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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525970/the-immunoregulatory-role-of-alpha-enolase-in-dendritic-cell-function-during-chlamydia-infection
#1
Khamia Ryans, Yusuf Omosun, Danielle N McKeithen, Tankya Simoneaux, Camilla C Mills, Nathan Bowen, Francis O Eko, Carolyn M Black, Joseph U Igietseme, Qing He
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that interleukin-10 (IL-10) deficient dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen presenting cells that induced elevated protective immunity against Chlamydia. To further investigate the molecular and biochemical mechanism underlying the superior immunostimulatory property of IL-10 deficient DCs we performed proteomic analysis on protein profiles from Chlamydia-pulsed wild-type (WT) and IL-10(-/-) DCs to identify differentially expressed proteins with immunomodulatory properties...
May 19, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522735/d3-receptors-regulate-excitability-in-a-unique-class-of-prefrontal-pyramidal-cell
#2
Rebecca L Clarkson, Alayna T Liptak, Steven M Gee, Vikaas S Sohal, Kevin J Bender
The D3 dopamine receptor, a member of the Gi-coupled D2-family of dopamine receptors, is expressed throughout limbic circuits affected in neuropsychiatric disorders, including prefrontal cortex. These receptors are important for prefrontal executive function, as pharmacological and genetic manipulations that affect prefrontal D3 receptors alter anxiety, social interaction, and reversal learning. And yet, the mechanisms by which D3 receptors regulate prefrontal circuits, and whether D3 receptors regulate specific prefrontal subnetworks, remain unknown...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508316/trpc-channels-and-neuron-development-plasticity-and-activities
#3
Yilin Tai, Yichang Jia
In this chapter, we mainly focus on the functions of TRPC channels in brain development, including neural progenitor proliferation, neurogenesis, neuron survival, axon guidance, dendritic morphology, synaptogenesis, and neural plasticity. We also notice emerging advances in understanding the functions of TRPC channels in periphery, especially their functions in sensation and nociception in dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Because TRPC channels are expressed in all major types of glial cells, which account for at least half of total cells in the brain, TRPC channels may act as modulators for glial functions as well...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503136/a-quantitative-golgi-study-of-dendritic-morphology-in-the-mice-striatal-medium-spiny-neurons
#4
Ivana Bicanic, Ana Hladnik, Zdravko Petanjek
In this study we have provided a detailed quantitative morphological analysis of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the mice dorsal striatum and determined the consistency of values among three groups of animals obtained in different set of experiments. Dendritic trees of 162 Golgi Cox (FD Rapid GolgiStain Kit) impregnated MSNs from 15 adult C57BL/6 mice were 3-dimensionally reconstructed using Neurolucida software, and parameters of dendritic morphology have been compared among experimental groups. The parameters of length and branching pattern did not show statistically significant difference and were highly consistent among groups...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500302/different-polyubiquitinated-bodies-in-human-dendritic-cells-il-4-causes-pacs-during-differentiation-while-lps-or-ifn%C3%AE-induces-dalis-during-maturation
#5
Daniela Montagna, Patrizia Sommi, Vittorio Necchi, Agostina Vitali, Enrica Montini, Ilaria Turin, Daniela Ferraro, Vittorio Ricci, Enrico Solcia
Two types of polyubiquitin-reactive cytoplasmic bodies, particulate cytoplasmic structures (PaCS) and dendritic cell (DC) aggresome-like induced structures (DALIS), were analyzed by electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry, immunoblotting, and flow cytometry in DC obtained from human blood monocytes incubated with GM-CSF plus IL-4 (IL4-DC), GM-CSF plus IFNα (IFN-DC), or GM-CSF alone (GM-DC), with or without LPS maturation. PaCS developed as monomorphic aggregates of proteasome-reactive barrel-like particles only in ribosomes-rich cytoplasmic areas of differentiating IL4-DC...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494936/functional-analysis-of-dendritic-cells-generated-from-t-ipscs-from-cd4-t-cell-clones-of-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#6
Mana Iizuka-Koga, Hiromitsu Asashima, Miki Ando, Chen-Yi Lai, Shinji Mochizuki, Mahito Nakanishi, Toshinobu Nishimura, Hiroto Tsuboi, Tomoya Hirota, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Isao Matsumoto, Makoto Otsu, Takayuki Sumida
Although it is important to clarify the pathogenic functions of T cells in human samples, their examination is often limited due to difficulty in obtaining sufficient numbers of dendritic cells (DCs), used as antigen-presenting cells, especially in autoimmune diseases. We describe the generation of DCs from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from T cells (T-iPSCs). We reprogrammed CD4+ T cell clones from a patient with Sjögren's syndrome (SS) into iPSCs, which were differentiated into DCs (T-iPS-DCs)...
May 9, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493233/neurite-outgrowth-stimulated-by-oxytocin-is-modulated-by-inhibition-of-the-calcium-voltage-gated-channels
#7
M Zatkova, A Reichova, Z Bacova, V Strbak, A Kiss, J Bakos
Neuropeptide oxytocin contributes to the regulation of the neuron differentiation and cell morphology. However, the precise mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Oxytocin receptor function and its coupling to calcium entry are obvious objects of interest in relation to the neuron morphology. Postsynaptic scaffolding proteins including SHANK proteins interact with other synaptic molecules and change dendritic morphology. SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line represents a useful neurobiological in vitro model to study the short-term oxytocin effects on neurite outgrowth and underlying mechanisms...
May 10, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490808/dendritic-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-mediate-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cell-recruitment
#8
Andreia M Silva, Maria I Almeida, José H Teixeira, André F Maia, George A Calin, Mário A Barbosa, Susana G Santos
Orchestration of bone repair processes requires crosstalk between different cell populations, including immune cells and mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC). Extracellular vesicles (EV) as mediators of these interactions remain vastly unexplored. Here, we aimed to determine the mechanism of MSC recruitment by Dendritic Cells (DC), hypothesising that it would be mediated by EV. Primary human DC-secreted EV (DC-EV), isolated by ultracentrifugation, were characterized for their size, morphology and protein markers, indicating an enrichment in exosomes...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489821/whole-brain-serial-section-electron-microscopy-in-larval-zebrafish
#9
David Grant Colburn Hildebrand, Marcelo Cicconet, Russel Miguel Torres, Woohyuk Choi, Tran Minh Quan, Jungmin Moon, Arthur Willis Wetzel, Andrew Scott Champion, Brett Jesse Graham, Owen Randlett, George Scott Plummer, Ruben Portugues, Isaac Henry Bianco, Stephan Saalfeld, Alexander David Baden, Kunal Lillaney, Randal Burns, Joshua Tzvi Vogelstein, Alexander Franz Schier, Wei-Chung Allen Lee, Won-Ki Jeong, Jeff William Lichtman, Florian Engert
High-resolution serial-section electron microscopy (ssEM) makes it possible to investigate the dense meshwork of axons, dendrites, and synapses that form neuronal circuits. However, the imaging scale required to comprehensively reconstruct these structures is more than ten orders of magnitude smaller than the spatial extents occupied by networks of interconnected neurons, some of which span nearly the entire brain. Difficulties in generating and handling data for large volumes at nanoscale resolution have thus restricted vertebrate studies to fragments of circuits...
May 10, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489407/high-yield-synthesis-of-janus-dendritic-mesoporous-silica-resorcinol-formaldehyde-nanoparticles-a-competing-growth-mechanism
#10
Lili Qu, Huicheng Hu, Jiaqi Yu, Xiaoya Yu, Jian Liu, Yong Xu, Qiao Zhang
Recently, Janus nanostructures that possess two or more different surface functions have attracted enormous attention because of their unique structures and promising applications in diverse fields. In this work, we present that Janus structured dendritic mesoporous silica @ resorcinol-formaldehyde (DMS@RF) nanoparticles can be prepared through a simple one-pot colloidal method. The Janus DMS@RF nanoparticle shows a bonsai-like morphology which is consisted of a dendritic mesoporous silica part and a spherical RF part...
May 10, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485578/internal-morphologies-of-cycled-li-metal-electrodes-investigated-by-nano-scale-resolution-x-ray-computed-tomography
#11
Sarah Frisco, Danny Liu, Arjun Kumar, Jay F Whitacre, Corey T Love, Karen Swider-Lyons, Shawn Litster
While some commercially available primary batteries have lithium metal anodes, there has yet to be a commercially viable secondary battery with this type of electrode. Research prototypes of these cells typically exhibit a limited cycle life before dendrites form and cause internal cell shorting, an occurrence that is more pronounced during high rate cycling. To better understand the effects of high rate cycling that can lead to cell failure, we use ex-situ nano-scale resolution X-ray computed tomography (nano-CT) with the aid of Zernike phase contrast to image the internal morphologies of lithium metal electrodes on copper wire current collectors that have been cycled at low and high current densities...
May 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484374/the-segregated-expression-of-voltage-gated-potassium-and-sodium-channels-in-neuronal-membranes-functional-implications-and-regulatory-mechanisms
#12
Maël Duménieu, Marie Oulé, Michael R Kreutz, Jeffrey Lopez-Rojas
Neurons are highly polarized cells with apparent functional and morphological differences between dendrites and axon. A critical determinant for the molecular and functional identity of axonal and dendritic segments is the restricted expression of voltage-gated ion channels (VGCs). Several studies show an uneven distribution of ion channels and their differential regulation within dendrites and axons, which is a prerequisite for an appropriate integration of synaptic inputs and the generation of adequate action potential (AP) firing patterns...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482757/n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-restored-impaired-memory-and-gabaergic-synaptic-efficacy-in-the-hippocampus-of-stressed-rats
#13
Miguel Ángel Pérez, Valentín Peñaloza-Sancho, Juan Ahumada, Marco Fuenzalida, Alexies Dagnino-Subiabre
While chronic stress induces dendritic atrophy in the hippocampus and impairs learning and memory, supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is known to improve learning and memory of control rats. Whether n-3 PUFA supplementation improves dendritic morphology, synaptic transmission, and memory of chronically stressed rats remains unknown. In this work, we randomly assigned male Sprague-Dawley rats in four experimental groups: two unsupplemented groups, control and stress, and two supplemented groups with n-3 PUFA (DHA and EPA mix), control + n-3 PUFA and stress + n-3 PUFA...
May 8, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481941/fine-structure-of-mouthparts-and-feeding-performance-of-pyrrhocoris-sibiricus-kuschakevich-with-remarks-on-the-specialization-of-sensilla-and-stylets-for-seed-feeding
#14
Yan Wang, Wu Dai
Mouthpart structure and feeding behavior in the temperate firebug, Pyrrhocoris sibiricus Kuschakevich, an important pest that feeds on seeds of leguminous and gramineous plants, are described for the first time. Mouthparts were observed using scanning electron microscopy to examine the external morphology, distribution and abundance of sensilla on mouthparts. Feeding performance by adults on both seeds and shoots were observed using a binocular microscope. The four-segmented labium contains 3 types of sensilla trichodea, 3 types of sensilla basiconica, 1 type of sensilla placodea and 1 type of sensilla campaniformia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481834/immunohistochemical-profiling-of-corneas-with-fuchs-endothelial-corneal-dystrophy
#15
An-Katrien De Roo, Thomas Janssens, Beatrijs Foets, Joost J van den Oord
PURPOSE: Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is the leading indication for endothelial keratoplasty. Further insight into its pathophysiology is needed to develop alternative therapies. METHODS: Sixteen genes from a previous microarray expression experiment (FECD vs. normal) were validated using immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded corneas (n = 6 FECD, n = 6 normal). The results were quantified manually and semiautomatically. RESULTS: A higher percentage of corneal endothelial cells stained for alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), cytokeratin 7, and superoxide dismutase 3 in FECD versus normal [odds ratios (ORs) of 60...
May 3, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480705/three-dimensional-au-coated-electrosprayed-nanostructured-bodipy-films-on-aluminum-foil-as-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-platforms-and-their-catalytic-applications
#16
Mehmet Yilmaz, Mustafa Erkartal, Mehmet Özdemir, Unal Sen, Hakan Usta, Gokhan Demirel
The design and development of three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures with high surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) performances have attracted considerable attention in the fields of chemistry, biology and materials science. Nevertheless, electrospraying of organic small molecules on low-cost flexible substrates has never been studied to realize large-scale SERS-active platforms. Here, we report the facile, efficient, and low-cost fabrication of stable and reproducible Au-coated electrosprayed organic semiconductor films (Au@BDY-4T-BDY) on flexible regular aluminum foil at large scale (5 cm × 5 cm) for practical SERS and catalytic applications...
May 8, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479292/new-waves-in-dendritic-spine-actin-cytoskeleton-from-branches-and-bundles-to-rings-from-actin-binding-proteins-to-post-translational-modifications
#17
REVIEW
Enni Bertling, Pirta Hotulainen
Dendritic spines are small actin-rich protrusions from neuronal dendrites that form the postsynaptic part of most excitatory synapses. Changes in the number or strength of synapses are physiological mechanisms behind learning. The growth and maturation of dendritic spines and the activity-induced changes to their morphology are all based on changes to the actin cytoskeleton. In this review, we will discuss the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in dendritic spine formation and maturation, as well as in synaptic strengthening...
May 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473642/selective-vulnerability-of-striatal-d2-versus-d1-dopamine-receptor-expressing-medium-spiny-neurons-in-hiv-1-tat-transgenic-male-mice
#18
Christina J Schier, William D Marks, Jason J Paris, Aaron J Barbour, Virginia D McLane, William F Maragos, A Rory McQuiston, Pamela E Knapp, Kurt F Hauser
Despite marked regional differences in HIV susceptibility within the CNS, there has been surprisingly little exploration into the differential vulnerability among neuron types and the circuits they underlie. The dorsal striatum is especially susceptible, harboring high viral loads and displaying marked neuropathology-with motor impairment a frequent manifestation of chronic infection; yet, little is known about the response of individual striatal neuron types to HIV or how this disrupts function. Consequently, we examined the morphological, electrophysiological, and anxiety-like and exploratory/locomotor behavioral effects of HIV-1 Tat in dopamine subtype 1 (D1) and dopamine subtype 2 (D2) receptor-expressing striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) by breeding transgenic Tat-expressing mice to Drd1a-tdTomato- or Drd2-eGFP- reporter mice...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466583/lithiophilic-sites-in-doped-graphene-guide-uniform-lithium-nucleation-for-dendrite-free-lithium-metal-anodes
#19
Rui Zhang, Xiao-Ru Chen, Xiang Chen, Xin-Bing Cheng, Xue-Qiang Zhang, Chong Yan, Qiang Zhang
Lithium (Li) metal is the most promising electrode for next-generation rechargeable batteries. However, the challenges induced by Li dendrites on a working Li metal anode hinder the practical applications of Li metal batteries. Herein, nitrogen (N) doped graphene was adopted as the Li plating matrix to regulate Li metal nucleation and suppress dendrite growth. The N-containing functional groups, such as pyridinic and pyrrolic nitrogen in the N-doped graphene, are lithiophilic, which guide the metallic Li nucleation causing the metal to distribute uniformly on the anode surface...
May 3, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465430/molecular-codes-for-cell-type-specification-in-brn3-retinal-ganglion-cells
#20
Szilard Sajgo, Miruna Georgiana Ghinia, Matthew Brooks, Friedrich Kretschmer, Katherine Chuang, Suja Hiriyanna, Zhijian Wu, Octavian Popescu, Tudor Constantin Badea
Visual information is conveyed from the eye to the brain by distinct types of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). It is largely unknown how RGCs acquire their defining morphological and physiological features and connect to upstream and downstream synaptic partners. The three Brn3/Pou4f transcription factors (TFs) participate in a combinatorial code for RGC type specification, but their exact molecular roles are still unclear. We use deep sequencing to define (i) transcriptomes of Brn3a- and/or Brn3b-positive RGCs, (ii) Brn3a- and/or Brn3b-dependent RGC transcripts, and (iii) transcriptomes of retinorecipient areas of the brain at developmental stages relevant for axon guidance, dendrite formation, and synaptogenesis...
May 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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