keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

dendrite morphology

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724954/loss-of-x-linked-protocadherin-19-differentially-affects-the-behavior-of-heterozygous-female-and-hemizygous-male-mice
#1
Shuichi Hayashi, Yoko Inoue, Satoko Hattori, Mari Kaneko, Go Shioi, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Masatoshi Takeichi
Mutations in the X-linked gene Protocadherin-19 (Pcdh19) cause female-limited epilepsy and mental retardation in humans. Although Pcdh19 is known to be a homophilic cell-cell adhesion molecule, how its mutations bring about female-specific disorders remains elusive. Here, we report the effects of Pcdh19 knockout in mice on their development and behavior. Pcdh19 was expressed in various brain regions including the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Although Pcdh19-positive cells were evenly distributed in layer V of wild-type cortices, their distribution became a mosaic in Pcdh19 heterozygous female cortices...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722508/atg5-and-atg7-dependent-autophagy-in-dopaminergic-neurons-regulates-cellular-and-behavioral-responses-to-morphine
#2
Ling-Yan Su, Rongcan Luo, Qianjin Liu, Jing-Ran Su, Lu-Xiu Yang, Yu-Qiang Ding, Lin Xu, Yong-Gang Yao
The molecular basis of chronic morphine exposure remains unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that macroautophagy/autophagy of dopaminergic neurons would mediate the alterations of neuronal dendritic morphology and behavioral responses induced by morphine. Chronic morphine exposure caused Atg5 (autophagy related 5)- and Atg7 (autophagy related 7)-dependent and dopaminergic neuron-specific autophagy resulting in decreased neuron dendritic spines and the onset of addictive behaviors. In cultured primary midbrain neurons, morphine treatment significantly reduced total dendritic length and complexity, and this effect could be reversed by knockdown of Atg5 or Atg7...
July 19, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722074/supramolecular-semifluorinated-dendrons-glued-by-weak-hydrogen-bonds
#3
Senbin Chen, Annette Meister, Wolfgang H Binder
H-Bonded semifluorinated dendritic polymer networks are generated by association of macromolecules, driven by the weak diaminopyridine (DAP) and thymine (THY) couple. Solvent-dependent morphologies are observed: a continuous film structure when drop-cast from tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution or uniform nanoparticles with a diameter of ∼50 nm in toluene.
July 19, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720408/comparative-investigation-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-immunoreactivity-in-rat-and-human-claustrum
#4
Boycho Landzhov, Dimka Hinova-Palova, Lawrence Edelstein, Elena Dzhambazova, Ilina Brainova, Georgi P Georgiev, Vesela Ivanova, Adrian Paloff, Wladimir Ovtscharoff
We compared the distribution, density and morphological characteristics of nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive (NOS-ir) neurons in the rat and human claustrum. These neurons were categorized by diameter into three main types: large, medium and small. In the human claustrum, large neurons ranged from 26 to 40μm in diameter, medium neurons from 20 to 25μm and small neurons from 13 to 19μm. In the rat claustrum, large neurons ranged from 19 to 23μm in diameter, medium neurons from 15 to 18μm and small neurons from 10 to 14μm...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720405/persistent-cognitive-and-morphological-alterations-induced-by-repeated-exposure-of-adolescent-rats-to-the-abused-inhalant-toluene
#5
K M Braunscheidel, J T Gass, P J Mulholland, S B Floresco, J J Woodward
While thepsychoactive inhalant toluene causes behavioral effects similarto those produced by other drugs of abuse, the persistent behavioral and anatomical abnormalities induced by toluene exposure are not well known. To mimic human "binge-like" inhalant intoxication, adolescent, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to toluene vapor (57000 ppm) twice daily for five consecutive days. These rats remained in their home cages until adulthood (P60), when they were trained in operant boxes to respond to a palatable food reward and then challenged with several different cognitive tasks...
July 15, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718199/the-clec12a-receptor-marks-human-basophils-potential-implications-for-minimal-residual-disease-detection-in-myeloid-malignancies
#6
Marie Toft-Petersen, Anne Stidsholt Roug, Trine Plesner, Lene Ebbesen, Gordon D Brown, Line Nederby
BACKGROUND: The transmembrane receptor C-type lectin domain family 12, member A (CLEC12A) is known to be highly expressed on monocytes and neutrophils and is a reliable leukemia associated marker in acute myeloid leukemia. Consequently, detailed knowledge of the various normal cell types expressing this receptor is essential. We have observed CLEC12A to be expressed on CD45lowSSClowCD14-CD123+ basophils in peripheral blood (PB) and in the present study, we aimed at verifying this observation and further delineate the CD45lowSSClowCD14-CD123+CLEC12A+ subpopulation...
July 17, 2017: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715135/chronic-pharmacological-blockade-of-the-na-ca-2-exchanger-modulates-the-growth-and-development-of-the-purkinje-cell-dendritic-arbor-in-mouse-cerebellar-slice-cultures
#7
Pradeep Sherkhane, Josef P Kapfhammer
The Na(+) /Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) is a bi-directional plasma membrane antiporter involved in Ca(2+) homeostasis in eukaryotes. NCX has three isoforms, NCX1-3, and all of them are expressed in the cerebellum. Immunostaining on cerebellar slice cultures indicates that NCX is widely expressed in the cerebellum, including expression in Purkinje cells. The pharmacological blockade of the forward mode of NCX (Ca(2+) efflux mode) by Bepridil moderately inhibited growth and development of Purkinje cell dendritic arbor in cerebellar slice cultures...
July 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713337/the-s-layer-associated-serine-protease-homolog-prtx-impacts-cell-surface-mediated-microbe-host-interactions-of-lactobacillus-acidophilus-ncfm
#8
Brant R Johnson, Sarah O'Flaherty, Yong Jun Goh, Ian Carroll, Rodolphe Barrangou, Todd R Klaenhammer
Health-promoting aspects attributed to probiotic microorganisms, including adhesion to intestinal epithelia and modulation of the host mucosal immune system, are mediated by proteins found on the bacterial cell surface. Notably, certain probiotic and commensal bacteria contain a surface (S-) layer as the outermost stratum of the cell wall. S-layers are non-covalently bound semi-porous, crystalline arrays of self-assembling, proteinaceous subunits called S-layer proteins (SLPs). Recent evidence has shown that multiple proteins are non-covalently co-localized within the S-layer, designated S-layer associated proteins (SLAPs)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712570/electron-microscopic-reconstruction-of-functionally-identified-cells-in-a-neural-integrator
#9
Ashwin Vishwanathan, Kayvon Daie, Alexandro D Ramirez, Jeff W Lichtman, Emre R F Aksay, H Sebastian Seung
Neural integrators are involved in a variety of sensorimotor and cognitive behaviors. The oculomotor system contains a simple example, a hindbrain neural circuit that takes velocity signals as inputs and temporally integrates them to control eye position. Here we investigated the structural underpinnings of temporal integration in the larval zebrafish by first identifying integrator neurons using two-photon calcium imaging and then reconstructing the same neurons through serial electron microscopic analysis...
July 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712396/-response-surface-methodology-for-optimizing-the-technology-of-induction-and-isolation-of-dendritic-cells-by-multiple-cytokines
#10
Xunwei Duan, Guiqing Xiao, Yanlan Zhao, Lixing Wang, Chenna Zheng, Le Dong, Wenlin Wu
Objective To promote the induction and separation efficiency of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) in vitro through optimizing the inducing and isolating process by multiple cytokines. Methods The factors to be optimized in single factor tests included recombinant mouse granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (rmGM-CSF), recombinant mouse interleukine 4 (rmIL-4), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), recombinant mouse tumor necrosis factor α (rmTNF-α) and inducing time. The numbers of immature dendritic cells (imDCs) and mature dendritic cells (mDCs) were investigated as the indicators...
July 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709310/phase-field-crystal-investigation-of-the-morphology-of-a-steady-state-dendrite-tip-on-the-atomic-scale
#11
Sai Tang, Jincheng Wang, Junjie Li, Zhijun Wang, Yaolin Guo, Can Guo, Yaohe Zhou
Through phase-field-crystal (PFC) simulations, we investigated, on the atomic scale, the crucial role played by interface energy anisotropy and growth driving force during the morphological evolution of a dendrite tip at low growth driving force. In the layer-by-layer growth manner, the interface energy anisotropy drives the forefront of the dendrite tip to evolve to be highly similar to the corner of the corresponding equilibrium crystal from the aspects of atom configuration and morphology, and thus affects greatly the formation and growth of a steady-state dendrite tip...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706281/thiamine-metabolism-is-critical-for-regulating-correlated-growth-of-dendrite-arbors-and-neuronal-somata
#12
Huimin Liu, Shaoming Sang, Yuan Lu, Zhongfeng Wang, Xiang Yu, Chunjiu Zhong
Thiamine is critical for cellular function, as its phosphorylated and active form, thiamine diphosphate (TDP), acts as coenzyme for three key enzymes in glucose metabolism. Mutations in thiamine transporter, TDP synthesizing enzyme or carrier, including solute carrier family 19 member 3 (SLC19A3), thiamine pyrophosphokinase (TPK1) and solute carrier family 25 member 19 (SLC25A19), have been associated with developmental neurological disorders, including microcephaly and Leigh syndrome. However, little is known about how thiamine metabolism regulates neuronal morphology at the cellular level...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701532/basal-tree-complexity-shapes-functional-pathways-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#13
Athanasia Papoutsi, George Kastellakis, Panayiota Poirazi
While the morphology of basal dendritic trees in cortical pyramidal neurons varies, the functional implications of this diversity are just starting to emerge. In layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex for example, increased basal tree complexity determines the recruitment of these neurons into functional circuits. Here, we use a modeling approach to investigate whether and how the morphology of the basal tree mediates the functional output of neurons. We implemented 57 basal tree morphologies of layer 5 prefrontal pyramidal neurons of the rat and identified morphological types which were characterized by different response features, forming distinct functional types...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701424/more-than-a-mere-supply-of-monomers-g-actin-pools-regulate-actin-dynamics-in-dendritic-spines
#14
Katalin Schlett
Synaptic activity reshapes the morphology of dendritic spines via regulating F-actin arborization. In this issue, Lei et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201612042) reports a novel, G-actin-dependent regulation of actin polymerization within spine heads. They show that actin monomer levels are elevated in spines upon activity, with G-actin immobilized by the local enrichment of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate (PIP3) within the spine plasma membrane.
July 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698933/distinct-effects-on-the-dendritic-arbor-occur-by-microbead-versus-bath-administration-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#15
Kate M O'Neill, Munjin Kwon, Katherine E Donohue, Bonnie L Firestein
Proper communication among neurons depends on an appropriately formed dendritic arbor, and thus, aberrant changes to the arbor are implicated in many pathologies, ranging from cognitive disorders to neurodegenerative diseases. Due to the importance of dendritic shape to neuronal network function, the morphology of dendrites is tightly controlled and is influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this work, we examine how brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), one of the most well-studied extrinsic regulators of dendritic branching, affects the arbor when it is applied locally via microbeads to cultures of hippocampal neurons...
July 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697890/stress-induced-neuronal-colony-stimulating-factor-1-provokes-microglia-mediated-neuronal-remodeling-and-depressive-like-behavior
#16
Eric S Wohleb, Rosemarie Terwilliger, Catharine H Duman, Ronald S Duman
BACKGROUND: Chronic stress exposure causes neuronal atrophy and synaptic deficits in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), contributing to development of anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. Concomitantly, microglia in the PFC undergo morphological and functional changes following stress exposure, suggesting that microglia contribute to synaptic deficits underlying behavioral consequences. METHODS: Male and female mice were exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) to examine the role of neuron-microglia interactions in the medial PFC during development of anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors...
June 12, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695297/histiocytic-and-dendritic-cell-neoplasms-what-have-we-learnt-by-studying-67-cases
#17
Fabio Facchetti, Stefano Aldo Pileri, Luisa Lorenzi, Valentina Tabanelli, Lisa Rimsza, Stefania Pittaluga, Stephan Dirnhofer, Christiane Copie-Bergman, Laurence de Leval, Andreas Rosenwald, Andrew Wotherspoon, Falko Fend
Tumors derived from histiocytic and dendritic cells encompass a large and heterogeneous group of neoplastic and reactive conditions, and their diagnosis is challenging both for pathologists and clinicians. Diagnosis is based on morphological and phenotypical findings, but hybrid features are not uncommon. Furthermore, recent studies uncovered the molecular mechanisms driving some of these tumors, improving diagnostic adequacy, and providing the basis for effective therapeutic breakthroughs.Sixty-seven cases were submitted to the accessory cell and histiocytic neoplasms session at the European Association of Haematopathology/Society for Hematopathology workshop 2016 held in Basel, Switzerland...
July 10, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692464/melanocytes-pattern-in-the-normal-nail-with-special-reference-to-nail-bed-melanocytes
#18
Christophe Perrin, Jean-F Michiels, Julien Boyer, Damien Ambrosetti
Previous studies of the density of melanocytes in the normal nail bed have had conflicting results. This is unfortunate because knowing the normal values might help the difficult distinction between a benign subungual melanotic macule and an early melanoma in situ. Five specimens of normal nail unit were analyzed. On hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections the melanocytes were undetectable. We defined the melanocyte count (MC) as the number of melanocytes per 1-mm stretch of nail epithelium. The mean MC for nail matrix was 6...
June 19, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681593/5-hydroxytryptamine-6-receptor-5-ht6r-mediated-morphological-changes-via-rhoa-dependent-pathways
#19
Md Ataur Rahman, Hanna Kim, Kang Ho Lee, Hyung-Mun Yun, Jung-Hwa Hong, Youngjae Kim, Hyunah Choo, Mikyoung Park, Hyewhon Rhim
The 5-HT6R has been considered as an attractive therapeutic target in the brain due to its exclusive expression in the brain. However, the mechanistic linkage between 5-HT6Rs and brain functions remains poorly understood. Here, we examined the effects of 5-HT6R-mediated cell morphological changes using immunocytochemistry, Western blot, and live-cell imaging assays. Our results showed that the activation of 5-HT6Rs caused morphological changes and increased cell surface area in HEK293 cells expressing 5-HT6Rs...
June 30, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681457/pregnancy-improves-cognitive-deficit-and-neuronal-morphology-atrophy-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-hippocampus-of-aging-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#20
Verónica R Cabrera-Pedraza, María de Jesús Gómez-Villalobos, Fidel de la Cruz, Patricia Aguilar-Alonso, Sergio Zamudio, Gonzalo Flores
It is well known that the survival is higher in women compared to men and women have a better survival prognosis than men in some pathologies such as vascular dementia (VD). Our previous reports showed that the spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rat, an animal model of VD, exhibited dendritic atrophy of pyramidal neurons of the dorsal hippocampus (DH) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) at 8 months of age. Cerebrolysin (CBL), a neurotrophic peptide mixture, reduces dendritic atrophy and improves the memory process in aged rats...
July 6, 2017: Synapse
keyword
keyword
58686
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"