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Sabine Dettmer, Hoen-Oh Shin, Jens Vogel-Claussen, Max Westphal, Axel Haverich, Gregor Warnecke, Tobias Welte, Frank Wacker, Jens Gottlieb, Hendrik Suhling
PURPOSE: To describe early signs for restrictive subtype of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) after lung transplantation in computed tomography (CT) and to evaluate the predictive value for disease progression and survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 52 CT examinations in lung transplant patients at CLAD onset were scored for CT features referring to airways disease, parenchymal or pleural abnormality. Patients with and without later development of restrictive CLAD (TLC≤80%) were compared...
June 15, 2017: European Journal of Radiology
Alexander Gumennik, Etgar C Levy, Benjamin Grena, Chong Hou, Michael Rein, Ayman F Abouraddy, John D Joannopoulos, Yoel Fink
Crystallization of microdroplets of molten alloys could, in principle, present a number of possible morphological outcomes, depending on the symmetry of the propagating solidification front and its velocity, such as axial or spherically symmetric species segregation. However, because of thermal or constitutional supercooling, resulting droplets often only display dendritic morphologies. Here we report on the crystallization of alloyed droplets of controlled micrometer dimensions comprising silicon and germanium, leading to a number of surprising outcomes...
June 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
M Y Shino, S S Weigt, N Li, A Derhovanessian, D M Sayah, R Saggar, Richard H Huynh, A L Gregson, A Ardehali, D J Ross, J P Lynch, R M Elashoff, J A Belperio
The clinical significance and treatment strategies for minimal acute rejection (grade A1), the most common form of acute rejection (AR), remains controversial. In this retrospective single-center cohort study of 441 lung transplant recipients, we formally evaluate the association between minimal AR and chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) and test a novel hypothesis using BAL CXCL9 concentration during minimal AR as a biomarker of subsequent CLAD development. In univariable and multivariable models adjusted for all histopathologic injury patterns, minimal AR was not associated with CLAD development...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
S Faezeh Mousavi, Rahman Nouroozi, Giuseppe Vallone, Paolo Villoresi
Recent studies demonstrated that the optical channels encoded by Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) are capable candidates for improving the next generation of communication systems. OAM states can enhance the capacity and security of high-dimensional communication channels in both classical and quantum regimes based on optical fibre and free space. Hence, fast and precise control of the beams encoded by OAM can provide their commercial applications in the compatible communication networks. Integrated optical devices are good miniaturized options to perform this issue...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hyojin Ko, Leila F Deravi, Sung-Jin Park, Jingon Jang, Takhee Lee, Cheong Kang, Jin Seok Lee, Kevin Kit Parker, Kwanwoo Shin
Millimeter-long conducting fibers can be fabricated from carbon nanomaterials via a simple method involving the release of a prestrained protein layer. This study shows how a self-rolling process initiated by polymerization of a micropatterned layer of fibronectin (FN) results in the production of carbon nanomaterial-based microtubular fibers. The process begins with deposition of carbon nanotube (CNT) or graphene oxide (GO) particles on the FN layer. Before polymerization, particles are discrete and nonconducting, but after polymerization the carbon materials become entangled to form an interconnected conducting network clad by FN...
June 19, 2017: Advanced Materials
David Baker, Samuel S Herrod, Cesar Alvarez-Gonzalez, Lukasz Zalewski, Christo Albor, Klaus Schmierer
OBJECTIVE: To understand the efficacy of cladribine (CLAD) treatment in MS through analysis of lymphocyte subsets collected, but not reported, in the pivotal phase III trials of cladribine and alemtuzumab induction therapies. METHODS: The regulatory submissions of the CLAD Tablets Treating Multiple Sclerosis Orally (CLARITY) (NCT00213135) cladribine and Comparison of Alemtuzumab and Rebif Efficacy in Multiple Sclerosis, study one (CARE-MS I) (NCT00530348) alemtuzumab trials were obtained from the European Medicine Agency through Freedom of Information requests...
July 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Hongze Wang, Yosuke Kawahito, Ryohei Yoshida, Yuya Nakashima, Kunio Shiokawa
A blue diode laser has a higher absorption rate than a traditional laser, while the maximum power is limited. We report the structure and laser beam profile of a 250 W high-power blue laser (445 nm) for material processing. The absorption rate of the blue laser system for the steel was 2.75 times that of a single-mode fiber laser system (1070 nm). The characteristics of the steel after laser irradiation were determined, validating the potential of this high-power blue laser for material processing, such as heat treatment and cladding...
June 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Tonglei Cheng, Shunta Tanaka, Tong Hoang Tuan, Takenobu Suzuki, Yasutake Ohishi
All-optical dynamic photonic bandgap (PBG) control by an optical Kerr effect (OKE) is investigated in an all-solid double-clad tellurite photonic bandgap fiber (PBGF) which is fabricated based on TeO<sub>2</sub>-Li<sub>2</sub>O-WO<sub>3</sub>-MoO<sub>3</sub>-Nb<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> (TLWMN, high-index rod) glass, TeO<sub>2</sub>-ZnO-Na<sub>2</sub>O-La<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> (TZNL, inner cladding) glass, and TeO<sub>2</sub>-ZnO-Li<sub>2</sub>O-K<sub>2</sub>O-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> (TZLKAP, outer cladding) glass...
June 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Takuya Okazaki, Tatsuya Orii, Akira Ueda, Akiko Ozawa, Hideki Kuramitz
We present a novel fiber optic sensor for real-time sensing of silica scale formation in geothermal water. The sensor is fabricated by removing the cladding of a multimode fiber to expose the core to detect the scale-formation-induced refractive index change. A simple experimental setup was constructed to measure the transmittance response using white light as a source and a spectroscopy detector. A field test was performed on geothermal water containing 980 mg/L dissolved silica at 93 °C in Sumikawa Geothermal Power Plant, Japan...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
T P Chapman, D Dye, D Rugg
Titanium is widely used in demanding applications, such as in aerospace. Its strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance make it well suited to highly stressed rotating components. Zirconium has a no less critical application where its low neutron capture cross section and good corrosion resistance in hot water and steam make it well suited to reactor core use, including fuel cladding and structures. The similar metallurgical behaviour of these alloy systems makes it alluring to compare and contrast their behaviour...
July 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Hailang Dai, Cheng Yin, Xiaona Ye, Bei Jiang, Maowu Ran, Zhuangqi Cao, Xianfeng Chen
Waveguide based optofluidic resonator features high precision and high sensitivity in real-time fluorescent analysis. We present a novel optofluidic resonator following the hollow-core metal-cladding waveguide structure, which is then used to record the real-time binding process of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) with protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in PBS solution, respectively. The central fluorescent wavelength of compound with Fe(2+) is in good accordance with that of the normal hemoglobin, whilst the peaks of the Fe(3+) compound match the hemoglobin specimen from sickle-cell disease (SCD) patients...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
G Salceda-Delgado, A Martinez-Rios, R Selvas-Aguilar, R I Álvarez-Tamayo, A Castillo-Guzman, B Ibarra-Escamilla, V M Durán-Ramírez, L F Enriquez-Gomez
A compact, highly sensitive optical fiber displacement and curvature radius sensor is presented. The device consists of an adiabatic bi-conical fused fiber taper spliced to a single-mode fiber (SMF) segment with a flat face end. The bi-conical taper structure acts as a modal coupling device between core and cladding modes for the SMF segment. When the bi-conical taper is bent by an axial displacement, the symmetrical bi-conical shape of the tapered structure is stressed, causing a change in the refractive index profile which becomes asymmetric...
June 2, 2017: Sensors
Jian Kang, Zhenzhou Cheng, Wen Zhou, Ting-Hui Xiao, Kimmy-Laure Gopalakrisna, Mitsuru Takenaka, Hon Ki Tsang, Keisuke Goda
We present a focusing subwavelength grating (SWG) for efficient coupling of mid-infrared (mid-IR) light into suspended membrane Ge photonic integrated circuits (PICs) that enable mid-IR applications in the entire fingerprint region. By virtue of their wide spectral transparency window and air-cladding device configuration, the suspended membrane Ge PICs are expected to be effective for mid-IR applications over the spectral region covering from 2 to 15 μm. Specifically, we demonstrate the maximum coupling efficiency of -11  dB with a 1-dB bandwidth of ∼58  nm at the SWG's center wavelength of 2...
June 1, 2017: Optics Letters
Zheng-Liang Tu, Zhen-Yu Zhou, Hai-Chao Xu, Jin-Lin Cao, Peng Ye, Lu-Ming Wang, Wang Lv, Jian Hu
BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation is the only effective treatment for end-stage lung diseases. Bronchiolitis obliterans, which is known as non-infectious chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) in the new classification, is the greatest threat to long-term survival after lung transplantation. This study investigated the role of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and montelukast in transplantation-related bronchiolitis obliterans and discussed the pathophysiological significance of LTB4 in chronic rejection...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Cory Olsovsky, Taylor Hinsdale, Rodrigo Cuenca, Yi-Shing Lisa Cheng, John M Wright, Terry D Rees, Javier A Jo, Kristen C Maitland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Z Sanjabi Eznaveh, J E Antonio-Lopez, J Anderson, A Schülzgen, R Amezcua-Correa
We present a novel design of a micro-structured large-pitch, large-mode-area (LMA) asymmetric rod-type fiber. By reducing the cladding symmetry through six high-refractive index germanium-doped silica inclusions, the fiber features strong higher-order mode (HOM) delocalization, leading to a potentially enhanced preferential gain for the fundamental mode in active fibers. In addition, high resolution spatially and spectrally (S<sup>2</sup>) resolved mode analysis measurements confirm HOM contributions below 1% and LP<sub>1m</sub>-like HOM contributions below the detection limit...
May 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Cécile A Robinson, Lars Huber, Christian Murer, Macé Schuurmans, Malcolm Kohler, Günther Hofbauer, Christian Benden
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) has been reported to be safe and the ultimate treatment option in lung transplant recipients with chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), the main overall cause of mortality in lung transplant recipients. However, ECP is not reimbursed in selected health jurisdictions, and reimbursement by health insurance providers is a major issue. In Switzerland, ECP is not recognised by the health authorities as a therapy option for CLAD; thus by the end of 2014, ECP had to be stopped in the majority of adult lung transplant recipients cared for at the University Hospital Zurich because of lack of continuous funding...
May 10, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
Xiaosheng Huang, Seongwoo Yoo, KenTye Yong
Modes attenuation of the tube lattice fiber (TLF) is characterized by D/λ, where D is the core diameter and λ is the wavelength. Hence, the TLF is structured with a large core to ensure a low attenuation loss. A small core, on the other hand, facilitates the gas-filled TLF applications, but at the expense of the increased mode attenuation. We show that adding a second cladding layer to the conventional one layer TLF (1TLF) can resolve the contradicting requirements. The mode attenuation of TLF with two cladding layers (2TLF) is less influenced by the D/λ value as compared to 1TLF, thus realizing a low loss small core TLF...
May 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Farideh Bastani, Nahid Rajai, Zahra Farsi, Heidelise Als
BACKGROUND: Developing interventions that improve deep sleep and quit awake is important to improve the quality of care that is provided to preterm infants. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of kangaroo care and in-arms-holding on the sleep and wake states of preterm infants. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial design was employed in 2011-2012. Seventy-two stable preterm infants with gestational ages of 32-37 weeks and their mothers were recruited from the neonatal intensive care unit of Valiasr Hospital in Tehran, Iran...
June 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
V van Suylen, B Luijk, R A S Hoek, E A van de Graaf, E A Verschuuren, C Van De Wauwer, J A Bekkers, R C A Meijer, W van der Bij, M E Erasmus
The implementation of donation after circulatory death category 3 (DCD3) was one of the attempts to reduce the gap between supply and demand of donor lungs. In the Netherlands, the total number of potential lung donors was greatly increased by the availability of DCD3 lungs in addition to the initial standard usage of donation after brain death (DBD) lungs. From the three lung transplant centers in the Netherlands, 130 DCD3 recipients were one-to-one nearest neighbor propensity score matched with 130 DBD recipients...
May 4, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
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