survival after lung transplantation. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) represent an attractive cell therapy in inflammatory diseases, including organ rejection, given their relative immune privilege and immunosuppressive and tolerogenic properties. Preclinical studies in models of obliterative bronchiolitis and human trials in graft versus host disease and renal transplantation suggest potential efficacy in CLAD...
February 1, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Liron Stern, Boris Desiatov, Noa Mazurski, Uriel Levy
In recent years, there has been marked increase in research aimed to introduce alkali vapours into guided-wave configurations. Owing to the significant reduction in device dimensions, the increase in density of states, the interaction with surfaces and primarily the high intensities carried along the structure, a plethora of light-vapour interactions can be studied. Moreover, such platform may exhibit new functionalities such as low-power nonlinear light-matter interactions. One immense challenge is to study the effects of quantum coherence and shifts in nanoscale waveguides, characterized by ultra-small mode areas and fast dynamics...
February 9, 2017: Nature Communications
C R Ensor, S A Yousem, M Marrari, M R Morrell, M Mangiola, J M Pilewski, J D'Cunha, S R Wisniewski, R Venkataramanan, A Zeevi, J F McDyer
We present this observational study of lung transplant recipients (LTR) treated with carfilzomib (CFZ)-based therapy for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) of the lung. Patients were considered responders to CFZ if complement-1q (C1q)-fixing ability of their immunodominant (ID) donor-specific anti-human leukocyte antibody (DSA) was suppressed after treatment. Treatment consisted of CFZ plus plasma exchange and immunoglobulins. Fourteen LTRs underwent CFZ for 20 ID DSA AMR. Ten (71.4%) of LTRs responded to CFZ...
February 7, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
Abdulyezir A Badmos, Qizhen Sun, Zhongyuan Sun, Junxi Zhang, Zhijun Yan, Petro Lutsyk, Alex Rozhin, Lin Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Changgeng Ye, Joona Koponen, Ville Aallos, Teemu Kokki, Ossi Kimmelma
The measurement of fundamental mode bend loss is thoroughly studied in large-mode-area few-mode optical fibers. The influencing factors, including spectral properties of the light source, modal power content and cladding light, are experimentally investigated. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to help in understanding and illustrating the distribution of the variations. Practical guidelines and an example setup are provided for precise and accurate measurements.
February 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Yuta Ooka, Tomohiro Tetsumoto, Nurul Ashikin Binti Daud, Takasumi Tanabe
We demonstrate ultrasmall demultiplexers based on photolithographic photonic crystals. The footprint of the demultiplexers is 110 μm<sup>2</sup> per channel. Our in-plane demultiplexers are clad with silica, which makes them stable and easy to integrate with other silicon photonic devices. We describe two types of demultiplexers with spacings of 136 and 267 GHz between channels for application to dense wavelength division multiplexing. Integrated titanium nitride heaters allow us to precisely control the channel wavelength...
January 23, 2017: Optics Express
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