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dendrite morphology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643854/olfactory-dysfunction-in-the-app-ps1-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-morphological-evaluations-from-the-nose-to-the-brain
#1
Zhi-Gang Yao, Fang Hua, Hao-Zhuang Zhang, Yan-Yan Li, Ye-Jun Qin
Olfactory dysfunction is among the signs of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cognitive impairment. It has been demonstrated Aβ was associated with olfactory impairment observed in both transgenic mice and in AD patients. In this study, we evaluated amyloid deposition in the olfactory circuit of APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model of AD, which showed olfactory dysfunction in olfactory behavior tests. We found amyloid depositions were widely distributed in the whole olfactory circuit. Moreover, we think these amyloid depositions contribute to neuronal atrophy, dendritic abnormalities, synapse loss and axonal degeneration...
June 23, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642348/confined-in-fiber-solidification-and-structural-control-of-silicon-and-silicon-germanium-microparticles
#2
Alexander Gumennik, Etgar C Levy, Benjamin Grena, Chong Hou, Michael Rein, Ayman F Abouraddy, John D Joannopoulos, Yoel Fink
Crystallization of microdroplets of molten alloys could, in principle, present a number of possible morphological outcomes, depending on the symmetry of the propagating solidification front and its velocity, such as axial or spherically symmetric species segregation. However, because of thermal or constitutional supercooling, resulting droplets often only display dendritic morphologies. Here we report on the crystallization of alloyed droplets of controlled micrometer dimensions comprising silicon and germanium, leading to a number of surprising outcomes...
June 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642245/a-reporter-mouse-model-for-in-vivo-tracing-and-in-vitro-molecular-studies-of-melanocytic-lineage-cells-and-their-diseases
#3
Melissa Crawford, Valerie Leclerc, Lina Dagnino
Alterations in melanocytic lineage cells give rise to a plethora of distinct human diseases, including neurocristopathies, cutaneous pigmentation disorders, loss of vision and hearing, as well as melanoma. Understanding the ontogeny and biology of melanocytic cells, as well as how they interact with their surrounding environment, are key steps in the development of therapies for diseases that involve this cell lineage. Efforts to culture and characterize primary melanocytes from normal or genetically engineered mouse models have at times yielded contrasting observations...
June 22, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641988/wavy-multistratified-amacrine-cells-in-the-monkey-retina-contain-immunoreactive-secretoneurin
#4
Andrea S Bordt, Ye Long, Nobuo Kouyama, Elizabeth S Yamada, Jens Hannibal, David W Marshak
The goals of this study were to describe the morphology, neurotransmitter content and synaptic connections of neurons in primate retinas that contain the neuropeptide secretoneurin. Amacrine cells were labeled with antibodies to secretoneurin in macaque and baboon retinas. Their processes formed three distinct plexuses in the inner plexiform layer: one in the outermost stratum, one in the center and one in the innermost stratum. In light microscopic double immunolabeling experiments, GABA was colocalized with secretoneurin in these cells, but glycine transporter 1 and Substance P were not...
June 19, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641933/the-role-of-sleep-in-regulating-structural-plasticity-and-synaptic-strength-implications-for-memory-and-cognitive-function
#5
REVIEW
Frank Raven, Eddy A Van der Zee, Peter Meerlo, Robbert Havekes
Dendritic spines are the major sites of synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Alterations in the strength of synaptic connections directly affect the neuronal communication, which is crucial for brain function as well as the processing and storage of information. Sleep and sleep loss bidirectionally alter structural plasticity, by affecting spine numbers and morphology, which ultimately can affect the functional output of the brain in terms of alertness, cognition, and mood. Experimental data from studies in rodents suggest that sleep deprivation may impact structural plasticity in different ways...
May 18, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638364/impact-of-neuronal-membrane-damage-on-the-local-field-potential-in-a-large-scale-simulation-of-cerebral-cortex
#6
David L Boothe, Alfred B Yu, Pawel Kudela, William S Anderson, Jean M Vettel, Piotr J Franaszczuk
Within multiscale brain dynamics, the structure-function relationship between cellular changes at a lower scale and coordinated oscillations at a higher scale is not well understood. This relationship may be particularly relevant for understanding functional impairments after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) when current neuroimaging methods do not reveal morphological changes to the brain common in moderate to severe TBI such as diffuse axonal injury or gray matter lesions. Here, we created a physiology-based model of cerebral cortex using a publicly released modeling framework (GEneral NEural SImulation System) to explore the possibility that performance deficits characteristic of blast-induced mTBI may reflect dysfunctional, local network activity influenced by microscale neuronal damage at the cellular level...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637203/morphological-diversity-strongly-constrains-synaptic-connectivity-and-plasticity
#7
Michael W Reimann, Anna-Lena Horlemann, Srikanth Ramaswamy, Eilif B Muller, Henry Markram
Synaptic connectivity between neurons is naturally constrained by the anatomical overlap of neuronal arbors, the space on the axon available for synapses, and by physiological mechanisms that form synapses at a subset of potential synapse locations. What is not known is how these constraints impact emergent connectivity in a circuit with diverse morphologies. We investigated the role of morphological diversity within and across neuronal types on emergent connectivity in a model of neocortical microcircuitry...
June 20, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636875/effects-of-prenatal-binge-like-ethanol-exposure-and-maternal-stress-on-postnatal-morphological-development-of-hippocampal-neurons-in-rats
#8
Ewa Jakubowska-Dogru, Birsen Elibol, Ilknur Dursun, Sinan Yürüker
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is one of the most commonly used drugs of abuse negatively affecting human health and it is known as a potent teratogen responsible for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is characterized by cognitive deficits especially pronounced in juveniles but ameliorating in adults. Searching for the potential morphological correlates of these effects, in this study, we compared the course of developmental changes in the morphology of principal hippocampal neurons in fetal-alcohol (A group), intubated control (IC group), and intact control male rats (C group) over a protracted period of the first two postnatal months...
June 18, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635380/inorganic-nanoparticles-as-potential-regulators-of-immune-response-in-dendritic-cells
#9
Silvia Fogli, Costanza Montis, Sara Paccosi, Angela Silvano, Elena Michelucci, Debora Berti, Alberto Bosi, Astrid Parenti, Paolo Romagnoli
AIM: The spontaneous adsorption of proteins on nanoparticles (NPs) in biological media is exploited to prepare complexes of NPs and proteins from cancer cells' lysates for application in cancer immunotherapy. MATERIALS & METHODS: Gold (Au) and silica NPs were synthesized, incubated with cancer cells' lysates and characterized. Dendritic cells (DCs) were challenged with protein-coated NPs, their maturation, viability and morphology were evaluated and lymphocytes T proliferation was determined...
June 21, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626593/langerhans-cell-sarcoma-a-case-report-demonstrating-morphological-and-immunophenotypical-variability-within-a-single-lesion
#10
Rasika Singh, Charles Edward Keen, Christopher Stone, Patrick Sarsfield
Langerhans cells are antigen presenting dendritic cells and tumours arising from these are rare. The tumours arising from these dendritic cells are divided into two categories according to a WHO classification: Langerhans cell histiocytosis and Langerhans cell sarcoma. It is the degree of atypia and clinical aggressiveness that distinguishes the two subtypes. Langerhans cell sarcoma (LCS) is a neoplastic proliferation of Langerhans cells which can occur in skin, bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and lung...
2017: Case Reports in Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623238/a-normal-genetic-variation-modulates-synaptic-mmp-9-protein-levels-and-the-severity-of-schizophrenia-symptoms
#11
Katarzyna Lepeta, Katarzyna J Purzycka, Katarzyna Pachulska-Wieczorek, Marina Mitjans, Martin Begemann, Behnam Vafadari, Krystian Bijata, Ryszard W Adamiak, Hannelore Ehrenreich, Magdalena Dziembowska, Leszek Kaczmarek
Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) has recently emerged as a molecule that contributes to pathological synaptic plasticity in schizophrenia, but explanation of the underlying mechanisms has been missing. In the present study, we performed a phenotype-based genetic association study (PGAS) in > 1,000 schizophrenia patients from the Göttingen Research Association for Schizophrenia (GRAS) data collection and found an association between the MMP-9 rs20544 C/T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in the 3'untranslated region (UTR) and the severity of a chronic delusional syndrome...
June 16, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621930/in-situ-monitoring-the-deposition-of-flame-made-chemoresistive-gas-sensing-films
#12
Christoph Oliver Blattmann, Andreas T T Güntner, Sotiris E Pratsinis
Flame-deposited semiconducting nanomaterials on microelectronic circuitry exhibit exceptional performance as chemoresistive gas sensors. Current manufacturing technology, however, does not monitor in situ the formation of such nanostructured films even though this can facilitate the controlled and economic synthesis of these sensors. Here, the resistance of such growing films is measured in situ during fabrication to monitor the creation of a semiconducting nanoparticle network for gas sensors. Upon formation of that network, the film resistance drops drastically to an asymptotic value that depends largely on film structure or morphology rather than on its thickness and nanoparticle size...
June 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614590/chronic-ethanol-during-adolescence-impacts-corticolimbic-dendritic-spines-and-behavior
#13
Nicholas J Jury, Gabrielle A Pollack, Meredith J Ward, Jessica L Bezek, Alexandra J Ng, Courtney R Pinard, Hadley C Bergstrom, Andrew Holmes
BACKGROUND: Risk for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in adulthood is linked to alcohol drinking during adolescence, but understanding of the neural and behavioral consequences of alcohol exposure during adolescence remains incomplete. Here, we examined the neurobehavioral impact of adolescent chronic intermittent EtOH (CIE) vapor exposure in mice. METHODS: C57BL/6J-background Thy1-EGFP mice were CIE-exposed during adolescence or adulthood and examined, as adults, for alterations in the density and morphology of dendritic spines in infralimbic (IL) cortex, prelimbic (PL) cortex, and basolateral amygdala (BLA)...
June 14, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612047/wortmannin-attenuates-seizure-induced-hyperactive-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-impaired-memory-and-spine-dysmorphology-in-rats
#14
Angela N Carter, Heather A Born, Amber T Levine, An T Dao, Amanda J Zhao, Wai L Lee, Anne E Anderson
Numerous studies have shown epilepsy-associated cognitive deficits, but less is known about the effects of one single generalized seizure. Recent studies demonstrate that a single, self-limited seizure can result in memory deficits and induces hyperactive phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt (protein kinase B)/mechanistic target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) signaling. However, the effect of a single seizure on subcellular structures such as dendritic spines and the role of aberrant PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in these seizure-induced changes are unclear...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608855/mice-lacking-the-chromodomain-helicase-dna-binding-5-chromatin-remodeler-display-autism-like-characteristics
#15
M T Pisansky, A E Young, M B O'Connor, I I Gottesman, A Bagchi, J C Gewirtz
Although autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) share a core set of nosological features, they exhibit substantial genetic heterogeneity. A parsimonious hypothesis posits that dysregulated epigenetic mechanisms represent common pathways in the etiology of ASDs. To investigate this hypothesis, we generated a novel mouse model resulting from brain-specific deletion of chromodomain helicase DNA-binding 5 (Chd5), a chromatin remodeling protein known to regulate neuronal differentiation and a member of a gene family strongly implicated in ASDs...
June 13, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607171/astrocyte-transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-protects-synapses-against-a%C3%AE-oligomers-in-alzheimer-s-disease-model
#16
Luan Pereira Diniz, Vanessa Tortelli, Isadora Matias, Juliana Morgado, Ana Paula Bérgamo Araujo, Helen M Melo, Gisele S Seixas da Silva, Soniza V Alves-Leon, Jorge M de Souza, Sergio T Ferreira, Fernanda G De Felice, Flávia Carvalho Alcantara Gomes
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive cognitive decline, increasingly attributed to neuronal dysfunction induced by amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs). Although the impact of AβOs on neurons has been extensively studied, only recently have the possible effects of AβOs on astrocytes begun to be investigated. Given the key roles of astrocytes in synapse formation, plasticity and function, we sought to investigate the impact of AβOs on astrocytes, and to determine if this impact is related to the deleterious actions of AβOs on synapses...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607044/regulation-of-spinogenesis-in-mature-purkinje-cells-via-mglur-pkc-mediated-phosphorylation-of-camkii%C3%AE
#17
Takeyuki Sugawara, Chihiro Hisatsune, Hiroyuki Miyamoto, Naoko Ogawa, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba
Dendritic spines of Purkinje cells form excitatory synapses with parallel fiber terminals, which are the primary sites for cerebellar synaptic plasticity. Nevertheless, how density and morphology of these spines are properly maintained in mature Purkinje cells is not well understood. Here we show an activity-dependent mechanism that represses excessive spine development in mature Purkinje cells. We found that CaMKIIβ promotes spine formation and elongation in Purkinje cells through its F-actin bundling activity...
June 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606925/polarity-of-varicosity-initiation-in-central-neuron-mechanosensation
#18
Yuanzheng Gu, Peter Jukkola, Qian Wang, Thomas Esparza, Yi Zhao, David Brody, Chen Gu
Little is known about mechanical regulation of morphological and functional polarity of central neurons. In this study, we report that mechanical stress specifically induces varicosities in the axons but not the dendrites of central neurons by activating TRPV4, a Ca(2+)/Na(+)-permeable mechanosensitive channel. This process is unexpectedly rapid and reversible, consistent with the formation of axonal varicosities in vivo induced by mechanical impact in a mouse model of mild traumatic brain injury. In contrast, prolonged stimulation of glutamate receptors induces varicosities in dendrites but not in axons...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606377/comparative-morphology-and-phagocytic-capacity-of-primary-human-adult-microglia-with-time-lapse-imaging
#19
Natalie Levtova, Luke M Healy, Catalina Marysol Carvajal Gonczi, Brandon Stopnicki, Manon Blain, Timothy E Kennedy, Craig S Moore, Jack P Antel, Peter J Darlington
Microglia provide immune surveillance within the brain and spinal cord. Various microglial morphologies include ramified, amoeboid, and pseudopodic. The link between form and function is not clear, especially for human adult microglia which are limited in availability for study. Here, we examined primary human microglia isolated from normal-appearing white matter. Pseudopodic and amoeboid microglia were effective phagocytes, taking up E. coli bioparticles using ruffled cell membrane sheets and retrograde transport...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604814/functional-paralysis-of-gm-csf-derived-bone-marrow-cells-productively-infected-with-ectromelia-virus
#20
Lidia Szulc-Dąbrowska, Justyna Struzik, Agnieszka Ostrowska, Maciej Guzera, Felix N Toka, Magdalena Bossowska-Nowicka, Małgorzata M Gieryńska, Anna Winnicka, Zuzanna Nowak, Marek G Niemiałtowski
Ectromelia virus (ECTV) is an orthopoxvirus responsible for mousepox, a lethal disease of certain strains of mice that is similar to smallpox in humans, caused by variola virus (VARV). ECTV, similar to VARV, exhibits a narrow host range and has co-evolved with its natural host. Consequently, ECTV employs sophisticated and host-specific strategies to control the immune cells that are important for induction of antiviral immune response. In the present study we investigated the influence of ECTV infection on immune functions of murine GM-CSF-derived bone marrow cells (GM-BM), comprised of conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) and macrophages...
2017: PloS One
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