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Jason M Gauthier, Ramsey R Hachem, Daniel Kreisel
Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) encompasses a range of pathologies that cause a transplanted lung to not achieve or maintain normal function. CLAD manifests as airflow restriction and/or obstruction and is predominantly a result of chronic rejection. Three distinct phenotypes of chronic rejection are now recognized: bronchiolitis obliterans, neutrophilic reversible allograft dysfunction, and restrictive allograft syndrome. Recent investigations have revealed that each phenotype has a unique pathology and histopathological findings, suggesting that treatment regimens should be tailored to the underlying etiology...
September 2016: Current Transplantation Reports
Hannelore Bellon, Elly Vandermeulen, Carolien Mathyssen, Annelore Sacreas, Stijn E Verleden, Tobias Heigl, Hanne Vriens, Elise Lammertyn, Charles Pilette, Peter Hoet, Robin Vos, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Geert M Verleden
BACKGROUND: Survival after lung transplantation is hampered by chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). Persistently elevated BAL-neutrophilia is observed in some patients despite treatment with azithromycin, which may be induced by IL-1α. Our aim is to establish an in vitro model, assess mechanistic pathways and test different therapeutic strategies of IL-1α induced release of IL-8 by human bronchial epithelial cells. METHODS: Bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) were stimulated with IL-1α with or without azithromycin or dexamethasone...
January 12, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
Hanxiao Liang, Yang He, Rui Luo, Qiang Lin
We propose double-cladded and multi-cladded waveguide structures that enable flexible engineering of group-velocity dispersion over multi-octave spanning spectral range, allowing to produce intriguing dispersion characteristics that oscillate between normal and anomalous dispersion in a sinusoidal-like fashion with controllable magnitude, which will be very useful for nonlinear photonic applications. The proposed waveguides are easy to fabricate in practice, which we expect to have great potential for broad applications in nonlinear photonics, quantum optics, and optical communication...
December 26, 2016: Optics Express
Farideh Bastani, Nahid Rajai, Zahra Farsi, Heidelise Als
BACKGROUND: Developing interventions that improve deep sleep and quit awake is important to improve the quality of care that is provided to preterm infants. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of kangaroo care and in-arms-holding on the sleep and wake states of preterm infants. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial design was employed in 2011-2012. Seventy-two stable preterm infants with gestational ages of 32-37 weeks and their mothers were recruited from the neonatal intensive care unit of Valiasr Hospital in Tehran, Iran...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
Himanshu Ranjan Verma, Kamalesh K Singh, Tilak Raj Mankhand
Present work reports the evaluation of dimethylacetamide (DMAc) as a solvent to dissolve the halogenated epoxy resin substrate (HERS) of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). Studies revealed that HERS dissolution attributes to the cracking and delamination of WPCB's layers. Variation of the parameters governing the dissolution elucidated that dissolution is directly dependent on temperature and WPCBs concentration in DMAc. The results also showed that increase in the WPCBs size drastically retards the rate of HERS dissolution...
December 29, 2016: Waste Management
Ya-Nan Zhang, Qilu Wu, Huijie Peng, Yong Zhao
A highly-sensitive and temperature-robust photonic crystal fiber (PCF) modal interferometer coated with Pd/WO3 film was fabricated and studied, aiming for real-time monitoring of dissolved hydrogen concentration in transformer oil. The sensor probe was fabricated by splicing two segments of a single mode fiber (SMF) with both ends of the PCF. Since the collapse of air holes in the PCF in the interfaces between SMF and PCF, a SMF-PCF-SMF interferometer structure was formed. The Pd/WO3 film was fabricated by sol-gel method and coated on the surface of the PCF by dip-coating method...
December 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Zhenyang Ding, Di Yang, Yang Du, Yonghan Zhou, Zhexi Xu, Kun Liu, Junfeng Jiang, Tiegen Liu
We present a method to improve distributed strain sensing sensitivity by a reduced-cladding single mode fiber (RC SMF) using a Rayleigh backscattering spectra shift in optical frequency domain reflectometry. Comparing with a standard SMF with 250 μm diameter, a commercial low attenuation RC SMF with 165 μm diameter is shown to enhance the strain sensing sensitivity by about four-fold. Using this property, the system using the RC SMF can achieve smaller minimal measurable strain (MMS) in the same sensing spatial resolution (SSR) or smaller SSR in the same MMS than using the standard SMF...
December 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Jennifer B Webb, Erin R Vinoski, Jan Warren-Findlow, Meagan P Padro, Elizabeth N Burris, Elizabeth M Suddreth
As yoga has gained popularity in Western culture, concerns have been raised about its increased commercialization and assimilation into the predominantly appearance-focused exercise and fitness culture. In this context, the present study examined the physical appearance-related characteristics (e.g., race/ethnicity, body size, shape, objectifying apparel) of 142 female models and the media frames of 567 captions (e.g., commercialism, body competence, health, weight/physical appearance) featured on the covers of three Westernized yoga lifestyle magazines published between 2010-2015...
December 22, 2016: Body Image
Qiu-Shun Li, Xu-Lin Zhang, Jian-Guo Shi, Dong Xiang, Lan Zheng, Yan Yang, Jun-Hui Yang, Dong Feng, Wen-Fei Dong
The response of a novel long-period fiber grating (LPFG) with a period of 180 µm to a surrounding refractive index (RI) was investigated. The results displayed that, with the increase in RI of the surrounding media of cladding glass in the grating region, the resonant peak located at 1336.4 nm in the transmission spectrum gradually shifts towards a shorter wavelength, while the resonant peak located at 1618 nm gradually shifted towards a longer wavelength. Moreover, the resonant peak at 1618 nm is much more sensitive to the surrounding RI than that of the one at 1336...
December 21, 2016: Sensors
C Berastegui, S Gómez-Ollés, S Sánchez-Vidaurre, M Culebras, V Monforte, M López-Meseguer, C Bravo, M A Ramon, L Romero, J Sole, M J Cruz, A Román
The long-term success of lung transplantation (LT) is limited by chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). Different phenotypes of CLAD have been described, such as bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS). The purpose of this study was to investigate levels of cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as markers of these CLAD phenotypes. BALF was collected from 51 recipients who underwent (bilateral and unilateral) LT. The study population was divided into three groups: stable (ST), BOS, and RAS...
December 23, 2016: Clinical Transplantation
Georges Semaan, Fatma Ben Braham, Jorel Fourmont, Mohamed Salhi, Faouzi Bahloul, François Sanchez
We demonstrate experimentally a double-clad Er:Yb co-doped dual amplifier passive mode-locked figure-of-eight fiber laser that generates high energy, width, and amplitude tunable dissipative soliton resonance square pulses. In our laser system, each loop contains an amplifier that controls a characteristic of the output pulse. The amplitude and width of the output beam can be controlled continuously but, dependently, according to the pump power of each amplifier. The pulse width can be tuned in a range of almost 360 ns while the peak power varies from 8 to 120 W...
October 15, 2016: Optics Letters
Li-Yang Shao, Meng Zhang, Kaize Xie, Xinpu Zhang, Ping Wang, Lianshan Yan
A new method has been proposed to accurately determine longitudinal additional force in continuous welded rail (CWR) on bridges via hetero-cladding fiber Bragg grating (HC-FBG) sensors. The HC-FBG sensor consists of two FBGs written in the same type of fiber but with different cladding diameters. The HC-FBGs have the same temperature sensitivity but different strain sensitivity because of the different areas of the cross section. The differential strain coefficient is defined as the relative wavelength differences of two FBGs with the change of applied longitudinal force...
December 18, 2016: Sensors
H Kylla, T K Dutta, P Roychoudhury, Y S Malik, R Mandakini, P K Subudhi
Picobirnaviruses (PBVs) have been recognized as one of the important causal viral agents of gastroenteritis in several animal species especially in young immunocompromised hosts. In this study, we report the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of porcine PBVs from North Eastern Hilly region of India. A total of 457 fecal samples from piglets were collected from local (n = 130) and cross (n = 327) breed piglets in different seasons for 2 years. All the samples were subjected to RNA-PAGE and RT-PCR analysis for detection of PBVs...
December 16, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Filipa Sequeira, Daniel Duarte, Lúcia Bilro, Alisa Rudnitskaya, Maria Pesavento, Luigi Zeni, Nunzio Cennamo
We report the optimization of the length of a D-shaped plastic optical fiber (POF) sensor for refractive index (RI) sensing from a numerical and experimental point of view. The sensing principle is based on total internal reflection (TIR). POFs with 1 mm in diameter were embedded in grooves, realized in planar supports with different lengths, and polished to remove the cladding and part of the core. All D-shaped POF sensors were tested using aqueous medium with different refractive indices (from 1.332 to 1...
December 13, 2016: Sensors
M Pain, P-J Royer, J Loy, A Girardeau, A Tissot, P Lacoste, A Roux, M Reynaud-Gaubert, R Kessler, S Mussot, C Dromer, O Brugière, J-F Mornex, R Guillemain, M Dahan, C Knoop, K Botturi, C Pison, R Danger, S Brouard, A Magnan
Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) is the major limitation of long-term survival after lung transplantation (LT). CLAD manifests as Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome (BOS) or Restrictive Allograft Syndrome (RAS). Alloimmune reactions and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition have been suggested in BOS. However, little is known regarding the role of allogenicity on epithelial cell differentiation. Primary human bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) were treated with activated T cells in the presence or absence of TGF-β...
December 16, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
J O Trevisanutto, A Linhananta, G Das
The authors demonstrated the fabrication of a fiber Bragg grating-like plasmonic nanostructure on the surface of a tapered optical fiber using gold nanorods (GNRs). A multimode optical fiber with core and cladding diameters of 105 and 125 μm, respectively, was used to make a tapered fiber using a dynamic etching process. The tip diameter was ∼100  nm. Light from a laser was coupled to the untapered end of the fiber, which produced a strong evanescent field around the tapered section of the fiber. The gradient force due to the evanescent field trapped the GNRs on the surface of the tapered fiber...
December 15, 2016: Optics Letters
Jay W Dawson, Paul H Pax, Graham S Allen, Derrek R Drachenberg, Victor V Khitrov, Nick Schenkel, Michael J Messerly
A 9.3dB improvement in optical gain and a 100x improvement in total optical power over prior published experimental results from the <sup>4</sup>F<sub>3/2</sub> to <sup>4</sup>I<sub>13/2</sub> transition in an Nd<sup>3+</sup> doped fused silica optical fiber is demonstrated. This is enabled via an optical fiber waveguide design that creates high spectral attenuation in the 1050-1120nm-wavelength range, a continuous spectral filter for the primary <sup>4</sup>F<sub>3/2</sub> to <sup>4</sup>I<sub>11/2</sub> optical transition...
December 12, 2016: Optics Express
Paul H Pax, Victor V Khitrov, Derrek R Drachenberg, Graham S Allen, Benjamin Ward, Mark Dubinskii, Michael J Messerly, Jay W Dawson
We have constructed a double clad neodymium doped fiber laser operating on the three-level <sup>4</sup>F<sub>3/2</sub>→<sup>4</sup>I<sub>9/2</sub> transition. The laser has produced 11.5 W at 925 nm with 55% slope efficiency when pumped at 808 nm, comparable to the best previous results for a double-clad fiber configuration on this transition. Higher power pumping with both 808 nm and 880 nm sources resulted in an output of 27 W, albeit at lower slope efficiency...
December 12, 2016: Optics Express
Chunying Guan, Jing Yang, Rang Chu, Yihang Xu, Xinghua Yang, Jinhui Shi, Libo Yuan
An all-solid microstructured fiber containing a pure silica core and the double cross linear arrays of high refractive index dielectric rods imbedded in the silica serving as the cladding is proposed. The bandgap and confinement loss (CL) are numerically investigated. The fiber has a lowest loss of 3.37 dB/km that can be achieved in the first-order photonic bandgap (PBG) and the bandwidth with transmission loss less than <0.05  dB/m is up to 550 nm. The effects of refractive index difference and geometric structure are discussed on the CL in the first-order PBG...
December 1, 2016: Applied Optics
Yulong Wu, Zhiyong Dong, Yongqi Chen, Yaoyao Qi, Xiandan Yuan, Yunfei Qi, Li Xu, Xuechun Lin, Yonggang Zou, Pengfei Zhao
The beam quality mismatch of laser diode stacks in both axes limits many direct applications for fiber or solid laser pumping and material processing. In this paper, a one-step cutting-rotating beam shaping system has been designed to homogenize the beam quality of two polarization-multiplexing laser diode stacks. Coupling laser diode stacks consisting of eight bars into a standard fiber with a core diameter of 600 μm and an NA of 0.22 is achieved. The simulative result shows that the system will have an output power over 1056 W...
December 1, 2016: Applied Optics
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