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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098734/multimodal-fundus-imaging-of-outer-retinal-tubulations-in-choroidal-osteoma-patients
#1
Yi Xuan, Yongjin Zhang, Min Wang, Jinli Guo, Lei Li, Wei Liu, Xiaofeng Ye
PURPOSE: To evaluate the morphological findings of outer retinal tubulations (ORTs) shown on multimodal imaging modalities in patients with choroidal osteoma. METHODS: Nineteen eyes of 17 patients with choroidal osteoma underwent full clinical and imaging assessments. Color fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), and en face OCT were used to identify and detect the characteristics of ORT structures, including the shape, configuration, location, and distribution in the fundus...
January 16, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097654/melanopsin-expressing-ganglion-cells-in-human-retina-morphology-distribution-and-synaptic-connections
#2
Subha Nasir-Ahmad, Sammy C S Lee, Paul R Martin, Ulrike Grünert
Melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells are intrinsically photosensitive cells that are involved in non-image forming visual processes such as the pupillary light reflex and circadian entrainment but also contribute to visual perception. Here we used immunohistochemistry to study the morphology, density, distribution and synaptic connectivity of melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in four post mortem human donor retinas. Two types of melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells were distinguished based on their dendritic stratification near either the outer or the inner border of the inner plexiform layer...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089852/dopamine-d1-receptor-agonist-treatment-attenuates-extinction-of-morphine-conditioned-place-preference-while-increasing-dendritic-complexity-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core
#3
Kendra L Kobrin, Danielle T Arena, Stephen C Heinrichs, Olivia H Nguyen, Gary B Kaplan
The dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) has a role in opioid reward and conditioned place preference (CPP), but its role in CPP extinction is undetermined. We examined the effect of D1R agonist SKF81297 on the extinction of opioid CPP and associated dendritic morphology in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a region involved with reward integration and its extinction. During the acquisition of morphine CPP, mice received morphine and saline on alternate days; injections were given immediately before each of eight daily conditioning sessions...
January 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088900/synaptic-plasticity-dementia-and-alzheimer-disease
#4
Pietro Giusti, Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso
Neuroplasticity is not only shaped by learning and memory but is also a mediator of responses to neuron attrition and injury (compensatory plasticity). As an ongoing process it reacts to neuronal cell activity and injury, death, and genesis, which encompasses the modulation of structural and functional processes of axons, dendrites, and synapses. The range of structural elements that comprise plasticity includes long-term potentiation (a cellular correlate of learning and memory), synaptic efficacy and remodelling, synaptogenesis, axonal sprouting and dendritic remodelling, and neurogenesis and recruitment...
January 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087224/5-ht6-receptor-blockade-regulates-primary-cilia-morphology-in-striatal-neurons
#5
Matthew Brodsky, Adam J Lesiak, Alex Croicu, Nathalie Cohenca, Jane M Sullivan, John F Neumaier
The 5-HT6 receptor has been implicated in a variety of cognitive processes including habitual behaviors, learning, and memory. It is found almost exclusively in the brain, is expressed abundantly in striatum, and localizes to neuronal primary cilia. Primary cilia are antenna-like, sensory organelles found on most neurons that receive both chemical and mechanical signals from other cells and the surrounding environment; however, the effect of 5-HT6 receptor function on cellular morphology has not been examined...
January 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078738/dorsal-pallidal-neurons-directly-link-the-nidopallium-and-midbrain-in-the-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata
#6
J Martin Wild
The dorsal pallidum in birds is considered similar, if not homologous, to the globus pallidus (GP) of mammals. The dorsal pallidum projects to both thalamic and midbrain targets similar to the direct and indirect pathways arising from the internal and external segments of the GP. In the present study retrograde and anterograde tracing studies revealed a previously undescribed projection of the avian dorsal pallidum. This arises from a specific dorsomedial component, which terminates in the intercollicular nucleus and partly surrounds the avian equivalent of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077713/reversible-disruption-of-neuronal-mitochondria-by-ischemic-and-traumatic-injury-revealed-by-quantitative-two-photon-imaging-in-the-neocortex-of-anesthetized-mice
#7
Mikhail Kislin, Jeremy Sword, Ioulia V Fomitcheva, Deborah Croom, Evgeny Pryazhnikov, Eero Lihavainen, Dmytro Toptunov, Heikki Rauvala, Andre S Ribeiro, Leonard Khiroug, Sergei A Kirov
: Mitochondria play a variety of functional roles in cortical neurons, from metabolic support and neuroprotection to the release of cytokines that trigger apoptosis. In dendrites, mitochondrial structure is closely linked to their function, and fragmentation (fission) of the normally elongated mitochondria indicates loss of their function under pathological conditions, such as stroke and brain trauma. Using in vivo two-photon microscopy in mouse brain, we quantified mitochondrial fragmentation in a full spectrum of cortical injuries, ranging from severe to mild...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075404/advanced-oxidation-protein-products-modified-albumin-induces-differentiation-of-raw264-7-macrophages-into-dendritic-like-cells-which-is-modulated-by-cell-surface-thiols
#8
Silvano Garibaldi, Chiara Barisione, Barbara Marengo, Pietro Ameri, Claudio Brunelli, Manrico Balbi, Giorgio Ghigliotti
Local accumulation of Advanced Oxidation Protein Products (AOPP) induces pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic processes in kidneys and is an independent predictor of renal fibrosis and of rapid decline of eGFR in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In addition to kidney damage, circulating AOPP may be regarded as mediators of systemic oxidative stress and, in this capacity, they might play a role in the progression of atherosclerotic damage of arterial walls. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that involves activation of innate and adaptive immunity...
January 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074522/protective-effects-of-tacalcitol-against-oxidative-damage-in-human-epidermal-melanocytes
#9
Qi-Lin Li, Yan-Hua Wu, Mu Niu, Xiao-Juan Lu, Yong-Hua Huang, Dan-Hua He
BACKGROUND: Oxidative damage may lead to the dysfunction of melanocytes (MCs) and is one of the causative mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of the vitamin D3 analog tacalcitol on oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) in human epidermal MCs. METHODS: Human epidermal MCs were cultured and identified by l-DOPA staining and HMB-45 immunohistochemical staining...
February 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072543/nanoscale-nucleation-and-growth-of-electrodeposited-lithium-metal
#10
Allen Pei, Guangyuan Zheng, Feifei Shi, Yuzhang Li, Yi Cui
Lithium metal has re-emerged as an exciting anode for high energy lithium-ion batteries due to its high specific capacity of 3,860 mAh g(-1) and lowest electrochemical potential of all known materials. However, lithium has been plagued by the issues of dendrite formation, high chemical reactivity with electrolyte, and infinite relative volume expansion during plating and stripping, which present safety hazards and low cycling efficiency in batteries with lithium metal electrodes. There have been a lot of recent studies on Li metal although little work has focused on the initial nucleation and growth behavior of Li metal, neglecting a critical fundamental scientific foundation of Li plating...
January 10, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070120/the-protocadherin-17-gene-affects-cognition-personality-amygdala-structure-and-function-synapse-development-and-risk-of-major-mood-disorders
#11
H Chang, N Hoshina, C Zhang, Y Ma, H Cao, Y Wang, D-D Wu, S E Bergen, M Landén, C M Hultman, M Preisig, Z Kutalik, E Castelao, M Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, A J Forstner, J Strohmaier, J Hecker, T G Schulze, B Müller-Myhsok, A Reif, P B Mitchell, N G Martin, P R Schofield, S Cichon, M M Nöthen, H Walter, S Erk, A Heinz, N Amin, C M van Duijn, A Meyer-Lindenberg, H Tost, X Xiao, T Yamamoto, M Rietschel, M Li
Major mood disorders, which primarily include bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, are the leading cause of disability worldwide and pose a major challenge in identifying robust risk genes. Here, we present data from independent large-scale clinical data sets (including 29 557 cases and 32 056 controls) revealing brain expressed protocadherin 17 (PCDH17) as a susceptibility gene for major mood disorders. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the PCDH17 region are significantly associated with major mood disorders; subjects carrying the risk allele showed impaired cognitive abilities, increased vulnerable personality features, decreased amygdala volume and altered amygdala function as compared with non-carriers...
January 10, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069946/wnt5a-is-essential-for-hippocampal-dendritic-maintenance-and-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-adult-mice
#12
Chih-Ming Chen, Lauren L Orefice, Shu-Ling Chiu, Tara A LeGates, Samer Hattar, Richard L Huganir, Haiqing Zhao, Baoji Xu, Rejji Kuruvilla
Stability of neuronal connectivity is critical for brain functions, and morphological perturbations are associated with neurodegenerative disorders. However, how neuronal morphology is maintained in the adult brain remains poorly understood. Here, we identify Wnt5a, a member of the Wnt family of secreted morphogens, as an essential factor in maintaining dendritic architecture in the adult hippocampus and for related cognitive functions in mice. Wnt5a expression in hippocampal neurons begins postnatally, and its deletion attenuated CaMKII and Rac1 activity, reduced GluN1 glutamate receptor expression, and impaired synaptic plasticity and spatial learning and memory in 3-mo-old mice...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069920/folding-but-not-surface-area-expansion-is-associated-with-cellular-morphological-maturation-in-the-fetal-cerebral-cortex
#13
Xiaojie Wang, Colin Studholme, Peta L Grigsby, Antonio E Frias, Verginia C Cuzon Carlson, Christopher D Kroenke
: Altered macroscopic anatomical characteristics of the cerebral cortex have been identified in individuals affected by various neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the cellular developmental mechanisms that give rise to these abnormalities are not understood. Recently, advances in image reconstruction of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (diffusion MRI) have made possible high resolution in utero measurements of water diffusion anisotropy in the fetal brain. Here, diffusion anisotropy within the developing fetal cerebral cortex is longitudinally characterized in the rhesus macaque, focusing on gestation days (G) 85 through G135 of the 165 day term...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069025/interaction-of-biomedical-nanoparticles-with-the-pulmonary-immune-system
#14
REVIEW
Fabian Blank, Kleanthis Fytianos, Emilie Seydoux, Laura Rodriguez-Lorenzo, Alke Petri-Fink, Christophe von Garnier, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser
Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) offer site-specific delivery, deposition and cellular uptake due to their unique physicochemical properties and were shown to modulate immune responses. The respiratory tract with its vast surface area is an attractive target organ for innovative immunomodulatory therapeutic applications by pulmonary administration of such NPs, enabling interactions with resident antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells and macrophages. Depending on the respiratory tract compartment, e...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060313/generation-of-human-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells-from-whole-blood
#15
Wilfried Posch, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Doris Wilflingseder
Dendritic cells (DCs) recognize foreign structures of different pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi, via a variety of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) expressed on their cell surface and thereby activate and regulate immunity. The major function of DCs is the induction of adaptive immunity in the lymph nodes by presenting antigens via MHC I and MHC II molecules to naïve T lymphocytes. Therefore, DCs have to migrate from the periphery to the lymph nodes after the recognition of pathogens at the sites of infection...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058580/dcf1-triggers-dendritic-spine-formation-and-facilitates-memory-acquisition
#16
Qiang Liu, Ruili Feng, Yu Chen, Guanghong Luo, Huang Yan, Ling Chen, Rongfei Lin, Yuqiang Ding, Tieqiao Wen
Dendritic spines, a special kind of structure in nerve cells, play a key role in performing cellular function. Structural abnormalities of the dendritic spine may contribute to synaptic dysfunction and have been implicated in memory formation. However, the molecular mechanisms that trigger dendritic spine loss remain unclear. Here, we show that the absence of dendritic cell factor 1 (Dcf1) appeared dendritic spines dysplasia, which in turn leads to the damage of learning and memory; in contrast, enhancing Dcf1 expression rescues dendritic spines morphology and function, indicating a pivotal role of Dcf1 in cellular function...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056817/proteomic-analyses-of-limbic-regions-in-neonatal-male-female-and-androgen-receptor-knockout-mice
#17
Anna Zettergren, Sara Karlsson, Erik Studer, Anna Sarvimäki, Petronella Kettunen, Annika Thorsell, Carina Sihlbom, Lars Westberg
BACKGROUND: It is well-established that organizational effects of sex steroids during early development are fundamental for sex-typical displays of, for example, mating and aggressive behaviors in rodents and other species. Male and female brains are known to differ with respect to neuronal morphology in particular regions of the brain, including the number and size of neurons, and the density and length of dendrites in nuclei of hypothalamus and amygdala. The aim of the present study was to use global proteomics to identify proteins differentially expressed in hypothalamus/amygdala during early development (postnatal day 8) of male, female and conditional androgen receptor knockout (AR(NesDel)) male mice, lacking androgen receptors specifically in the brain...
January 5, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046203/visualizing-changes-in-neuronal-dendritic-morphology-in-response-to-stress-and-pharmacological-challenge
#18
Cara L Wellman
This unit outlines a protocol for Golgi staining, which has been used extensively to reliably and quantitatively assess alterations in dendritic arborization and spine density as a result of a variety of factors, including chronic administration of glucocorticoids, chronic stress, and pharmacological manipulations. The method stains neurons in their entirety, allowing for sophisticated analyses of branch lengths and numbers as well as patterns of dendritic branching. Advantages of the technique include its usefulness in multisite collaborations and its utility in visualizing neurons in multiple regions within the same brain...
January 3, 2017: Current Protocols in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042870/obesity-induced-structural-and-neuronal-plasticity-in-the-lateral-orbitofrontal-cortex
#19
Jennifer L Thompson, Michael Drysdale, Corey Baimel, Manpreet Kaur, Taigan MacGowan, Kimberley A Pitman, Stephanie L Borgland
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) integrates sensory information with the current value of foods and updates actions based on this information. Obese humans and rats fed a cafeteria diet have impaired devaluation of food rewards, implicating a potential obesity-induced dysfunction of the OFC. We hypothesized that obesity alters OFC pyramidal neuronal structure and function and reduces conditioned suppression of feeding. Rats were given restricted (1 h/day), extended (23 h/day) or no (chow only) access to a cafeteria diet and tested for a conditioned suppression of feeding...
January 18, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042008/does-time-heal-all-wounds-experimental-diffuse-traumatic-brain-injury-results-in-persisting-histopathology-in-the-thalamus
#20
Theresa Currier Thomas, Sarah B Ogle, Benjamin M Rumney, Hazel G May, P David Adelson, Jonathan Lifshitz
BACKGROUND: Thalamic dysfunction has been implicated in overall chronic neurological dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI), however little is known about the underlying histopathology. In experimental diffuse TBI (dTBI), we hypothesize that persisting histopathological changes in the ventral posteromedial (VPM) nucleus of the thalamus is indicative of progressive circuit reorganization. Since circuit reorganization in the VPM impacts the whisker sensory system, the histopathology could explain the development of hypersensitivity to whisker stimulation by 28days post-injury; similar to light and sound hypersensitivity in human TBI survivors...
December 29, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
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