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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222785/neuronal-cell-morphology-in-primary-cerebellar-granule-cells-using-high-content-analysis
#1
Nicholas Radio, Steven Frank
Neurite outgrowth, one of the underlying cellular processes that defines the development and functionality of the mammalian nervous system, is also a sensitive indicator of neuronal cell health. From screening libraries of putative neurotherapeutic compounds to analyzing the millions of environmental pollutants for which we have inadequate neurotoxicity safety data, the large volume of chemical compounds that require evaluation is a major obstacle for manual imaging and analysis methods. In this context, high-content analysis (HCA) has emerged as a sensitive and accurate method for detecting changes in neuronal cell morphology within a format applicable to screening large chemical libraries...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222782/diolistic-labeling-and-analysis-of-dendritic-spines
#2
M Foster Olive, Armani P Del Franco, Cassandra D Gipson
Dendritic spines are diverse and plastic components of the neuronal cell apparatus and are highly responsive to trophic factors during both development and adulthood. Diolistic labeling of neurons with lipophilic fluorescent dyes, coupled with advanced high-resolution microscopy methods, provides robust labeling of dendritic spines for assessment of their density and morphology. Here, we describe a method for labeling of dendritic spines using diolistic labeling in ex vivo brain slices, visualization using confocal laser scanning microscopy, deconvolution, and analysis using the Surpass module of Bitplane Imaris software...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221819/cerebellar-alterations-in-a-model-of-down-syndrome-the-role-of-the-dyrk1a-gene
#3
Susana García-Cerro, Verónica Vidal, Sara Lantigua, Maria Teresa Berciano, Miguel Lafarga, Pedro Ramos-Cabrer, Daniel Padro, Noemí Rueda, Carmen Martínez-Cué
Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by a marked reduction in the size of the brain and cerebellum. These changes play an important role in the motor alterations and cognitive disabilities observed in this condition. The Ts65Dn (TS) mouse, the most commonly used model of DS, reflects many DS phenotypes, including alterations in cerebellar morphology. One of the genes that is overexpressed in both individuals with DS and TS mice is DYRK1A/Dyrk1A (dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A), which has been implicated in the altered cerebellar structural and functional phenotypes observed in both populations...
December 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218851/clinical-experience-with-the-bcl2-inhibitor-venetoclax-in-combination-therapy-for-relapsed-and-refractory-acute-myeloid-leukemia-and-related-myeloid-malignancies
#4
Courtney D DiNardo, Caitlin R Rausch, Christopher Benton, Tapan Kadia, Nitin Jain, Naveen Pemmaraju, Naval Daver, Wendy Covert, Kayleigh R Marx, Morgan Mace, Elias Jabbour, Jorge Cortes, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Farhad Ravandi, Kapil N Bhalla, Hagop Kantarjian, Marina Konopleva
INTRODUCTION: Venetoclax (VEN), a selective BCL2 inhibitor, has single-agent activity in relapsed and refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and efficacy in lower-intensity combinations for treatment-naïve elderly AML patients. VEN treatment combinations in R/R AML have not been previously reported. METHODS: All R/R myeloid patients (including AML, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN)) treated with VEN combinations in the salvage setting were reviewed...
December 8, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218725/characterization-of-retinal-ganglion-cell-horizontal-cell-and-amacrine-cell-types-expressing-the-neurotrophic-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-ret
#5
Nadia Parmhans, Szilard Sajgo, Jingwen Niu, Wenqin Luo, Tudor Constantin Badea
We report the retinal expression pattern of Ret, a receptor tyrosine kinase for the Glial Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) family ligands (GFLs), during development and in the adult mouse. Ret is initially expressed in Retinal Ganglion Cells (RGCs), followed by Horizontal Cells (HCs) and Amacrine Cells (ACs), beginning with the early stages of postmitotic development. Ret expression persists in all three classes of neurons in the adult. Using RNA sequencing, immunostaining and random sparse recombination, we show that Ret is expressed in at least three distinct types of ACs, and ten types of RGCs...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217824/soluble-tau-has-devastating-effects-on-the-structural-plasticity-of-hippocampal-granule-neurons
#6
M Bolós, N Pallas-Bazarra, J Terreros-Roncal, J R Perea, J Jurado-Arjona, J Ávila, M Llorens-Martín
Tau is a neuronal microtubule-associated protein with countless physiological functions. Although the detrimental effects of insoluble aggregated Tau have been widely studied, recent evidence supports the notion that soluble Tau (composed mostly of monomers and dimers) is also toxic for neurons. Here we evaluated the long-term impact of a single stereotaxic injection of human soluble Tau on hippocampal granule neurons in mice. At the ultrastructural level, soluble Tau reduced the number of afferent synapses and caused a dramatic depletion of synaptic vesicles both in afferent and efferent synapses...
December 8, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217690/re-positioning-of-somatic-golgi-apparatus-is-essential-for-the-dendritic-establishment-of-adult-born-hippocampal-neurons
#7
Sneha Rao, Gregory W Kirschen, Joanna Szczurkowska, Adrian Di Antonio, Jia Wang, Shaoyu Ge, Maya Shelly
New dentate granule cells are continuously generated, and integrate into the pre-existing hippocampal network in the adult brain. How an adult-born neuron with initially simple spindle-like morphology develops into a complex dentate granule cell (DGC), consisting of a single apical dendrite with further branches, remains largely unknown. Here, using retroviruses to birth-date and manipulate newborn neurons, we examined initial dendritic formation, and possible underlying mechanisms. We found that GFP-expressing newborn cells began to establish a DGC-like morphology at around 7 days after birth, with a primary dendrite pointing to the molecular layer, but at this stage, with several neurites in the neurogenic zone...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217303/castleman-disease-and-rosai-dorfman-disease
#8
REVIEW
Miguel A Piris, Elena Aguirregoicoa, Santiago Montes-Moreno, Catuxa Celeiro-Muñoz
This chapter describes the main features of two different diseases, Castleman Disease (CD) and Rosai-Dorfman Disease (RDD). Castleman disease (CD) is a clinical and histopathologically heterogeneous lymphoproliferative disorder that encompasses at least three distinct entities with some common overlapping morphological features: Hyaline Vascular CD (HVCD), Unicentric Plasma Cell CD and Multicentric CD. The most important feature of HVCD is the presence of abnormal germinal centers with hyaline-vascular transformation, sometimes showing multiple germinal centers within a single reactive lymphoid follicle, this outlining HVCD as a disorder of follicular dendritic cells...
December 2, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216217/the-emerging-role-of-asc-in-dendritic-cell-metabolism-during-chlamydia-infection
#9
Danielle N McKeithen, Yusuf O Omosun, Khamia Ryans, Jing Mu, Zhonglin Xie, Tankya Simoneaux, Uriel Blas-Machado, Francis O Eko, Carolyn M Black, Joseph U Igietseme, Qing He
Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacterial agent that causes sexually transmitted infections worldwide. The regulatory functions of dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role in protective immunity against Chlamydia infections. Here, we investigated the role of ASC in DCs metabolism and the regulation of DCs activation and function during Chlamydia infection. Following Chlamydia stimulation, maturation and antigen presenting functions were impaired in ASC-/- DCs compared to wild type (WT) DCs, in addition, ASC deficiency induced a tolerant phenotype in Chlamydia stimulated DCs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212016/cellular-phenotypes-in-human-ipsc-derived-neurons-from-a-genetic-model-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Aditi Deshpande, Smita Yadav, Dang Q Dao, Zhi-Yong Wu, Kenton C Hokanson, Michelle K Cahill, Arun P Wiita, Yuh-Nung Jan, Erik M Ullian, Lauren A Weiss
A deletion or duplication in the 16p11.2 region is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. In addition to clinical characteristics, carriers of the 16p11.2 copy-number variant (CNV) manifest opposing neuroanatomical phenotypes-e.g., macrocephaly in deletion carriers (16pdel) and microcephaly in duplication carriers (16pdup). Using fibroblasts obtained from 16pdel and 16pdup carriers, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and differentiated them into neurons to identify causal cellular mechanisms underlying neurobiological phenotypes...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208630/regulated-alternative-splicing-of-drosophiladscam2%C3%A2-is-necessary-for-attaining-the-appropriate-number-of-photoreceptor-synapses
#11
Sarah K Kerwin, Joshua S S Li, Peter G Noakes, Grace J-E Shin, S S Millard
How the brain makes trillions of synaptic connections using a genome of only 20,000 genes is a major question in modern neuroscience. Alternative splicing is one mechanism that can increase the number of proteins produced by each gene, but its role in regulating synapse formation is poorly understood. In Drosophila, photoreceptors form a synapse with multiple postsynaptic elements including lamina neurons L1 and L2. L1 and L2 express distinct isoforms of the homophilic repulsive protein, Dscam2, and since these isoforms cannot bind to each other, cell-specific expression has been proposed to be necessary for preventing repulsive interactions that could disrupt the synapse...
December 5, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205151/towards-deep-learning-with-segregated-dendrites
#12
Jordan Guerguiev, Timothy P Lillicrap, Blake A Richards
Deep learning has led to significant advances in artificial intelligence, in part, by adopting strategies motivated by neurophysiology. However, it is unclear whether deep learning could occur in the real brain. Here, we show that a deep learning algorithm that utilizes multi-compartment neurons might help us to understand how the neocortex optimizes cost functions. Like neocortical pyramidal neurons, neurons in our model receive sensory information and higher-order feedback in electrotonically segregated compartments...
December 5, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204911/repeated-shock-stress-facilitates-basolateral-amygdala-synaptic-plasticity-through-decreased-camp-specific-phosphodiesterase-type-iv-pde4-expression
#13
Steve Ryan, Chenchen Li, Aurélie Menigoz, Rimi Hazra, Joanna Dabrowska, David Ehrlich, Katelyn Gordon, Donald G Rainnie
Previous studies have shown that exposure to stressful events can enhance fear memory and anxiety-like behavior as well as increase synaptic plasticity in the rat basolateral amygdala (BLA). We have evidence that repeated unpredictable shock stress (USS) elicits a long-lasting increase in anxiety-like behavior in rats, but the cellular mechanisms mediating this response remain unclear. Evidence from recent morphological studies suggests that alterations in the dendritic arbor or spine density of BLA principal neurons may underlie stress-induced anxiety behavior...
December 4, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203862/diversification-of-human-plasmacytoid-predendritic-cells-in-response-to-a-single-stimulus
#14
Solana G Alculumbre, Violaine Saint-André, Jeremy Di Domizio, Pablo Vargas, Philemon Sirven, Pierre Bost, Mathieu Maurin, Paolo Maiuri, Maxime Wery, Mabel San Roman, Léa Savey, Maxime Touzot, Benjamin Terrier, David Saadoun, Curdin Conrad, Michel Gilliet, Antonin Morillon, Vassili Soumelis
Innate immune cells adjust to microbial and inflammatory stimuli through a process termed environmental plasticity, which links a given individual stimulus to a unique activated state. Here, we report that activation of human plasmacytoid predendritic cells (pDCs) with a single microbial or cytokine stimulus triggers cell diversification into three stable subpopulations (P1-P3). P1-pDCs (PD-L1+CD80-) displayed a plasmacytoid morphology and specialization for type I interferon production. P3-pDCs (PD-L1-CD80+) adopted a dendritic morphology and adaptive immune functions...
December 4, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196724/hierarchically-porous-and-cu-and-zn-containing-%C3%AE-alooh-mesostrands-as-adjuvants-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#15
Xia Li, Mohamed A Shenashen, Xiupeng Wang, Atsuo Ito, Akiyoshi Taniguchi, Sherif A Ei-Safty
Alum is the only licensed adjuvant by Food and Drug Administration of USA used in many human vaccines and has excellent safety record in clinical applications. However, alum hardly induces T helper 1 (Th1) immune responses that are required for anti-tumor immunity. In the present study, we fabricated hierarchical copper- and zinc- buds dressing γ-AlOOH mesostrands (Cu- and Zn-AMSs) with randomly wrinkled morphology, mesoscale void- or cave-like pockets, high-exposed surface coverage sites, and positive charge streams in saline...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194444/behavioral-stress-alters-corticolimbic-microglia-in-a-sex-and-brain-region-specific-manner
#16
Justin L Bollinger, Kaitlyn E Collins, Rushi Patel, Cara L Wellman
Women are more susceptible to numerous stress-linked psychological disorders (e.g., depression) characterized by dysfunction of corticolimbic brain regions critical for emotion regulation and cognitive function. Although sparsely investigated, a number of studies indicate sex differences in stress effects on neuronal structure, function, and behaviors associated with these regions. We recently demonstrated a basal sex difference in- and differential effects of stress on- microglial activation in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190026/biolistic-labeling-of-retinal-ganglion-cells
#17
Luca Della Santina, Yvonne Ou
Labeling of cellular structures is of fundamental importance in the investigation of diseases of the central nervous system. Biolistic labeling of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) allows visualization of dendritic and synaptic structures of RGCs in retinal explants from animal models of experimental glaucoma. This technique sparsely labels RGCs, and, due to the stochastic nature of the particle delivery, all RGC types can be potentially observed in the labeled tissue. Quantification of dendritic and synaptic properties permits examination of the specific alterations to RGC morphology at different stages of degeneration, such as dendritic shrinkage and excitatory synapse loss...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189907/neural-circuits-underlying-jaw-movements-for-the-prey-catching-behavior-in-frog-distribution-of-vestibular-afferent-terminals-on-motoneurons-supplying-the-jaw
#18
András Birinyi, Nóra Rácz, Szilvia Kecskes, Clara Matesz, Gabriella Kovalecz
Coordinated movement of the jaw is essential for catching and swallowing the prey. The majority of the jaw muscles in frogs are supplied by the trigeminal motoneurons. We have previously described that the primary vestibular afferent fibers, conveying information about the movements of the head, established close appositions on the motoneurons of trigeminal nerve providing one of the morphological substrates of monosynaptic sensory modulation of prey-catching behavior in the frog. The aim of our study was to reveal the spatial distribution of vestibular close appositions on the somatodendritic compartments of the functionally different trigeminal motoneurons...
November 30, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189264/dendritic-cell-markers-and-pd-l1-are-expressed-in-mediastinal-gray-zone-lymphoma
#19
Kevin Pelland, Stephanie Mathews, Anitha Kamath, Paul Cohen, S David Hudnall, Claudiu V Cotta, Mina L Xu
AIMS: Mediastinal gray zone lymphoma (MGZL) is a rare entity with morphologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic features intermediate between classic Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL). It is challenging to differentiate from CHL and PMBL. A specific dendritic cell gene expression profile can distinguish CHL and MGZL from PMBL. We hypothesized that the dendritic markers fascin and CD123 may be helpful in distinguishing MGZL from CHL and PMBL. We also investigated programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in MGZL, which may have therapeutic significance in this difficulty to treat tumor...
November 20, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187553/ih-interacts-with-somato-dendritic-structure-to-determine-frequency-response-to-weak-alternating-electric-field-stimulation
#20
Enrique H S Toloza, Ehsan Negahbani, Flavio Frohlich
Transcranial current stimulation (tCS) modulates brain dynamics using weak electric fields. Given the pathological changes in brain network oscillations in neurological and psychiatric illnesses, using alternating electric field waveforms that engage rhythmic activity has been proposed as a targeted, network-level treatment approach. Previous studies have investigated the effects of electric fields at the neuronal level. However, the biophysical basis of the cellular response to electric fields has remained limited...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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