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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450725/bdnf-effects-on-dendritic-spine-morphology-and-hippocampal-function
#1
REVIEW
Oliver von Bohlen Und Halbach, Viola von Bohlen Und Halbach
Neurotrophins, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are expressed in the hippocampus, as well as their precursors, the pro-neurotrophins. The neurotrophins signal through specific tyrosine kinase receptors and the low affinity receptor p75NTR. Moreover, the pro-neurotrophins are considered to be biologically active by signaling through specific receptors. The neurotrophins, especially BDNF, are involved in processes related to learning and memory. Furthermore, it is thought that BDNF also plays a crucial role in major depression...
February 15, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450421/in-situ-atomic-force-microscopy-study-of-nano-micro-sodium-deposition-in-ester-based-electrolytes
#2
Mo Han, Chenbo Zhu, Ting Ma, Zeng Pan, Zhanliang Tao, Jun Chen
We report an in situ analysis of nano-micro sodium deposition in an ester-based electrolyte using atomic force microscopy. It is found that sodium dendrites are effectively suppressed by adding fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) as an electrolyte additive. The decomposition of FEC provides a NaF-containing solid electrolyte interphase with homogenous morphology and high modulus, leading to stable sodium deposition and high Coulombic efficiency (88% over 50 cycles) of the sodium metal anode.
February 16, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449934/a-thin-multifunctional-coating-on-a-separator-improves-the-cyclability-and-safety-of-lithium-sulfur-batteries
#3
Guiyin Xu, Qing-Bo Yan, Shitong Wang, Akihiro Kushima, Peng Bai, Kai Liu, Xiaogang Zhang, Zilong Tang, Ju Li
Lithium-sulfur batteries are one of the most promising next-generation batteries due to their high theoretical specific capacity, but are impeded by the low utilization of insulating sulfur, unstable morphology of the lithium metal anode, and transport of soluble polysulfides. Here, by coating a layer of nano titanium dioxide and carbon black onto a commercial polypropylene separator, we demonstrate a new composite separator that can confine the polysulfides on the cathode side, forming a catholyte chamber, and at the same time block the dendritic lithium on the anode side...
September 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448744/the-effects-of-dy-addition-on-microstructure-and-mechanical-properties-of-the-as-cast-mg-5al-3ca-2nd-alloys
#4
Hyeon-Taek Son, Yong-Ho Kim, Hyo-Sang Yoo
The microstructure of the as-cast Mg-5Al-3Ca-2Nd-xDy alloys consists of α-Mg matrix, (Mg, Al)2Ca eutectic phase, Al-Nd and Al-Dy intermetallic compounds. α-Mg matrix morphology was changed from dendritic to equiaxed with the increase Dy addition. And grain size was remarkably refined. As Dy content was increased, yield strength was improved due to the refined grains and the homogeneous distribution of Al-Dy phase.
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448481/packing-of-sedimenting-equiaxed-dendrites
#5
Antonio Olmedilla, Miha Založnik, Bernard Rouat, Hervé Combeau
The packing of free-floating crystal grains during solidification has a strong impact on the phase-change process as well as on the structure and the defects in the solidified material. The packing fraction is affected by the particular dendritic morphology of the grains and by their low inertia resulting from the small density difference between solid and liquid. Understanding the grain packing phenomenon during metal alloy solidification is not experimentally possible since packing is coupled to many other phenomena...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448070/human-in-vivo-differentiated-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells
#6
REVIEW
Tsing-Lee Tang-Huau, Elodie Segura
When entering tissues, monocytes can differentiate into cells that share morphological and functional features with either dendritic cells (DC) or macrophages. Monocyte-derived DC have been observed in humans at mucosal tissues and in inflammatory settings, where they are usually referred to as « inflammatory DC ». In this chapter, we review recent studies on the characterization of these cells in humans. We also discuss nomenclature and examine the criteria defining in vivo-differentiated human mo-DC.
February 12, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447953/dendrite-growth-and-the-effect-of-ectopic-rheb-expression-on-cortical-neurons
#7
Aidan M Sokolov, Caitlin M Seluzicki, Mary C Morton, David M Feliciano
Ras homology enriched in brain (Rheb) is a GTPase that activates the protein kinase mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR). Rheb mutations cause intellectual delay and megalencephaly. mTOR hyperactivation causes a constellation of neurodevelopmental disorders called "mTOR-opathies" that are frequently accompanied by hyperexcitable cortical malformations. Cortical malformations within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and somatosensory cortex (SSC) frequently colocalize with hyperexcitability. Although Rheb and mTOR are implicated in the formation of cortical lesions, seizure activity, and defects in neuronal migration, the contribution of Rheb to changes in neuron size and dendrite morphology is not well established...
February 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446846/histological-immune-response-patterns-in-sentinel-lymph-nodes-involved-by-metastatic-melanoma-and-prognostic-significance
#8
James Abbott, Meghan Buckley, Laura A Taylor, George Xu, Giorgos Karakousis, Brian J Czerniecki, Phyllis A Gimotty, Paul J Zhang
AIMS: To further characterize the micromorphometric immunological pattern to metastatic melanoma in SLN biopsies and completion lymph node (CLN) dissections and their relation to 5-year overall survival. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of 49 patients from 1996 to 2005 with a positive SLN who underwent CLN dissection were studied. Micromorphometric characteristics included: follicular center count per profile (FCC), sinus histiocytosis, metastatic size, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (intranodal), paracortial dendritic cells, germinal center reaction, and morphology...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438849/association-between-histological-alterations-in-the-thymus-and-sudden-infant-death-syndrome
#9
Ivan Varga, Ildikó Bódi, Veronika Mešťanová, Martin Kováč, Martin Klein
INTRODUCTION: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) involves the death of an infant during the first year of life and it is among the leading causes of infant mortality worldwide. One hypothesis regarding the pathogenesis of SIDS is that it results from a combination of three independent factors: endogenous vulnerability, a critical time window during postnatal development, and exogenous stressors. This hypothesis is known as the "triple-risk model". METHODS: In this study, we used an immunohistological approach to compare the cellular microenvironments of thymuses from 19 infants whose sudden death was classified as SIDS and a control group, which consisted of thymuses from age-matched children undergoing surgery for various congenital heart defects...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434934/effects-of-disodium-cantharidinate-on-dendritic-cells-of-patients-with-bladder-carcinoma
#10
Guang-Hui Zang, Rui Li, Rong-Sheng Zhou, Lin Hao, Hou-Guang He, Wen-Da Zhang, Yang Dong, Cong-Hui Han
The present study explored the effects of disodium cantharidinate (DC) on the peripheral blood-derived dendritic cells of patients with bladder carcinoma. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the 15 cases of urinary bladder carcinoma of middle and advanced stage were separated, and dendritic cells were prepared. The morphological changes of dendritic cells were observed. Flow cytometry was used to detect the expression levels of CD1a and CD83 on dendritic cell surface. MTT assay was utilized to measure the proliferation ability of allogeneic lymphocyte stimulated by DC...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434572/stress-and-corticosteroids-aggravate-morphological-changes-in-the-dentate-gyrus-after-early-life-experimental-febrile-seizures-in-mice
#11
Jolien S van Campen, Ellen V S Hessel, Kirsten Bohmbach, Giorgio Rizzi, Paul J Lucassen, Sada Lakshmi Turimella, Eduardo H L Umeoka, Gideon F Meerhoff, Kees P J Braun, Pierre N E de Graan, Marian Joëls
Stress is the most frequently self-reported seizure precipitant in patients with epilepsy. Moreover, a relation between ear stress and epilepsy has been suggested. Although ear stress and stress hormones are known to influence seizure threshold in rodents, effects on the development of epilepsy (epileptogenesis) are still unclear. Therefore, we studied the consequences of ear corticosteroid exposure for epileptogenesis, under highly controlled conditions in an animal model. Experimental febrile seizures (eFS) were elicited in 10-day-old mice by warm-air induced hyperthermia, while a control group was exposed to a normothermic condition...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432529/the-pro-apoptotic-jnk-scaffold-posh-sh3rf1-mediates-chmp2bintron5-associated-toxicity-in-animal-models-of-frontotemporal-dementia
#12
Ryan J H West, Chris Ugbode, Fen-Biao Gao, Sean T Sweeney
Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) is one of the most prevalent forms of early-onset dementia. However, the pathological mechanisms driving neuronal atrophy in FTD remain poorly understood. Here we identify a conserved role for the novel pro-apoptotic protein POSH/SH3RF1 in mediating neuropathology in Drosophila and mammalian models of CHMP2BIntron5associated FTD. Aberrant, AKT dependent, accumulation of POSH was observed throughout the nervous system of both Drosophila and mice expressing CHMP2BIntron5. Knockdown of POSH was shown to be neuroprotective and sufficient to alleviate aberrant neuronal morphology, behavioral deficits and premature-lethality in Drosophila models, as well as dendritic collapse and cell death in CHMP2BIntron5expressing rat primary neurons...
February 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429935/deconvolution-of-voltage-sensor-time-series-and-electro-diffusion-modeling-reveal-the-role-of-spine-geometry-in-controlling-synaptic-strength
#13
Jerome Cartailler, Taekyung Kwon, Rafael Yuste, David Holcman
Most synaptic excitatory connections are made on dendritic spines. But how the voltage in spines is modulated by its geometry remains unclear. To investigate the electrical properties of spines, we combine voltage imaging data with electro-diffusion modeling. We first present a temporal deconvolution procedure for the genetically encoded voltage sensor expressed in hippocampal cultured neurons and then use electro-diffusion theory to compute the electric field and the current-voltage conversion. We extract a range for the neck resistances of 〈R〉=100±35MΩ...
February 5, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429163/-clinicopathologic-features-and-prognosis-of-inflammatory-pseudotumor-like-follicular-dendritic-cell-sarcomas-in-liver-and-spleen-an-analysis-of-seven-cases
#14
Y L Wu, F Wu, L Yang, H Sun, X C Yan, G J Duan
Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features and prognostic parameters of the inflammatory pseudotumor-like follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (IPT-like FDCS) of liver and spleen. Methods: Ninteen cases of inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) and 5 cases of IPT-like FDCS of the liver and spleen were collected at the First Affiliated Hospital, Army Medical University from 2006 to 2016. HE sections, immunohistochemical staining, and Epstein-Barr virus encoded nuclear RNA (EBER) in situ hybridization were reviewed along with a summary of the literature...
February 8, 2018: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426666/the-vagus-nerve-modulates-bdnf-expression-and-neurogenesis-in-the-hippocampus
#15
Olivia F O'Leary, Ebere S Ogbonnaya, Daniela Felice, Brunno R Levone, Lorraine C Conroy, Patrick Fitzgerald, Javier A Bravo, Paul Forsythe, John Bienenstock, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Accumulating evidence suggests that certain gut microbiota have antidepressant-like behavioural effects and that the microbiota can regulate neurogenesis and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus. The precise mechanisms underlying these effects are not yet clear. However, the vagus nerve is one of the primary bidirectional routes of communication between the gut and the brain and thus may represent a candidate mechanism. Yet, relatively little is known about the direct influence of vagus nerve activity on hippocampal function and plasticity...
February 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424622/alveolar-bone-remodeling-after-tooth-extraction-in-irradiated-mandible-an-experimental-study-with-canine-model
#16
Venni Heinonen, Timo J Ruotsalainen, Lauri Paavola, Jopi J Mikkonen, Pekka Asikainen, Arto P Koistinen, Arja M Kullaa
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to investigate the morphological and cellular changes in dental extraction socket that has been irradiated after the tooth extraction and to describe morphological characteristics of the osteocytes and osteocyte-lacunar-canalicular network (LCN) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five beagle dogs aged 1-2 years were used in this study. One side of each mandible was irradiated in two sessions and the other side of mandible (non-irradiated) served as a control...
February 9, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424424/adult-specific-insulin-producing-neurons-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
Yuya Ohhara, Satoru Kobayashi, Kimiko Yamakawa-Kobayashi, Naoki Yamanaka
Holometabolous insects undergo metamorphosis to reorganize their behavioral and morphological features into adult-specific ones. In the central nervous system (CNS), some larval neurons undergo programmed cell death, whereas others go through remodeling of axonal and dendritic arbors to support functions of re-established adult organs. Although there are multiple neuropeptides that have stage-specific roles in holometabolous insects, the reorganization pattern of the entire neuropeptidergic system through metamorphosis still remains largely unclear...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421158/behavioral-and-structural-adaptations-to-stress
#18
REVIEW
Heather A Cameron, Timothy J Schoenfeld
Unpredictable aversive experiences, or stressors, lead to changes in depression- and anxiety-related behavior and to changes in hippocampal structure including decreases in adult neurogenesis, granule cell and pyramidal cell dendritic morphology, and volume. Here we review the relationship between these behavioral and structural changes and discuss the possibility that these changes may be largely adaptive. Specifically, we suggest that new neurons in the dentate gyrus enhance behavioral adaptability to changes in the environment, biasing behavior in novel situations based on previous experience with stress...
February 5, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415975/detection-of-minimal-bone-marrow-involvement-of-blastic-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cell-neoplastic-cells-cd303-immunostaining-as-a-diagnostic-tool
#19
Rintaro Ohe, Naing Ye Aung, Yosuke Shiono, Aya Utsunomiya, Takanobu Kabasawa, Nobuyuki Tamazawa, Yuka Tamura, Tomoya Kato, Akane Yamada, Shin Hasegawa, Keiko Aizawa, Kyoko Inokura, Satoshi Ito, Tomomi Toubai, Yuichi Kato, Takahiko Tsunoda, Kosuke Onami, Tamio Suzuki, Kenichi Ishizawa, Mitsunori Yamakawa
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) neoplasm (BPDCN) is a relatively rare hematological malignancy with significantly complex clinicopathological features that are still unclear. This study aimed to analyze the clinicopathological data of BPDCN and evaluate immunohistochemical detection of minimal bone marrow (BM) involvement. In this study, we examined skin and BM lesions from 6 patients with BPDCN. Neoplastic cells tested positive for CD303 (polyclonal, 100%; monoclonal, 40%) in the skin lesions and for CD303 (polyclonal, 100%; monoclonal, 67%) in the BM clots...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology: JCEH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415216/distinct-neocortical-progenitor-lineages-fine-tune-neuronal-diversity-in-a-layer-specific-manner
#20
Teresa Guillamon-Vivancos, William A Tyler, Maria Medalla, Wayne Wei-En Chang, Mayumi Okamoto, Tarik F Haydar, Jennifer I Luebke
How the variety of neurons that organize into neocortical layers and functional areas arises is a central question in the study of cortical development. While both intrinsic and extrinsic cues are known to influence this process, whether distinct neuronal progenitor groups contribute to neuron diversity and allocation is poorly understood. Using in vivo genetic fate-mapping combined with whole-cell patch clamp recording, we show that the firing pattern and apical dendritic morphology of excitatory neurons in layer 4 of the barrel cortex are specified in part by their neural precursor lineage...
February 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
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