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Steven A Signs, Robert C Fisher, Uyen Tran, Susmita Chakrabarti, Samaneh K Sarvestani, Shao Xiang, David Liska, Veronique Roche, Wei Lai, Haley R Gittleman, Oliver Wessely, Emina H Huang
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects one million people in the US. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a subtype of IBD that can lead to colitis-associated cancer (CAC). In UC, the rate of CAC is 3-5-fold greater than the rate of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). The pathogenesis of UC and CAC are due to aberrant interactions between host immune system and microenvironment, but precise mechanisms are still unknown. In colitis and CAC, microenvironmental fibroblasts exhibit an activated, inflammatory phenotype that contributes to tumorigenesis accompanied by excessive secretion of the chemokine CXCL8...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Muhammad Adeeb Khan, Shaukat Ali, Subbu S Venkatraman, Muhammad Farhan Sohail, Muhammad Ovais, Abida Raza
Sorafenib (SFN), a hydrophobic anticancer drug, has several limitations predominantly poor aqueous solubility and hepatic first-pass effect, limiting its oral delivery that results into several other complications. Present study aims to develop Sorafenib loaded polymersomes using Poly butadiene block poly ethylene oxide (PB-b-PEO), an amphiphilic co-block polymer. Prior to drug loading, critical aggregate concentration (CAC) of 'polymer was calculated for stable formulation synthesis. The developed SFN loaded PB-b-PEO polymersomes (SFN-PB-b-PEO, test formulation) characterized by DLS and cryo-TEM showed particle size 282 nm, polydispersity (PDI) of less than 0...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Marleen Vonder, Rozemarijn Vliegenthart, Merel A Kaatee, Carlijn M van der Aalst, Peter M A van Ooijen, Geertruida H de Bock, Jan Willem Gratama, Dirkjan Kuijpers, Harry J de Koning, Matthijs Oudkerk
BACKGROUND: To determine the impact of high-pitch spiral acquisition on radiation dose and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk stratification by coronary artery calcium (CAC) assessment with computed tomography in individuals with a high heart rate. METHODS: Of the ROBINSCA trial, 1990 participants with regular rhythm and heart rates >65 beats per minute (bpm) were included. As reference, 390 participants with regular heart rates ≤65 bpm were used. All participants underwent prospectively electrocardiographically(ECG)-triggered imaging of the coronary arteries using dual source CT at 120 kVp, 80 ref mAs using both high-pitch spiral mode and sequential mode...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
Simone L Verweij, Maurice W J de Ronde, Rutger Verbeek, S Matthijs Boekholdt, R Nils Planken, Erik S G Stroes, Sara-Joan Pinto-Sietsma
BACKGROUND: Elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) levels are associated with increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Individuals with a family history of premature ASCVD are at increased cardiovascular risk with concomitantly a higher burden of (subclinical) atherosclerosis. However, whether Lp(a) contributes to the increased atherosclerotic burden in these individuals remains to be established. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we evaluated the association between Lp(a) levels and coronary atherosclerotic burden, assessed by coronary arterty calcium (CAC) scores, in asymptomatic individuals with a family history of premature ASCVD...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
James L Januzzi, Sunil Suchindran, Adrian Coles, Maros Ferencik, Manesh R Patel, Udo Hoffmann, Geoffrey S Ginsburg, Pamela S Douglas
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to examine associations between concentrations of high-sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI) (measured by using a single-molecule counting method) and obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in 1,844 stable, symptomatic outpatients with suspected CAD randomized to undergo coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) in the PROMISE (Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain) trial. BACKGROUND: Elevated concentrations of hsTnI are associated with CAD in patients with myocardial infarction...
March 9, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Hiroshi Nakatani, Paul Gomes, Ron Bradford, Qiang Guo, Eleonora Safyan, David A Hollander
PURPOSE: To compare alcaftadine and olopatadine ophthalmic solutions, and vehicle for preventing allergen-mediated conjunctivitis in Japanese subjects. METHODS: Japanese cedar pollen-sensitive subjects were randomized to alcaftadine 0.25%, olopatadine 0.1%, or vehicle. Ocular itching was assessed at 3, 5 (primary outcome), 7, and 15 min post-conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) and conjunctival hyperemia assessed at 7, 15 (secondary outcome), and 20 min post-CAC...
March 15, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Gustavo Lemos Pelandré, Nathália Martins Pereira Sanches, Marcelo Souto Nacif, Edson Marchiori
Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of visual analysis and of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score in nontriggered computed tomography (CT), in comparison with that of the CAC score in electrocardiogram-triggered CT, in identifying coronary calcification. Materials and Methods: A total of 174 patients for whom CT was indicated for CAC scoring underwent nontriggered and triggered CT in a 64-channel multislice scanner, in a single session without a change in position...
January 2018: Radiologia Brasileira
Daniel Shpilsky, Sebhat Erqou, Sanjay R Patel, Kevin E Kip, Oluremi Ajala, Aryan Aiyer, Patrick J Strollo, Steven E Reis, Oladipupo Olafiranye
Studies have reported an association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. Proposed mechanisms include endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate the associations of OSA with endothelial dysfunction and subclinical atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD), and assess the impact of race on these associations. We used data from the Heart Strategies Concentrating on Risk Evaluation (Heart SCORE) study, a community-based prospective cohort with approximately equal representation of black and white participants...
March 1, 2018: Vascular Medicine
Evan P Pasha, Alex C Birdsill, Stephanie Oleson, Hirofumi Tanaka, Andreana P Haley
Sex differences in cerebral white matter (WM) aging have been debated extensively over the past 2 decades without unequivocal resolution. We aimed to determine if the effects of age and arterial stiffness on WM microstructure differ between sexes. Artery elasticity via carotid artery compliance (CAC) and WM diffusion metrics via diffusion tensor image-derived fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were measured in 155 (87 females) middle-aged (40-62 years) adults. Males demonstrated poorer water diffusion metrics in WM than women in the corpus callosum body, cingulum, and cingulum (hippocampal)...
February 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Gilad Sorek, Sharon Shaklai, Shirley Meyer, Michal Katz-Leurer
INTRODUCTION: Adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI) present a range of physical and cognitive as well as cardiac autonomic control system (CACS) dysfunctions. AIM: To examine the CACS response to an executive task, a physical task and a combined physical and executive task, in adolescents with ABI and typically developed (TD) controls. METHODS: Included were two groups: The first group consisted of 17 adolescents (11-18 years) with ABI, during the in-patient or out-patient rehabilitation period...
March 13, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Philippa Howlett, Jane K Cleal, Huihai Wu, Nikunj Shah, Alex Horton, Nick Curzen, Michael Mahmoudi
Objective: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) may serve as potential biomarkers in a variety of pathologies. The aim of this study was to determine whether miRNAs could serve as blood-based markers of isolated coronary artery calcification (CAC) defined as CAC in the absence of an underlying metabolic abnormality. Methods: 24 age-matched and sex-matched patients who had been referred for elective CT coronary calcium score and angiography as part of investigation for cardiac chest pain were recruited...
2018: Open Heart
Huaibin Wei, Huibin Yu, Hongwei Pan, Hongjie Gao
UV-visible absorption spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and two-dimensional correlation (2D correlation) is used to trace components of dissolved organic matter (DOM) extracted from soils in a larger estuarine delta and to investigate spatial variations of DOM fractions. Soil samples of different depths were collected from native halophyte soils along a saline gradient, i.e., Suaeda salsa Comm. (SSC), Chenopodium album Comm. (CAC), Phragmites australis Comm. (PAC), and Artemisia selengensis Comm...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jill K Badin, Ayeeshik Kole, Benjamin Stivers, Victor Progar, Anisha Pareddy, Mouhamad Alloosh, Michael Sturek
BACKGROUND: There is a preponderance of evidence implicating diabetes with increased coronary artery disease (CAD) and calcification (CAC) in human patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), but the effect of diabetes on CAD severity in animal models remains controversial. We investigated whether diabetes exacerbates CAD/CAC and intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+ ]i ) dysregulation in the clinically relevant Ossabaw miniature swine model of MetS. METHODS: Sixteen swine, eight with alloxan-induced diabetes, were fed a hypercaloric, atherogenic diet for 6 months...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Łukasz Murlikiewicz, Krzysztof Grzegorczyk, Małgorzata Lewicka, Andrzej Buczyński, Maciej Rutkowski
BACKGROUND: Thus far, the pathogenesis of these intestinal tumors has not been fully explained. However, the analysis of risk factors and research regarding their formation that have continued for 3 decades have allowed us to demonstrate a significant role of oxidative stress in the processes leading to the development of cancer in the large intestine as well as in some other organs. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the level of anti-oxidative status and the degree of oxidative protein damage in patients with varying severity of colonic adenocarcinoma (CAC) in relation to healthy individuals...
January 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Leslee J Shaw, Abhinav Goyal, Christina Mehta, Joe Xie, Lawrence Phillips, Anita Kelkar, Joseph Knapper, Daniel S Berman, Khurram Nasir, Emir Veledar, Michael J Blaha, Roger Blumenthal, James K Min, Reza Fazel, Peter W F Wilson, Matthew J Budoff
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) imparts a heavy economic burden on the U.S. health care system. Evidence regarding the long-term costs after comprehensive CVD screening is limited. OBJECTIVES: This study calculated 10-year health care costs for 6,814 asymptomatic participants enrolled in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), a registry sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health. METHODS: Cumulative 10-year costs for CVD medications, office visits, diagnostic procedures, coronary revascularization, and hospitalizations were calculated from detailed follow-up data...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
M J Sylte, M H Inbody, T A Johnson, T Looft, J E Line
Consumption of contaminated poultry products is the main source of human campylobacteriosis, for which Campylobacter jejuni is responsible for 90% of human cases. Although chickens are believed to be a main source of human exposure to C. jejuni, turkeys also contribute to cases of human infection. Little is known about the kinetics of C. jejuni intestinal colonization in turkeys, or best selective media for their recovery. Enumeration of C. jejuni from intestinal samples can be challenging because most selective Campylobacter media support the growth of non-Campylobacter organisms...
March 5, 2018: Poultry Science
Nivethitha Ilangkovan, Christian Backer Mogensen, Hans Mickley, Annmarie Touborg Lassen, Jess Lambrechtsen, Niels Peter Ronnow Sand, Rasmus Albiniussen, Jørgen Byg, Flemming Hald, Mette Hjortdal Grønhøj, Axel Diederichsen
OBJECTIVES: To examine and compare the prevalence of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and the frequency of cardiac events in a background population and a cohort of patients with non-specific chest pain (NSCP) who present to an emergency or cardiology department and are discharged without an obvious reason for their symptom. DESIGN: A double-blinded, prospective, observational cohort study that measures both CT-determined CAC scores and cardiac events after 1 year of follow-up...
March 3, 2018: BMJ Open
Song Lin, Huaqi Zhang, Aiguo Ma
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular diseases and depression are responsible for a great global burden of disease; however, the association between depression and coronary artery calcification (CAC) remain controversial and no quantitative meta-analysis exists. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between depression and CAC. METHODS: We performed a systematic search strategy using PubMed, Web of science, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Cochrane library for relevant observational studies investigating depression and CAC from inception until April 2017...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Felipe Vanz, Maíra Assunção Bicca, Vagner Fagnani Linartevichi, Marcelo Giachero, Leandro José Bertoglio, Thereza C Monteiro de Lima
The main κ opioid receptors (κORs) subtypes already described (κ1 ORs and κ2 ORs) are expressed in brain regions involved in aversive memory consolidation, including the dorsal hippocampus (DH). However, the role of DH κORs in consolidation of aversive memories with varied intensity and specificity is still uncertain. The present study aimed to investigate this question using pharmacological agents in rats subjected to a weak, moderate or strong contextual aversive conditioning (CAC) protocol. Antagonizing DH κORs with nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI), immediately after, but not 6 h later, a moderate CAC leads to intensified freezing behavior in the re-exposure to the paired context...
February 27, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Kaartiga Sivanesan, Subhi J Al'Aref, James K Min, Jessica M Peña, Fay Lin, Erica C Jones
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for women and men around the world. However, traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not fully capture cardiac risk in women. This review summarizes sex-based differences in the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and risk assessment of ischemic heart disease. We also examine the use of anatomic and functional imaging modalities in the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease in women. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies with women subjects have bolstered the predictive value of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score in predicting atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk and major adverse cardiac events in a graded fashion...
March 2, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
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