keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

dendrite morphology

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046349/differential-regulation-of-the-rac1-gtpase-activating-protein-gap-bcr-during-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-in-hippocampal-and-cortical-neurons
#1
Katharine R Smith, Dipen Rajgor, Jonathan G Hanley
Brain ischemia causes oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in neurons, triggering a cascade of events leading to synaptic accumulation of glutamate. Excessive activation of glutamate receptors causes excitotoxicity and delayed cell death in vulnerable neurons. Following global cerebral ischemia, hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons are more vulnerable to injury than their cortical counterparts, but the mechanisms that underlie this difference are unclear. Signalling via Rho-family small GTPases, their upstream Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factors (GEFs) and GTPase Activating Proteins (GAPs) is differentially dysregulated in response to OGD/ischemia in hippocampal and cortical neurons...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045559/segregated-excitatory-inhibitory-recurrent-subnetworks-in-layer-5-of-the-rat-frontal-cortex
#2
Mieko Morishima, Kenta Kobayashi, Shigeki Kato, Kazuto Kobayashi, Yasuo Kawaguchi
A prominent feature of neocortical pyramidal cells (PCs) is their numerous projections to diverse brain areas. In layer 5 (L5) of the rat frontal cortex, there are 2 major subtypes of PCs that differ in their long-range axonal projections, corticopontine (CPn) cells and crossed corticostriatal (CCS) cells. The outputs of these L5 PCs can be regulated by feedback inhibition from neighboring cortical GABAergic cells. Two major subtypes of GABAergic cells are parvalbumin (PV)-positive and somatostatin (SOM)-positive cells...
October 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039413/vta-mtor-signaling-regulates-dopamine-dynamics-cocaine-induced-synaptic-alterations-and-reward
#3
Xiaojie Liu, Yan Li, Laikang Yu, Casey R Vickstrom, Qing-Song Liu
Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates long-term synaptic plasticity, learning and memory by controlling dendritic protein synthesis. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin has been shown to attenuate the behavioral effects of drugs of abuse, including cocaine. Using viral vectors to selectively delete mTOR in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in adult male mTOR(loxP/loxP) mice, we investigated the role of mTOR in regulating neuronal morphology, basal synaptic transmission, dopamine dynamics and cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity and rewarding effects...
October 17, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038037/brain-inflammatory-cytokines-and-microglia-morphology-changes-throughout-hibernation-phases-in-syrian-hamster
#4
V Cogut, J J Bruintjes, B J L Eggen, E A van der Zee, R H Henning
Hibernators tolerate low metabolism, reduced cerebral blood flow and hypothermia during torpor without noticeable neuronal or synaptic dysfunction upon arousal. Previous studies found extensive changes in brain during torpor, including synaptic rearrangements, documented both morphologically and molecularly. As such adaptations may represent organ damage, we anticipated an inflammatory response in brain during specific hibernation phases. In this study, signs of inflammation in the brain were investigated in the Syrian hamster hippocampus (Mesocricetus Auratus) both during hibernation (torpor and arousal phases) and in summer and winter euthermic animals...
October 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034487/the-role-of-spontaneous-neurotransmission-in-synapse-and-circuit-development
#5
REVIEW
Laura C Andreae, Juan Burrone
In the past, the spontaneous release of neurotransmitter from presynaptic terminals has been thought of as a side effect of evoked release, with little functional significance. As our understanding of the process of spontaneous release has increased over time, this notion has gradually changed. In this review, we focus on the importance of this form of release during neuronal development, a time of extreme levels of plasticity that includes the growth of dendrites and axons as well as the formation of new synaptic contacts...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034317/luciferase-shrna-presents-off-target-effects-on-voltage-gated-ion-channels-in-mouse-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons
#6
Yuto Hasegawa, Wenjie Mao, Sucharita Saha, Georgia Gunner, Jenya Kolpakova, Gilles E Martin, Kensuke Futai
RNA interference (RNAi) is a straightforward approach to study gene function from the in vitro cellular level to in vivo animal behavior. Although RNAi-mediated gene knockdown has become essentially routine in neuroscience over the past ten years, off-target effects of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) should be considered as the proper choice of control shRNA is critical in order to perform meaningful experiments. Luciferase shRNA (shLuc), targeting firefly luciferase, and scrambled shRNAs (shScrs) have been widely used as controls for vertebrate cell research...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030297/impaired-extinction-of-cued-fear-memory-and-abnormal-dendritic-morphology-in-the-prelimbic-and-infralimbic-cortices-in-vpac2-receptor-vipr2-deficient-mice
#7
Yukio Ago, Atsuko Hayata-Takano, Takuya Kawanai, Ryosuke Yamauchi, Shuto Takeuchi, Jesse D Cushman, Abha K Rajbhandari, Michael S Fanselow, Hitoshi Hashimoto, James A Waschek
The structurally related neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) have been implicated in stress regulation and learning and memory. Several bodies of research have shown the impact of the PACAP specific receptor PAC1 on fear memory, but the roles of other PACAP receptors in regulating fear stress responses remain to be elucidated. Here we aimed to investigate the effects of genetic deletion of VIPR2 encoding the VPAC2 receptor, which binds both VIP and PACAP, on fear-related memory and on dendritic morphology in the brain regions of the fear circuitry...
October 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026067/designing-solid-liquid-interphases-for-sodium-batteries
#8
Snehashis Choudhury, Shuya Wei, Yalcin Ozhabes, Deniz Gunceler, Michael J Zachman, Zhengyuan Tu, Jung Hwan Shin, Pooja Nath, Akanksha Agrawal, Lena F Kourkoutis, Tomas A Arias, Lynden A Archer
Secondary batteries based on earth-abundant sodium metal anodes are desirable for both stationary and portable electrical energy storage. Room-temperature sodium metal batteries are impractical today because morphological instability during recharge drives rough, dendritic electrodeposition. Chemical instability of liquid electrolytes also leads to premature cell failure as a result of parasitic reactions with the anode. Here we use joint density-functional theoretical analysis to show that the surface diffusion barrier for sodium ion transport is a sensitive function of the chemistry of solid-electrolyte interphase...
October 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025914/dendritic-cytoskeletal-architecture-is-modulated-by-combinatorial-transcriptional-regulation-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#9
Ravi Das, Shatabdi Bhattacharjee, Atit A Patel, Jenna M Harris, Surajit Bhattacharya, Jamin M Letcher, Sarah G Clark, Sumit Nanda, Eswar Prasad R Iyer, Giorgio A Ascoli, Daniel N Cox
Transcription factors (TFs) have emerged as essential cell autonomous mediators of sub-type specific dendritogenesis, however, the downstream effectors of these TFs remain largely unknown, as are the cellular events that TFs control to direct morphological change. As dendritic morphology is largely dictated by the organization of the actin and microtubule (MT) cytoskeletons, elucidating TF-mediated cytoskeletal regulatory programs is key to understanding molecular control of diverse dendritic morphologies. Previous studies in Drosophila melanogaster have demonstrated that the conserved TFs Cut and Knot exert combinatorial control over aspects of dendritic cytoskeleton development, promoting actin- and MT-based arbor morphology, respectively...
October 12, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022091/maternal-high-fat-diet-and-early-life-stress-differentially-modulate-spine-density-and-dendritic-morphology-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-juvenile-and-adult-rats
#10
Marion Rincel, Amandine L Lépinay, Yoottana Janthakhin, Gwenaëlle Soudain, Sophie Yvon, Stéphanie Da Silva, Corinne Joffre, Agnès Aubert, Alexandra Séré, Sophie Layé, Vassilia Theodorou, Guillaume Ferreira, Muriel Darnaudéry
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a key area for the regulation of numerous brain functions including stress response and cognitive processes. This brain area is also particularly affected by adversity during early life. Using an animal model in rats, we recently demonstrated that maternal exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) prevents maternal separation (MS)-induced gene expression alterations in the developing PFC and attenuates several long-term deleterious behavioral effects of MS. In the present study, we ask whether maternal HFD could protect mPFC neurons of pups exposed to early life stress by examining dendritic morphology and spine density in juvenile [postnatal day (PND) 21] and adult rats submitted to MS...
October 11, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017970/absence-of-microglial-cx3cr1-impairs-the-synaptic-integration-of-adult-born-hippocampal-granule-neurons
#11
M Bolós, J R Perea, J Terreros-Roncal, N Pallas-Bazarra, J Jurado-Arjona, J Ávila, M Llorens-Martín
Microglia are immune cells that play a crucial role in maintaining brain homeostasis. Among the mechanisms of communication between microglia and neurons, the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis exerts a central modulatory role. Animals lacking CX3CR1 microglial receptor (CX3CR1-/- mice) exhibit marked alterations not only in microglia but also in neurons located in various regions of the brain. Here we show that microglial depletion of CX3CR1 leads to the deficient synaptic integration of adult-born granule neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG), both at the afferent and efferent level...
October 7, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017910/developmental-ethanol-exposure-alters-the-morphology-of-mouse-prefrontal-neurons-in-a-layer-specific-manner
#12
Emma L Louth, Hanna D Luctkar, Kayla A Heney, Craig D C Bailey
Chronic developmental exposure to ethanol can lead to a wide variety of teratogenic effects, which in humans are known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Individuals affected by FASD may exhibit persistent impairments to cognitive functions such as learning, memory, and attention, which are highly dependent on medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuitry. The objective of this study was to determine long-term effects of chronic developmental ethanol exposure on mPFC neuron morphology, in order to better-understand potential neuronal mechanisms underlying cognitive impairments associated with FASD...
October 7, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017388/pathophysiological-bases-of-comorbidity-tbi-and-ptsd
#13
Gary B Kaplan, Kimberly A Leite-Morris, Lei Wang, Kendra K Rumbika, Stephen C Heinrichs, Xiang Zeng, Liquan Wu, Danielle T Arena, Yang D Teng
The high rates of TBI and PTSD diagnoses encountered in recent years by the U.S. Veterans Affairs Healthcare System have increased public awareness and research investigation into these conditions. In this review, we analyze the neural mechanisms underlying the TBI/PTSD comorbidity. TBI and PTSD present with common neuropsychiatric symptoms including anxiety, irritability, insomnia, personality changes and memory problems and this overlap complicates diagnostic differentiation. Interestingly, both TBI and PTSD can be produced by overlapping pathophysiological changes that disrupt neural connections termed the "connectome"...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993204/a-stepwise-neuron-model-fitting-procedure-designed-for-recordings-with-high-spatial-resolution-application-to-layer-5-pyramidal-cells
#14
Tuomo Mäki-Marttunen, Geir Halnes, Anna Devor, Christoph Metzner, Anders M Dale, Ole A Andreassen, Gaute T Einevoll
BACKGROUND: Recent progress in electrophysiological and optical methods for neuronal recordings provides vast amounts of high-resolution data. In parallel, the development of computer technology has allowed simulation of ever-larger neuronal circuits. A challenge in taking advantage of these developments is the construction of single-cell and network models in a way that faithfully reproduces neuronal biophysics with subcellular level of details while keeping the simulation costs at an acceptable level...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984342/follicular-dendritic-cell-sarcoma-of-the-larynx-apropos-a-rare-case-with-review-of-the-literature
#15
Ayushi Sahay, Munita Bal, Asawari Patil, Shubhada Kane, Prathamesh Pai
Extranodal follicular dendritic cell sarcomas are extremely rare neoplasms included under the hematolymphoid and dendritic group of neoplasms. Histologically, fascicular, whorled spindle cells with sprinkled lymphocytes are typical; however higher grade epithelioid morphology seen in a subset makes diagnosis of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma challenging. Rarity of occurrence, a wide histologic spectrum and a long list of differential diagnostic entities render follicular dendritic cell sarcoma an under-recognized entity susceptible to diagnostic pitfalls...
October 6, 2017: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983044/the-promise-of-spatial-transcriptomics-for-neuroscience-in-the-era-of-molecular-cell-typing
#16
REVIEW
Ed Lein, Lars E Borm, Sten Linnarsson
The stereotyped spatial architecture of the brain is both beautiful and fundamentally related to its function, extending from gross morphology to individual neuron types, where soma position, dendritic architecture, and axonal projections determine their roles in functional circuitry. Our understanding of the cell types that make up the brain is rapidly accelerating, driven in particular by recent advances in single-cell transcriptomics. However, understanding brain function, development, and disease will require linking molecular cell types to morphological, physiological, and behavioral correlates...
October 6, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980915/functional-role-of-inflammation-in-the-surgical-injury-induced-vascular-remodeling-of-male-albino-rats
#17
X Song, L Li, Y Wu, L Zhang, X Li
Our present study investigates the cellular and molecular inflammatory events in male albino rat arterial injury. Male albino rats were subjected to longitudinal incision and carotid artery clamping for the duration of 45 days. Heat shock protein (HSP) 27, HSP70, HSP47 and Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB) expressions were determined by qPCR and Western blot method. The morphology of vessel wall alteration was studied by the light microscopy. The expression of NF-κB was found to be increased after ten days of carotid artery injury...
September 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979184/spin90-modulates-long-term-depression-and-behavioral-flexibility-in-the-hippocampus
#18
Dae Hwan Kim, Minkyung Kang, Chong-Hyun Kim, Yun Hyun Huh, In Ha Cho, Hyun-Hee Ryu, Kyung Hwun Chung, Chul-Seung Park, Sangmyung Rhee, Yong-Seok Lee, Woo Keun Song
The importance of actin-binding proteins (ABPs) in the regulation of synapse morphology and plasticity has been well established. SH3 protein interacting with Nck, 90 kDa (SPIN90), an Nck-interacting protein highly expressed in synapses, is essential for actin remodeling and dendritic spine morphology. Synaptic targeting of SPIN90 to spine heads or dendritic shafts depends on its phosphorylation state, leading to blockage of cofilin-mediated actin depolymerization and spine shrinkage. However, the physiological role of SPIN90 in long-term plasticity, learning and memory are largely unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974457/sex-differences-in-stress-regulation-of-arousal-and-cognition
#19
Debra A Bangasser, Samantha R Eck, Alexander M Telenson, Madeleine Salvatore
There are sex differences in the prevalence and presentation of many psychiatric disorders. For example, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression are more common in women than men, and women with these disorders present with more hyperarousal symptoms than men. In contrast, attention deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) and schizophrenia are more common in men than women, and men with these disorders have increased cognitive deficits compared to women. A shared feature of the aforementioned psychiatric disorders is the contribution of stressful events to their onset and/or severity...
September 30, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970783/the-histone-h3k27-demethylase-utx-regulates-synaptic-plasticity-and-cognitive-behaviors-in-mice
#20
Gang-Bin Tang, Yu-Qiang Zeng, Pei-Pei Liu, Ting-Wei Mi, Shuang-Feng Zhang, Shang-Kun Dai, Qing-Yuan Tang, Lin Yang, Ya-Jie Xu, Hai-Liang Yan, Hong-Zhen Du, Zhao-Qian Teng, Feng-Quan Zhou, Chang-Mei Liu
Histone demethylase UTX mediates removal of repressive trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) to establish a mechanistic switch to activate large sets of genes. Mutation of Utx has recently been shown to be associated with Kabuki syndrome, a rare congenital anomaly syndrome with dementia. However, its biological function in the brain is largely unknown. Here, we observe that deletion of Utx results in increased anxiety-like behaviors and impaired spatial learning and memory in mice. Loss of Utx in the hippocampus leads to reduced long-term potentiation and amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic current, aberrant dendrite development and defective synapse formation...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
keyword
keyword
58686
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"