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Flavio Esposito, Rajeev Ranjan, Stefania Campopiano, Agostino Iadicicco
In this work, we report about our recent results concerning the fabrication of Long Period Grating (LPG) sensors in several optical fibers, through the Electric Arc Discharge (EAD) technique. In particular, the following silica fibers with both different dopants and geometrical structures are considered: standard Ge-doped, photosensitive B/Ge codoped, P-doped, pure-silica core with F-doped cladding, Panda type Polarization-maintaining, and Hollow core Photonic crystal fiber. An adaptive platform was developed and the appropriate "recipe" was identified for each fiber, in terms of both arc discharge parameters and setup arrangement, for manufacturing LPGs with strong and narrow attenuation bands, low insertion losses, and short length...
March 20, 2018: Sensors
Ramsey Hachem, Paul Corris
BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation is a therapeutic option for select patients with end-stage lung disease. However, successful lung transplantation is hampered by chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), in particular bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Although there is no approved or standard treatment for BOS, which may have several distinct phenotypes, extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) has shown promising results in patients who develop BOS refractory to azithromycin treatment...
March 19, 2018: Transplantation
Norihisa Shigemura, Shinya Tane, Kentaro Noda
Chronic allograft dysfunction (CLAD) remains a major complication, causing the poor survival after lung transplantation. Although strenuous efforts have been made at preventing CLAD, surgical approaches for lung transplantation have not been updated over the last 2 decades. The bronchial artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to the airways and constitutes a functional microvasculature, has occasionally been revascularized during transplants, but this technique did not gain popularity and is not standard in current lung transplantation protocols, despite the fact that a small number of studies have shown beneficial effects of bronchial artery revascularization (BAR) on limiting CLAD...
March 20, 2018: Transplantation
Pu Wang, Gianluca Turcatel, Cosimo Arnesano, David Warburton, Scott E Fraser, Francesco Cutrale
Hyperspectral endoscopic imaging has the potential to enhance clinical diagnostics and outcome. Most commercial endoscopes utilize imaging fiber bundles to transmit the collected signal from the patient to the medical operator. These bundles consist of several fiber cores surrounded by a cladding layer creating comb structure-like artifacts, which complicate further analysis, both spatially and spectrally. Here we present an optical fiber pattern removal algorithm which we applied to hyperspectral bronchoscopic images robustly and quantitatively without the need for specific optical or electrical hardware...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Connor M Pettem, Jennifer M Briens, David M Janz, Lynn P Weber
Selenium (Se) is considered an essential trace element, involved in important physiological and metabolic functions for all vertebrate species. Fish require dietary concentrations of 0.1-0.5 μg Se/g dry mass (d.m.) to maintain normal physiological and selenoprotein function, however concentrations exceeding 3 μg/g d.m. have been shown to cause toxicity. As Se is reported to have a narrow margin between essentiality and toxicity, there is growing concern surrounding the adverse effects of elevated Se exposure caused by anthropogenic activities...
March 8, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Shou-Fei Gao, Ying-Ying Wang, Wei Ding, Pu Wang
UV guiding fibers are highly sought after in laser and spectroscopy applications. Recent advances in hollow-core fiber orient a practical approach for proper UV light delivery sustainable to high-power and long-term irradiation. In this Letter, we report two types of hollow-core negative-curvature fibers (NCFs) in a UV spectral range. Their structures consist of one ring of six small (7.9 μm in diameter) and four big (20.8 μm in diameter) tubes, enclosing a hollow core of similar size (∼15  μm in diameter)...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Rai Kou, Taiki Hatakeyama, Jason Horng, Ji-Hun Kang, Yuan Wang, Xiang Zhang, Feng Wang
Mid-infrared light provides numerous unexpected opportunities in scientific discoveries because this wavelength region covers the fingerprints of various molecular vibrational resonances. However, the light generation efficiency and bandwidth have been a long-standing bottleneck which has limited the development so far. Moreover, the light source that can be integrated with other components such as wavelength filters, detectors, and electronics, will be the key factor toward the future practical applications...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Elham Karami Keshmarzi, R Niall Tait, Pierre Berini
Single-mode surface plasmon distributed feedback (DFB) lasers are realized in the near infrared using a two-dimensional non-uniform long-range surface plasmon polariton structure. The surface plasmon mode is excited onto a 20 nm-thick, 1 μm-wide metal stripe (Ag or Au) on a silica substrate, where the stripe is stepped in width periodically, forming a 1st order Bragg grating. Optical gain is provided by optically pumping a 450 nm-thick IR-140 doped PMMA layer as the top cladding, which covers the entire length of the Bragg grating, thus creating a DFB laser...
March 14, 2018: Nanoscale
Patrick J Smith, Rebecca Byrd, Megan Lusby, Emily Clausen, Laurie D Snyder
BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms are common among lung transplant recipients and have been associated with worse clinical outcomes. However, few studies have examined the association between depressive symptoms assessed at multiple time points or behavioral mechanisms by which post-transplant depressive symptoms may confer greater clinical risk. We therefore examined the associations between depressive symptoms, exercise capacity, chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), and mortality prospectively in a large sample of lung transplant recipients...
March 12, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Chih-Hsien Lai, Yi-Siang Yeh, Chih-An Yeh, Yu-Kun Wang
We numerically investigate the transmission of the antiresonant-reflection-based terahertz (THz) pipe waveguide in which the cladding layer is very thin or the cladding index is close to one. It is found that robustness of the waveguide confinement is maintained when the cladding thickness is small, while the guiding ability deteriorates when the cladding index approaches to one. Hence, to increase the effective bandwidth of the pipe waveguide, reducing the cladding thickness is more desirable. Moreover, we also examine the effective bandwidth under the condition that the pipe waveguide is subject to a fixed ratio of core diameter to cladding thickness...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Exian Liu, Wei Tan, Bei Yan, Jianlan Xie, Rui Ge, Jianjun Liu
In this work, an octagonal Penrose-type photonic quasi-crystal fiber (PQF) with dual-cladding is proposed. By optimizing three geometric degrees of freedom, the PQF exhibits ultra-flattened near-zero dispersion of 0.014±0.293  ps/nm/km, ultra-low order confinement loss of 10-4   dB/km, and large effective mode area of over 16.2  μm2 in a broadband of wavelength from 1.27 to 1.67 μm, covering almost all optical communication bands. At the common communication wavelength 1.55 μm, completely opposite trends of the dispersion and the confinement loss varying with the air-filling factor in the inner cladding are demonstrated...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Zhihong Li, Jie Shen, Qiuping Ji, Xiukai Ruan, Yaoju Zhang, Yuxing Dai, Zhennao Cai
This work presents a sensitive refractive index sensor based on the dual resonance of an excessively tilted long period fiber grating (Ex-TLPFG). The Ex-TLPFG is tuned to couple the guided core mode with only the polarization-degenerate cladding mode LP1,l , which consists of TE/TM0,l and HE2,l vector modes. It is found that the p-polarized LP1,lp mode exhibits a higher sensitivity than that of the s-polarized LP1,ls mode. An optimized sensitivity as high as 12182.9  nm/RIU is achieved for the p-polarized LP1,2p mode at the low refractive index region by tuning the initial resonance condition...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Trisha L Andrew, Lushuai Zhang, Nongyi Cheng, Morgan Baima, Jae Joon Kim, Linden Allison, Steven Hoxie
Body-mountable electronics and electronically active garments are the future of portable, interactive devices. However, wearable devices and electronic garments are demanding technology platforms because of the large, varied mechanical stresses to which they are routinely subjected, which can easily abrade or damage microelectronic components and electronic interconnects. Furthermore, aesthetics and tactile perception (or feel) can make or break a nascent wearable technology, irrespective of device metrics...
March 9, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Christopher R Ensor, Carlo J Iasella, Kate M Harrigan, Matthew R Morrell, Cody A Moore, Norihisa Shigemura, Adriana Zeevi, John F McDyer, Raman Venkataramanan
Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are the backbone of traditional immunosuppressive regimens for lung transplant recipients (LTR). The CNIs are both narrow therapeutic index drugs with significant interpatient and intrapatient variability that require therapeutic drug monitoring to ensure safety and effectiveness. We hypothesized that tacrolimus time-in-therapeutic range (TTR) affects acute and chronic rejection rates in LTRs. This was a single-center, observational, cross-sectional study of 292 adult LTRs. Subjects who received tacrolimus post-transplant for the first year were included...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Anupong Tangaroonsanti, Augustine S Lee, Marcelo F Vela, Michael D Crowell, David Erasmus, Cesar Keller, Jorge Mallea, Francisco Alvarez, Cristina Almansa, Kenneth R DeVault, Lesley A Houghton
GOALS: To assess the effect of unilateral versus bilateral lung transplantation (LTx) on esophageal motility and gastroesophageal reflux, and the association with the development of obstructive chronic lung allograft dysfunction (o-CLAD). BACKGROUND: We have shown that esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction, incomplete bolus transit, and proximal reflux are all independent risk factors for the development of chronic allograft failure. However, it remains unclear whether these factors are influenced by the type of surgery and how this relates to allograft failure...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Fernando Álvarez Gómez, Ricardo Albarracín-Sánchez, Fernando Garnacho Vecino, Ricardo Granizo Arrabé
Partial discharges (PD) measurement provides valuable information for the condition assessment of the insulation status of high-voltage (HV) electrical installations. During the last three decades, several PD sensors and measuring techniques have been developed to perform accurate diagnostics when PD measurements are carried out on-site and on-line. For utilities, the most attractive characteristics of on-line measurements are that once the sensors are installed in the grid, the electrical service is uninterrupted and that electrical systems are tested in real operating conditions...
February 28, 2018: Sensors
Jin-Ke Bao, Zhang-Tu Tang, Hee Joon Jung, Ji-Yong Liu, Yi Liu, Lin Li, Yu-Ke Li, Zhu-An Xu, Chun-Mu Feng, Haijie Chen, Duck Young Chung, Vinayak P Dravid, Guang-Han Cao, Mercouri G Kanatzidis
We report a new quasi-one-dimensional compound KMn6Bi5 composed of parallel nanowires crystallizing in a monoclinic space group C2/m with a = 22.994(2) Å, b = 4.6128(3) Å, c = 13.3830(13) Å and β = 124.578(6)○ . The nanowires are infinite [Mn6 Bi5 ]- columns each of which is composed of a nanotube of Bi atoms acting as the cladding with a nanorod of Mn atoms located in the central axis of the nanotubes. The nanorods of Mn atoms inside the Bi cladding are stabilized by Mn-Mn bonding and are defined by distorted Mn-centered cluster icosahedra of Mn13 sharing their vertices along the b axis...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Mitsuteru Yoshida, Hisashi Oishi, Tereza Martinu, David M Hwang, Hiromitsu Takizawa, Junichi Sugihara, Trevor D McKee, Xiaohui Bai, Zehong Guana, Christina Lua, Hae-Ra Cho, Stephen Juvet, Marcelo Cypel, Shaf Keshavjee, Mingyao Liu
Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) is a serious complication after lung transplantation and thought to represent chronic rejection. Increased expression of Pentraxin 3 (PTX3), an acute phase protein, was associated with worse outcome in lung transplant patients. To determine the role of recipient PTX3 in development of chronic rejection, we used a minor alloantigen-mismatched murine orthotopic single lung transplant model. Male C57BL/10 mice were used as donors. Male PTX3 knockout (KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates on 129/SvEv/C57BL6/J background were used as recipients...
February 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Ying-Bin Xing, Yin-Zi Liu, Nan Zhao, Rui-Ting Cao, Yi-Bo Wang, Yu Yang, Jing-Gang Peng, Hai-Qing Li, Lu-Yun Yang, Neng-Li Dai, Jin-Yan Li
We demonstrate the almost complete 2 µm laser power recovery of the gamma-ray-irradiated thulium (Tm)-doped silica fiber under deuterium loading. The optical-optical slope efficiency and the cladding absorption spectra of the Tm-doped fiber with gamma-ray irradiation and deuterium treatment have been measured for comparison. It was found that the slope efficiency of the irradiated Tm-doped fiber could be recovered to 96.1% of the pristine after deuterium bleaching, which significantly degraded from 60.7% to 25...
March 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Mark Dubinskii, Jun Zhang, Viktor Fromzel, Youming Chen, Stuart Yin, Claire Luo
We report the latest progress in fabrication and laser performance of the fully crystalline double-clad 'Yb:YAG-core/undoped-YAG-clad' fibers grown by the hybrid crystal growth method. The single-crystalline ytterbium (Yb) doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) fiber cores were grown by the laser heated pedestal growth (LHPG) method, and the single-crystalline undoped YAG claddings were grown by the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) technique, in which the single-crystalline Yb:YAG cores were used as the growth seeds...
February 19, 2018: Optics Express
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