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Suruj S Deka, Si Hui Pan, Qing Gu, Yeshaiahu Fainman, Abdelkrim El Amili
To achieve high packing density in on-chip photonic integrated circuits, subwavelength scale nanolasers that can operate without crosstalk are essential components. Metallo-dielectric nanolasers are especially suited for this type of dense integration due to their lower Joule loss and nanoscale dimensions. Although coupling between optical cavities when placed in proximity to one another has been widely reported, whether the phenomenon is induced for metal-clad cavities has not been investigated thus far. We demonstrate coupling between two metallo-dielectric nanolasers by reducing the separation between the two cavities...
November 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Yosuke Terada, Kenji Miyasaka, Keisuke Kondo, Norihiro Ishikura, Takuya Tamura, Toshihiko Baba
Silica-clad silicon photonic crystal waveguides (PCWs) are promising components for various applications because of their simple fabrication and generation of slow light. However, an optical loss higher than 4 dB occurs when they are simply coupled to input/output silicon wire waveguides. To reduce the optical loss, we proposed a junction structure in which light in the waveguide is first coupled to a high-group-velocity radiation mode at an expanded core and subsequently converted to the slow-light mode in a tapered core of the PCW...
November 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Rupal J Shah, Joshua M Diamond
Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) is the major limitation to posttransplant survival. This review highlights the evolving definition of CLAD, risk factors, treatment, and expected outcomes after the development of CLAD.
December 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
Franz H Messerli, Sripal Bangalore, Stefano F Rimoldi
Frohlich and Zanchetti, at that time editors-in-chief of Hypertension and Journal of Hypertension, wrote the above words 20 years ago, in midst of the so-called calcium blocker controversy in a dual publication [3]. The authors continued in stating "however, controversy should be based on sound scientific evidence". One may ask whether this indeed is not a contradiction in terms as how can sound scientific evidence possibly give rise to controversy? The answer to this question is quite simple: science may be perfectly sound but interpretation thereof very often is anything but...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
Y R Lin, L G Chen, C Y Hsieh, M T Chang, K Y Fung, A Hu, S C Lo, F R Chen, J J Kai
Silicon Carbide (SiC) is a promising cladding material for accident-tolerant fuel in light water reactors due to its excellent resistance to chemical attacks at high temperatures, which can prevent severe accident-induced environmental disasters. Although it has been known for decades that radiation-induced swelling at low temperatures is driven by the formation of black spot defects with sizes smaller than 2 nm in irradiated SiC, the structure of these defect clusters and the mechanism of lattice expansion have not been clarified and remain as one of the most important scientific issues in nuclear materials research...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Joseph Costa, Luke J Benvenuto, Joshua R Sonett
Lung transplantation is an established treatment for patients with end-stage lung disease. Improvements in immunosuppression and therapeutic management of infections have resulted in improved long-term survival and a decline in allograft rejection. Allograft rejection continues to be a serious complication following lung transplantation, thereby leading to acute graft failure and, subsequently, chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), the most common phenotype of CLAD, is the leading cause of late mortality and morbidity in lung recipients, with 50% having developed BOS within 5 years of lung transplantation...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
Sreeja Biswas Roy, Roshan Panchanathan, Rajat Walia, Katherine E Varsch, Paul Kang, Jasmine Huang, A Samad Hashimi, Thalachallour Mohanakumar, Ross M Bremner, Michael A Smith
BACKGROUND: Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) is nonreversible and remains the biggest obstacle to long-term survival after lung transplantation (LTx). Retransplantation is the sole definitive therapeutic option for CLAD. We analyzed our single-center experience with retransplantation as a treatment option for CLAD. METHODS: From March 1, 2010, to May 31, 2016, 419 consecutive patients underwent LTx at our institution; 29 of these procedures were retransplantations for CLAD...
November 1, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Joé Habel, Tommy Boilard, Jean-Simon Frenière, François Trépanier, Martin Bernier
Type I fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) written through the coating of various off-the-shelf silica fibers with a femtosecond laser and the phase-mask technique are reported. Inscription through most of the common coating compositions (acrylate, silicone and polyimide) is reported as well as writing through the polyimide coating of various fiber cladding diameters, down to 50 µm. The long term annealing behavior of type I gratings written in a pure silica core fiber is also reported as well as a comparison of the mechanical resistance of type I and II FBG...
November 2, 2017: Sensors
Qiaoqiao Zhuang, Peilei Zhang, Mingchuan Li, Hua Yan, Zhishui Yu, Qinghua Lu
The Ni-Ti-Si composite coatings were successfully fabricated on Ti6Al4V by laser cladding. The microstructure were studied by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and EDS (energy dispersive spectrometer). It has been found that Ti₂Ni and Ti₅Si₃ phases exist in all coatings, and some samples have TiSi₂ phases. Moreover, due to the existence of these phases, coatings presented relatively higher microhardness than that of the substrate (826 HV (Vickers hardness)) and the microhardness value of coating 3 is about twice larger than that of the substrate...
October 30, 2017: Materials
Anjli Baliyan, Sruthi Prasood Usha, Banshi D Gupta, Rani Gupta, Enakshi Khular Sharma
A label-free technique for the detection of triacylglycerides by a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)-based biosensor is demonstrated. An LSPR-based fiber-optic sensor probe is fabricated by immobilizing lipase enzyme on silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) coated on an unclad segment of a plastic clad optical fiber. The size and shape of nanoparticles were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy. The peak absorbance wavelength changes with concentration of triacylglycerides surrounding the sensor probe, and sensitivity is estimated from shift in the peak absorbance wavelength as a function of concentration...
October 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Antoine Roux, Ines Bendib Le Lan, Sonia Holifanjaniaina, Kimberly A Thomas, Clément Picard, Dominique Grenet, Sandra De Miranda, Benoit Douvry, Laurence Beaumont-Azuar, Edouard Sage, Jérôme Devaquet, Elise Cuquemelle, Morgan Le Guen, Caroline Suberbielle, Chantal Gautreau, Marc Stern, Maura Rossetti, Abdul Monem Hamid, Francois Parquin
Although donor-specific anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies (DSAs) are frequently found in recipients after lung transplantation (LT), the characteristics of DSA which influence antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in LT are not fully defined. We retrospectively analyzed 206 consecutive LT patients of our center (2010-2013). DSAs were detected by using luminex single antigen beads assay and mean fluorescence intensity was assessed. Within the study population, 105 patients had positive DSA. Patients with and without AMR (AMR(Pos), n = 22, and AMR(Neg), n = 83, respectively) were compared...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
Guanjun Yin, Ting Zhang, Wei Wang, Yunhong Xin, Jianzhong Guo
We investigated the coupling effect in a pair of parallel acoustic cladded waveguides and extended the effect to obtain energy focusing in a specially structured waveguide of nested pipes. For the structure composed of two parallel waveguides, we simulated and verified that when an acoustic input wave propagates in one waveguide, the wave couples with the other and alternates between the two parallel waveguides with periodic amplitude and a well-defined coupling length. This length is related to the frequency of the input wave and the structure of the waveguide...
October 10, 2017: Ultrasonics
Matthew Franklin, Katherine Payne, Rachel A Elliott
BACKGROUND: Intuitively, health and capability are distinct but linked concepts. This study aimed to quantify the link between a measure of health status (EQ-5D-3L) and capability (ICECAP-O) using regression-based methods. METHODS: EQ-5D-3L and ICECAP-O data were collected from a sample of older people ( n = 584), aged over 65 years, requiring a hospital visit and/or care home resident, and recruited to one of 3 studies forming the Medical Crisis in Older People (MCOP) program in England...
October 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Junyuan Feng, Zhenping Wan, Chen Feng, Wanyu Wen, Yong Tang
Here, a conduction micropump with symmetric planar electrode pairs prepared on flame-retardant glass-reinforced epoxy (FR-4) copper-clad laminate (CCL) is fabricated. It is used to investigate the influence of chamber dimensions on the performance of a conduction micropump and to determine the reliability of the conduction pump when acetone is used as the working fluid. A testing platform is set up to evaluate conduction micropump performance under different conditions. When the chamber height is 0.2 mm, the pump pressure reaches its peak value...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Zhifeng Luo, Ke Zhang, Zhigang Wang, Jian Zheng, Yixin Chen
A binocular stereo vision method is proposed for automatically locating the position and posture of workpieces, which is especially important when processing large, complicated structures, for example, the laser hardening and laser cladding of automotive die. First, a binocular stereo vision positioning system was designed and modeled, from which a method of background subtraction was proposed to extract the edge line of the foreground area. Furthermore, the intersection point of the workpiece contour line was taken as the characteristic point of the workpiece, and an algorithm that combines epipolar constraint with gray value similarity was proposed to quickly and accurately realize the feature points matching...
August 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Nafiseh Aflakian, Tim P LaFave, K O Kenneth, Solyman Ashrafi, Duncan L MacFarlane
A sub-terahertz vortex dielectric waveguide was designed and fabricated in the cyclic olefin copolymer (TOPAS) compound. The annular index profile was engineered using a holey cladding to support operation from approximately 200-300 GHz. The vortex waveguide was tested at 280 GHz using an OAM-endowed Laguerre-Gaussian mode generated by a stepped spiral phase plate.
September 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Donghai Niu, Shiqi Sun, Qiang Xu, Minghui Jiang, Xibin Wang, Zhiyong Li, Changming Chen, Yuanda Wu, Daming Zhang
In this paper, the power-consumption characteristics of a polymeric thermo-optic (TO) switch consisting of a silica under-cladding on silicon substrate, a polymer core surrounded with polymer upper-cladding, and aluminum heating electrodes with different widths were investigated. Norland optical adhesive 73 with a larger TO coefficient was selected as the core layer, which could reduce the power consumption effectively. The silica under-cladding, with large thermal conductivity, could shorten the response time...
July 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Ina Lefering, Rüdiger Röttgers, Christian Utschig, David McKee
Long path length liquid waveguide capillary cell (LWCC) systems using simple spectrometers to determine the spectral absorption by colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) have previously been shown to have better measurement sensitivity compared to high-end spectrophotometers using 10 cm cuvettes. Information on the magnitude of measurement uncertainties for LWCC systems, however, has remained scarce. Cross-comparison of three different LWCC systems with three different path lengths (50, 100, and 250 cm) and two different cladding materials enabled quantification of measurement precision and accuracy, revealing strong wavelength dependency in both parameters...
August 1, 2017: Applied Optics
S Bhardwaj, K Mittholiya, A Bhatnagar, R Bernard, J A Dharmadhikari, D Mathur, A K Dharmadhikari
We describe two types of waveguides (type I and depressed cladding) inscribed in lithium niobate using a variable repetition rate (200 kHz-25 MHz), 270 fs duration fiber laser. The type I modification-based waveguides have propagation losses in the range from 1.2 to 10 dB/cm at 1550 nm, depending on experimental parameters. These waveguides are not permanent; they deteriorate over time. Such deterioration of waveguides can be slowed down from 30 days to 100 days by pre-annealing the samples and by writing at a 720 kHz laser repetition rate...
July 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Lei Li, Meng Wang, Tong Liu, Jinyong Leng, Pu Zhou, Jinbao Chen
We demonstrate, to the best of our knowledge, the first cladding-pumped all-fiber oscillator configuration with selective transverse mode generation based on a mode-selective fiber Bragg grating pair. Operating in the second-order (LP11) mode, maximum output power of 4.2 W is obtained with slope efficiency of about 38%. This is the highest reported output power of single higher-order transverse mode generation in an all-fiber configuration. The intensity distribution profile and spectral evolution have also been investigated in this paper...
June 10, 2017: Applied Optics
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