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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345577/probiotics-and-paraprobiotics-in-viral-infection-clinical-application-and-effects-on-the-innate-and-acquired-immune-systems
#1
Osamu Kanauchi, Akira Andoh, Sazaly AbuBakar, Naoki Yamamoto
Recently, the risk of viral infection has dramatically increased owing to changes in human ecology such as global warming and an increased geographical movement of people and goods. However, the efficacy of vaccines and remedies for infectious diseases is limited by the high mutation rates of viruses, especially, RNA viruses. Here, we comprehensively review the effectiveness of several probiotics and paraprobiotics (sterilized probiotics) for the prevention or treatment of virally-induced infectious diseases...
January 16, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331323/regulation-of-inflammatory-factors-by-double-stranded-rna-receptors-in-breast-cancer-cells
#2
Amritha Venkatesh, Harika Nandigam, Maria Muccioli, Manindra Singh, Tiffany Loftus, Deana Lewis, Michelle Pate, Fabian Benencia
Malignant cells are not the only components of a tumor mass since other cells (e.g., fibroblasts, infiltrating leukocytes and endothelial cells) are also part of it. In combination with the extracellular matrix, all these cells constitute the tumor microenvironment. In the last decade the role of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression has gained increased attention and prompted efforts directed to abrogate its deleterious effects on anti-cancer therapies. The immune system can detect and attack tumor cells, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (particularly CD8 T cells) have been associated with improved survival or better response to therapies in colorectal, melanoma, breast, prostate and ovarian cancer patients among others...
November 22, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330750/immunologic-and-gene-expression-profiles-of-spontaneous-canine-oligodendrogliomas
#3
Anna Filley, Mario Henriquez, Tanmoy Bhowmik, Brij Nath Tewari, Xi Rao, Jun Wan, Margaret A Miller, Yunlong Liu, R Timothy Bentley, Mahua Dey
Malignant glioma (MG), the most common primary brain tumor in adults, is extremely aggressive and uniformly fatal. Several treatment strategies have shown significant preclinical promise in murine models of glioma; however, none have produced meaningful clinical responses in human patients. We hypothesize that introduction of an additional preclinical animal model better approximating the complexity of human MG, particularly in interactions with host immune responses, will bridge the existing gap between these two stages of testing...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329556/cancer-immunotherapy-beyond-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#4
REVIEW
Julian A Marin-Acevedo, Aixa E Soyano, Bhagirathbhai Dholaria, Keith L Knutson, Yanyan Lou
Malignant cells have the capacity to rapidly grow exponentially and spread in part by suppressing, evading, and exploiting the host immune system. Immunotherapy is a form of oncologic treatment directed towards enhancing the host immune system against cancer. In recent years, manipulation of immune checkpoints or pathways has emerged as an important and effective form of immunotherapy. Agents that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) are the most widely studied and recognized...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321653/integrated-sequencing-of-exome-and-mrna-of-large-sized-single-cells
#5
Lily Yan Wang, Jiajie Guo, Wei Cao, Meng Zhang, Jiankui He, Zhoufang Li
Current approaches of single cell DNA-RNA integrated sequencing are difficult to call SNPs, because a large amount of DNA and RNA is lost during DNA-RNA separation. Here, we performed simultaneous single-cell exome and transcriptome sequencing on individual mouse oocytes. Using microinjection, we kept the nuclei intact to avoid DNA loss, while retaining the cytoplasm inside the cell membrane, to maximize the amount of DNA and RNA captured from the single cell. We then conducted exome-sequencing on the isolated nuclei and mRNA-sequencing on the enucleated cytoplasm...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321259/plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-promote-systemic-sclerosis-with-a-key-role-for-tlr8
#6
Marie Dominique Ah Kioon, Claudio Tripodo, David Fernandez, Kyriakos A Kirou, Robert F Spiera, Mary K Crow, Jessica K Gordon, Franck J Barrat
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem life-threatening fibrosing disorder that lacks effective treatment. The link between the inflammation observed in organs such as the skin and profibrotic mechanisms is not well understood. The plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) is a key cell type mediating Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced inflammation in autoimmune disease patients, including lupus and skin diseases with interface dermatitis. However, the role of pDCs in fibrosis is less clear. We show that pDCs infiltrate the skin of SSc patients and are chronically activated, leading to secretion of interferon-α (IFN-α) and CXCL4, which are both hallmarks of the disease...
January 10, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314718/new-frontiers-in-rna-transport-and-local-translation-in-neurons
#7
REVIEW
S J Van Driesche, K C Martin
RNA localization to neuronal dendrites and axons is increasingly recognized as a significant and widespread mechanism of gene expression control in neurons. High-throughput RNA sequencing is rapidly expanding the universe of known localized mRNAs. Although there are inherent difficulties in preparing sequencing libraries from dendrites and axons in the context of intact brain, genetic labeling strategies have paved the way for improved studies of this type. As the list of localized mRNAs grows, there is increasing need for functional validation of localized transcripts - that is, do particular localized transcripts serve demonstrable physiologic functions in axons or dendrites? Finally, specific details about what localized mRNAs do once they reach distal processes have long been elusive...
January 5, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311359/the-effects-of-dendritic-cell-hypersensitivity-on-persistent-viral-infection
#8
Jennifer S Tsau, Xin Huang, Chen-Yen Lai, Stephen M Hedrick
Caspase-8 (CASP8) is known as an executioner of apoptosis, but more recent studies have shown that it participates in the regulation of necroptosis and innate immunity. In this study, we show that CASP8 negatively regulates retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling such that, in its absence, stimulation of the RIG-I pathway in dendritic cells (DCs) produced modestly enhanced activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 with correspondingly greater amounts of proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, mice lacking DC-specific CASP8 (dcCasp8-/- mice) develop age-dependent symptoms of autoimmune disease characterized by hyperactive DCs and T cells, spleen and liver immunopathology, and the appearance of Th1-polarized CD4+ T cells...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300789/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-induced-mir-155-subverts-autophagy-by-targeting-atg3-in-human-dendritic-cells
#9
Marilena P Etna, Alessandro Sinigaglia, Angela Grassi, Elena Giacomini, Alessandra Romagnoli, Manuela Pardini, Martina Severa, Melania Cruciani, Fabiana Rizzo, Eleni Ananstasiadou, Barbara Di Camillo, Luisa Barzon, Gian Maria Fimia, Riccardo Manganelli, Eliana M Coccia
Autophagy is a primordial eukaryotic pathway, which provides the immune system with multiple mechanisms for the elimination of invading pathogens including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). As a consequence, Mtb has evolved different strategies to hijack the autophagy process. Given the crucial role of human primary dendritic cells (DC) in host immunity control, we characterized Mtb-DC interplay by studying the contribution of cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) in the post-transcriptional regulation of autophagy related genes...
January 4, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300158/vaccination-of-sows-with-a-dendritic-cell-targeted-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-s1-protein-based-candidate-vaccine-reduced-viral-shedding-but-exacerbated-gross-pathological-lesions-in-suckling-neonatal-piglets
#10
Sakthivel Subramaniam, Danielle M Yugo, C Lynn Heffron, Adam J Rogers, Harini Sooryanarain, Tanya LeRoith, Christopher Overend, Dianjun Cao, Xiang-Jin Meng
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) poses a serious threat to swine worldwide as evidenced by its recent introduction into the USA and the devastating economic impact it caused to the USA swine industry. Commercial vaccines against PEDV are available but their efficacies are inadequate. Therefore, vaccines with improved efficacy are needed to effectively control PEDV infections. We previously determined the immunogenicity of a novel dendritic cell (DC)-targeted PEDV S1 protein-based subunit vaccine in weaned piglets in which the PEDV antigen was targeted to DCs through a porcine Langerin-specific antibody...
January 4, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298830/golgi-phosphoprotein-2-is-a-novel-regulator-of-il-12-production-and-macrophage-polarization
#11
Wei Zhang, Hajeong Kim, Jiyang Lv, Na Zhao, Xiaojing Ma
Golgi phosphoprotein 2 (GOLPH2), a widely expressed Golgi type II transmembrane protein, has been implicated in several important physiological and pathological processes, including virus infections, cancer cell proliferation, and metastasis. However, its biological functions and mechanisms, particularly in the immune system, remain highly obscure. In this study, we report the biochemical identification of GOLPH2 from B cell lymphoma culture supernatant and show that the secreted protein could inhibit IL-12 production by dendritic cells (DCs) and IL-12-induced IFN-γ production by activated T cells...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296846/macrophages-and-osteoclasts-stem-from-a-bipotent-progenitor-downstream-of-a-macrophage-osteoclast-dendritic-cell-progenitor
#12
Yanling Xiao, Jara Palomero, Joanna Grabowska, Liqin Wang, Iris de Rink, Luuk van Helvert, Jannie Borst
Monocytes/macrophages (MΦs), osteoclasts (OCs), and dendritic cells (DCs) are closely related cell types of high clinical significance, but the exact steps in their lineage commitment are unclear. In studies on MΦ and DC development, OC development is generally not addressed. Furthermore, findings on DC development are confusing, because monocytes can also differentiate into DC-like cells. To resolve these issues, we have examined the development of monocytes/MΦs, OCs, and DCs from common progenitors, using the homeostatic driver cytokines macrophage colony-stimulating factor, RANK ligand (L), and Flt3L...
October 24, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296262/rna-loading-on-nano-structured-hyperbranched-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin
#13
Sorina Hirbod, Shohreh Nafisi, Howard I Maibach
Background: β-Cyclodextrin functionalized hyper-branched polyglycerol (HBCD: β-CD-g-PG), a biocompatible polymer, has recently been proposed for delivery of poorly water soluble compounds. Methods: The present study examines the interaction of HBCD with RNA, utilizing a constant concentration of RNA and different HBCD/RNA ratios of 1/16 to 1/1, at physiological condition in an aqueous solution. Circular Dichroism (CD), UV-visible, FTIR spectroscopic methods, zeta potential and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) were used to analyze the particle formation, particle charge, particle size, aggregation, RNA conformation, binding constant and mode, and the effect of polymer complexation on RNA stability...
January 2018: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290766/integrated-analysis-of-long-non-coding-rna-and-mrna-expression-profile-in-pancreatic-cancer-derived-exosomes-treated-dendritic-cells-by-microarray-analysis
#14
Jionghuang Chen, Shaowen Wang, Shengnan Jia, Guoping Ding, Guixing Jiang, Liping Cao
Background: Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease with a low five-year survival rate. Dendritic cells (DCs), which are the most potent antigen-presenting cells in the human body, play a pivotal role in the immune response. However, few studies have investigated the role of pancreatic cancer-derived exosomes (PEXs) in DC-meditated immune escape. The expression profiles of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and mRNAs of PEX-treated dendritic cells are unknown. Methods: We used integrated lncRNA and mRNA microarrays to determine the expression profiles of PEX-treated DCs and normal DCs derived from five healthy donors...
2018: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287681/alphavirus-vector-based-replicon-particles-expressing-multivalent-cross-protective-lassa-virus-glycoproteins
#15
Min Wang, Jenny Jokinen, Irina Tretyakova, Peter Pushko, Igor S Lukashevich
Lassa virus (LASV) is the most prevalent rodent-borne arenavirus circulated in West Africa. With population at risk from Senegal to Nigeria, LASV causes Lassa fever and is responsible for thousands of deaths annually. High genetic diversity of LASV is one of the challenges for vaccine R&D. We developed multivalent virus-like particle vectors (VLPVs) derived from the human Venezuelan equine encephalitis TC-83 IND vaccine (VEEV) as the next generation of alphavirus-based bicistronic RNA replicon particles. The genes encoding VEEV structural proteins were replaced with LASV glycoproteins (GPC) from distantly related clades I and IV with individual 26S promoters...
December 26, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285874/early-cellular-interactions-and-immune-transcriptome-profiles-in-human-factor-viii-exposed-hemophilia-a-mice
#16
J D Lai, D Cartier, R B Hartholt, L L Swystun, A S van Velzen, J M M den Haan, C Hough, J Voorberg, D Lillicrap
BACKGROUND: Developing factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitory antibodies is the most serious complication in hemophilia A treatment, representing a significant health and economic burden. A better understanding of the early events in an immune response leading to this outcome may provide insight into inhibitor development. OBJECTIVE: To identify early mediators of FVIII immunity and to detail immune expression profiles in the spleen and liver. METHODS: C57Bl/6 F8 E16 knockout mice were infused with 5-20 μg (2000-8000 IU/kg) of recombinant FVIII...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277556/microrna-16-targets-mrna-involved-in-neurite-extension-and-branching-in-hippocampal-neurons-during-presymptomatic-prion-disease
#17
Kristyn Burak, Lise Lamoureux, Amrit Boese, Anna Majer, Reuben Saba, Yulian Niu, Kathy Frost, Stephanie A Booth
The mechanisms that lead to neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases are poorly understood. Prion diseases, like many more common disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, are characterized by the progressive accumulation of misfolded disease-specific proteins. The earliest changes observed in brain tissue include a reduction in synaptic number and retraction of dendritic spines, followed by reduced length and branching of neurites. These pathologies are observable during presymptomatic stages of disease and are accompanied by altered expression of transcripts that include miRNAs...
December 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247724/anti-hbv-response-to-toll-like-receptor-7-agonist-gs-9620-is-associated-with-intrahepatic-aggregates-of-t-cells-and-b-cells
#18
Li Li, Vivian Barry, Stephane Daffis, Congrong Niu, Erik Huntzicker, Dorothy M French, Igor Mikaelian, Robert E Lanford, William E Delaney, Simon P Fletcher
BACKGROUND & AIMS: GS-9620, an oral agonist of toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), is in clinical development for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). GS-9620 was previously shown to induced prolonged suppression of serum viral DNA and antigens in the chimpanzee and woodchuck models of CHB. Here we investigated the immunomodulatory mechanisms underlying these antiviral effects. METHODS: Archived liver biopsies and paired PBMC samples from a previous chimpanzee study were analyzed by RNA-Seq, qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH)...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246966/first-person-brian-jenkins
#19
(no author information available yet)
First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. Brian Jenkins is the first author on 'Effects of mutating α-tubulin lysine 40 on sensory dendrite development', published in Journal of Cell Science. Brian conducted the research in this article while a post-doc in the lab of Jill Wildonger at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI. He is now at the Jungers Center for Neurosciences Research, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, where his research interests include visualizing all things related to how cells transport RNA, proteins and organelles throughout the cell...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246320/skin-delivery-of-clec4a-small-hairpin-rna-elicited-an-effective-antitumor-response-by-enhancing-cd8-immunity-in%C3%A2-vivo
#20
Tzu-Yang Weng, Chia-Jung Li, Chung-Yen Li, Yu-Hsuan Hung, Meng-Chi Yen, Yu-Wei Chang, Yu-Hung Chen, Yi-Ling Chen, Hui-Ping Hsu, Jang-Yang Chang, Ming-Derg Lai
Clec4a has been reported to be an immune suppressor of dendritic cells (DCs), but its potential role in cancer therapy remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated whether downregulating the expression of Clec4a via skin delivery of small hairpin RNA (shRNA) using a gene gun produced stronger host immunity and inhibited tumor progression in animal models. Administration of Clec4a2 shRNA delayed tumor growth in both mouse bladder and lung tumor-bearing mouse models. The result was further confirmed with a compensation experiment showing that the antitumor effects induced by Clec4a2 shRNA were restored by co-injection of a plasmid expressing exogenous Clec4a2...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
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