Read by QxMD icon Read

dendrite morphology

Jacob E Montgomery, Sarah Wahlstrom-Helgren, Timothy D Wiggin, Brittany M Corwin, Christina Lillesaar, Mark A Masino
Serotonin (5HT) is a modulator of many vital processes in the spinal cord (SC), such as production of locomotion. In the larval zebrafish, intraspinal serotonergic neurons (ISNs) are a source of spinal 5HT that, despite the availability of numerous genetic and optical tools, has not yet been directly shown to affect the spinal locomotor network. In order to better understand the functions of ISNs, we used a combination of strategies to investigate ISN development, morphology, and function. ISNs were optically isolated from one another by photoconverting Kaede fluorescent protein in individual cells, permitting morphometric analysis as they developed in vivo...
June 19, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Sozaburo Ihara, Yoshihiro Hirata, Yohko Hikiba, Aya Yamashita, Mayo Tsuboi, Masahiro Hata, Mitsuru Konishi, Nobumi Suzuki, Kosuke Sakitani, Hiroto Kinoshita, Yoku Hayakawa, Hayato Nakagawa, Hideaki Ijichi, Keisuke Tateishi, Kazuhiko Koike
Background and Aims: Disturbance of intestinal homeostasis is associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and TGF-β signaling impairment in mononuclear phagocytes (MPs) causes murine colitis with goblet cell depletion. Here, we examined an organoid-MP co-culture system to study the role of MPs in intestinal epithelial differentiation and homeostasis. Methods: Intestinal organoids were co-cultured with lamina propria leukocytes and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) from CD11c-cre Tgfbr2fl/fl mice...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Harish K Choudhary, M Manjunatha, R Damle, K P Ramesh, B Sahoo
Different shapes of Co-aggregates were synthesized via reduction of a Co salt (CoCl2·6H2O) by chemical precipitation using glycerol, ethylene glycol and ethanol as solvents. The effect of solvent on the morphology, fcc or hcp phase-content and the magnetic properties of the synthesized samples were investigated. The Co-aggregates synthesized using glycerol have a dense spherical shape and high saturation magnetization (MS), whereas ethylene glycol leads to formation of flower-shaped spherical aggregates through loose packing of smaller plate-like particles which have a moderate MS value...
June 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Aqeela Zahra, Jinxiang Jiang, Yunan Chen, Cheng Long, Li Yang
Prenatal exposure to citalopram (CTM), an antidepressant drug, has been associated with altered behavior, including autism-like symptoms in both human and rodent offspring. However, the neurological basis underlying these abnormal behaviors is not well understood. Here, we examined behavioral, morphological, and biochemical alterations in the male and female offspring of C57BL/6 mouse mothers that had been exposed to CTM during the last trimester of gestation. We observed abnormal behavior such as anxiety, altered locomotion and disordered social interactions in 2-5 month old offspring with prenatal CTM exposure...
June 15, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Ginetta Collo, Laura Cavalleri, Michele Zoli, Uwe Maskos, Emiliangelo Ratti, Emilio Merlo Pich
Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons are considered a critical substrate for the reinforcing and sensitizing effects of nicotine and tobacco dependence. While the role of the α4 and β2 subunit containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α4β2∗ nAChRs) in mediating nicotine effects on DA release and DA neuron activity has been widely explored, less information is available on their role in the morphological adaptation of the DA system to nicotine, eventually leading to dysfunctional behaviors observed in nicotine dependence...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Eleanor R Townsend, Willem J P van Enckevort, Paul Tinnemans, Melian A R Blijlevens, Jan A M Meijer, Elias Vlieg
A multitude of ultrathin crystal needles are formed during the evaporation of saturated aqueous NaCl solution droplets in the presence of amide containing additives. The needles are as small as 300 nm wide and 100-1000 μm in length. Heating experiments, X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that the needles are cubic sodium chloride crystals with the needle length direction pointing toward [100]. This shape, not expected for the 43̅ m point group symmetry of NaCl, has been explained using a model, based on tip formation by initial morphological instability followed by time dependent adsorption of additive molecules blocking the growth of the needle side faces...
February 7, 2018: Crystal Growth & Design
Joanna I Giza, Jihye Kim, Heidi C Meyer, Agustin Anastasia, Iva Dincheva, Crystal I Zheng, Katherine Lopez, Henrietta Bains, Jianmin Yang, Clay Bracken, Conor Liston, Deqiang Jing, Barbara L Hempstead, Francis S Lee
A human variant in the BDNF gene (Val66Met; rs6265) is associated with impaired fear extinction. Using super-resolution imaging, we demonstrate that the BDNF Met prodomain disassembles dendritic spines and eliminates synapses in hippocampal neurons. In vivo, ventral CA1 (vCA1) hippocampal neurons undergo similar morphological changes dependent on their transient co-expression of a SorCS2/p75NTR receptor complex during peri-adolescence. BDNF Met prodomain infusion into the vCA1 during this developmental time frame reduces dendritic spine density and prelimbic (PL) projections, impairing cued fear extinction...
June 2, 2018: Neuron
Maryam Rahimi-Balaei, Xiaodan Jiao, Shahin Shabanipour, Rajiv Dixit, Carol Schuurmans, Hassan Marzban
Zebrin II/aldolase C expression in the normal cerebellum is restricted to a Purkinje cell subset and is the canonical marker for stripes and zones. This spatial restriction has been confirmed in over 30 species of mammals, birds, fish, etc. In a transgenic mouse model in which the Neurogenin 2 gene has been disrupted (Neurog2 -/- ), the cerebellum is smaller than normal and Purkinje cell dendrites are disordered, but the basic zone and stripe architecture is preserved. Here, we show that in the Neurog2 -/- mouse, in addition to the normal Purkinje cell expression, zebrin II is also expressed in a population of cells with a morphology characteristic of microglia...
May 16, 2018: Cerebellum
Brandy A Briones, Vincent D Tang, Amanda E Haye, Elizabeth Gould
Increases in the number and/or the size of dendritic spines, sites of excitatory synapses, have been linked to different types of learning as well as synaptic plasticity in several brain regions, including the hippocampus, sensory cortex, motor cortex, and cerebellum. By contrast, a previous study reported that training on a maze task that requires the dorsal striatum has no effect on medium spiny neuron dendritic spines in the dorsal striatum. These findings might suggest brain region-specific differences in levels of plasticity as well as different cellular processes underlying different types of learning...
June 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Takuji Iwasato, Reha S Erzurumlu
Molecular identification of neuronal types and genetic and imaging approaches to characterize their properties reveal morphological, physiological and dynamic aspects of sensory circuit development. Here we focus on the mouse tactile sensory circuitry, with particular emphasis on the main trigeminal pathway that connects the whiskers, the major tactile organ in rodents, to the neocortex. At each level of this pathway, neurogenesis, axonal elongation, pathfinding, target recognition and circuit reorganization including dendritic refinement of cortical layer 4 neurons occur contemporaneously and a multitude of molecular signals are used in differing combinations...
June 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Daniela Pletto, Silvia Capra, Adele Finardi, Francesca Colciaghi, Paola Nobili, Giorgio Stefano Battaglia, Denise Locatelli, Cinzia Cagnoli
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is a severe autosomal recessive disease characterized by selective motor neuron degeneration, caused by disruptions of the Survival of Motor Neuron 1 (Smn1) gene. The main product of SMN1 is the full-length SMN protein (FL-SMN), that plays an established role in mRNA splicing. FL-SMN is also involved in neurite outgrowth and axonal transport. A shorter SMN isoform, axonal-SMN or a-SMN, displays a more specific axonal localization and has remarkable axonogenic properties in NSC-34...
2018: PloS One
Yanqin Sun, Jiali Long, Yuting Yin, Hongmei Li, Enping Jiang, Chao Zeng, Wei Zhu
We build the latent membrane protein gene LMP2A and GM-CSF gene fusion gene (CSF2A), and discuss how CSF2A fusion protein influenced proliferation and apoptosis of EBV+ tumor cells. RT-PCR method was used to amplify LMP2A gene and GM-CSF gene fragments respectively, according to the principle of overlap extension in the coding (Gly4Ser)3 polypeptide gene fragments of DNA restructured under the connection. CSF2A gene could be connected with pIRES2-eGFP vector by recombinant DNA technology, and identified by enzyme electrophoresis analysis and DNA sequencing...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Francisco Freixo, Paula Martinez Delgado, Yasmina Manso, Carlos Sánchez-Huertas, Cristina Lacasa, Eduardo Soriano, Joan Roig, Jens Lüders
Organization of microtubules into ordered arrays is best understood in mitotic systems, but remains poorly characterized in postmitotic cells such as neurons. By analyzing the cycling cell microtubule cytoskeleton proteome through expression profiling and targeted RNAi screening for candidates with roles in neurons, we have identified the mitotic kinase NEK7. We show that NEK7 regulates dendrite morphogenesis in vitro and in vivo. NEK7 kinase activity is required for dendrite growth and branching, as well as spine formation and morphology...
June 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Sergio Luengo-Sanchez, Isabel Fernaud-Espinosa, Concha Bielza, Ruth Benavides-Piccione, Pedro Larrañaga, Javier DeFelipe
The dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons are the targets of most excitatory synapses in the cerebral cortex. They have a wide variety of morphologies, and their morphology appears to be critical from the functional point of view. To further characterize dendritic spine geometry, we used in this paper over 7,000 individually 3D reconstructed dendritic spines from human cortical pyramidal neurons to group dendritic spines using model-based clustering. This approach uncovered six separate groups of human dendritic spines...
June 13, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Can Zhang, Nicole R Brandon, Kerryann Koper, Pei Tang, Yan Xu, Huanyu Dou
Although a direct link has long been suspected between systemic immune responses and neuronal injuries after stroke, it is unclear which immune cells play an important role. A question remains as to whether the blood brain barrier (BBB) is transiently disrupted after circulatory arrest to allow peripheral immune cells to enter brain parenchyma. Here, we developed a clinically relevant cardiac arrest and resuscitation model in mice to investigate the BBB integrity using noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging...
June 2018: Aging and Disease
Akira Hasebe, Ayumi Saeki, Yasuhiro Yoshida, Ken-Ichiro Shibata
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to elucidate differences in the mechanism of the IL-1β release-inducing activity of Candida albicans toward dendritic cells and macrophages because IL-1β is one of the proinflammatory cytokines which is crucial in host defense against candidiasis. DESIGN: Two C. albicans strains were used in this study. One strain is uridine-auxotrophic (CAI4) that needs uridine to grow and form hyphae, and another is a strain without any specific auxotrophy (pACT1-GFP), which forms hyphae naturally by culturing with serum components...
June 4, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Vanesa Stojanovska, Rachel M McQuade, Sarah Fraser, Monica Prakash, Shakuntla Gondalia, Rhian Stavely, Enzo Palombo, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Samy Sakkal, Kulmira Nurgali
Oxaliplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic used for cancer treatment. Its use associates with peripheral neuropathies and chronic gastrointestinal side-effects. Oxaliplatin induces immunogenic cell death by provoking the presentation of damage associated molecular patterns. The damage associated molecular patterns high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein exerts pro-inflammatory cytokine-like activity and binds to toll-like receptors (namely TLR4). Gastrointestinal microbiota may influence chemotherapeutic efficacy and contribute to local and systemic inflammation...
2018: PloS One
Reshma Basak, Rishikesh Narayanan
A prominent hypothesis spanning several sensory-perceptual systems implicates spatially clustered synapses in the generation of dendritic spikes that mediate sharply-tuned neuronal responses to input features. In this conductance-based morphologically-precise computational study, we tested this hypothesis by systematically analyzing the impact of distinct synaptic and channel localization profiles on sharpness of spatial tuning in hippocampal pyramidal neurons. We found that the generation of dendritic spikes, the emergence of an excitatory ramp in somatic voltage responses, the expression of several intrinsic somatodendritic functional maps and sharp tuning of place-cell responses were all attainable even when iso-feature synapses are randomly dispersed across the dendritic arbor of models with disparate channel combinations...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Yuanming Zhang, Tingting Sun, Wei Jiang, Guangting Han
In this paper, the crystalline modification of a rare earth nucleating agent (WBG) for isotactic polypropylene (PP) based on its supramolecular self-assembly was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, wide-angle X-ray diffraction and polarized optical microscopy. In addition, the relationship between the self-assembly structure of the nucleating agent and the crystalline structure, as well as the possible reason for the self-assembly behaviour, was further studied. The structure evolution of WBG showed that the self-assembly structure changed from a needle-like structure to a dendritic structure with increase in the content of WBG...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Yuan Wang, Jun Han, Xi Chen, Xinning Zeng, Yi Wang, Jing Dong, Jie Chen
Iodine is an essential component for thyroid hormone synthesis. Epidemiological investigations have demonstrated that maternal mild iodine deficiency (ID)-induced hypothyroxinemia can affect intellectual and behavioral function in offspring. There is no definitive evidence demonstrating the effects of maternal iodine supplementation on neurobehavioral function in regional areas with mild ID. Thus, we aimed to clarify the effects of maternal mild ID and iodine supplementation on motor coordination in offspring and illuminate the underlying molecular mechanisms...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"