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neuron arborization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031632/separate-transcriptionally-regulated-pathways-specify-distinct-classes-of-sister-dendrites-in-a-nociceptive-neuron
#1
Barbara M J O'Brien, Sierra D Palumbos, Michaela Novakovic, Xueying Shang, Lakshmi Sundararajan, David M Miller
The dendritic processes of nociceptive neurons transduce external signals into neurochemical cues that alert the organism to potentially damaging stimuli. The receptive field for each sensory neuron is defined by its dendritic arbor, but the mechanisms that shape dendritic architecture are incompletely understood. Using the model nociceptor, the PVD neuron in C. elegans, we determined that two types of PVD lateral branches project along the dorsal/ventral axis to generate the PVD dendritic arbor: (1) Pioneer dendrites that adhere to the epidermis, and (2) Commissural dendrites that fasciculate with circumferential motor neuron processes...
October 12, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022876/local-processing-in-neurites-of-vglut3-expressing-amacrine-cells-differentially-organizes-visual-information
#2
Jen-Chun Hsiang, Keith Johnson, Linda Madisen, Hongkui Zeng, Daniel Kerschensteiner
Neurons receive synaptic inputs on extensive neurite arbors. How information is organized across arbors and how local processing in neurites contributes to circuit function is mostly unknown. Here, we used two-photon Ca(2+) imaging to study visual processing in VGluT3-expressing amacrine cells (VG3‑ACs) in the mouse retina. Contrast preferences (ON vs. OFF) varied across VG3‑AC arbors depending on the laminar position of neurites, with ON responses preferring larger stimuli than OFF responses. Although arbors of neighboring cells overlap extensively, imaging population activity revealed continuous topographic maps of visual space in the VG3‑AC plexus...
October 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993484/interneurons-in-the-honeybee-primary-auditory-center-responding-to-waggle-dance-like-vibration-pulses
#3
Hiroyuki Ai, Kazuki Kai, Ajayrama Kumaraswamy, Hidetoshi Ikeno, Thomas Wachtler
Female honeybees use the 'waggle dance' to communicate the location of nectar sources to their hive mates. Distance information is encoded in the duration of the waggle phase (von Frisch, 1967). During the waggle phase the dancer produces trains of vibration pulses, which are detected by the follower bees via Johnston's organ located on the antennae. To uncover the neural mechanisms underlying the encoding of distance information in the waggle dance follower, we investigated morphology, physiology, and immunohistochemistry of interneurons arborizing in the primary auditory center of the honeybee (Apis mellifera)...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990925/tracking-individual-action-potentials-throughout-mammalian-axonal-arbors
#4
Milos Radivojevic, Felix Franke, Michael Altermatt, Jan Müller, Andreas Hierlemann, Douglas J Bakkum
Axons are neuronal processes specialized for conduction of action potentials (APs). The timing and temporal precision of APs when they reach each of the synapses are fundamentally important for information processing in the brain. Due to small diameters of axons, direct recording of single AP transmission is challenging. Consequently, most knowledge about axonal conductance derives from modeling studies or indirect measurements. We demonstrate a method to noninvasively and directly record individual APs propagating along millimeter-length axonal arbors in cortical cultures with hundreds of microelectrodes at microsecond temporal resolution...
October 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975140/patient-derived-hipsc-neurons-with-heterozygous-cntnap2-deletions-display-altered-neuronal-gene-expression-and-network-activity
#5
Erin Flaherty, Rania M Deranieh, Elena Artimovich, Inkyu S Lee, Arthur J Siegel, Deborah L Levy, Michael W Nestor, Kristen J Brennand
Variants in CNTNAP2, a member of the neurexin family of genes that function as cell adhesion molecules, have been associated with multiple neuropsychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability; animal studies indicate a role for CNTNAP2 in axon guidance, dendritic arborization and synaptogenesis. We previously reprogrammed fibroblasts from a family trio consisting of two carriers of heterozygous intragenic CNTNAP2 deletions into human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and described decreased migration in the neural progenitor cells (NPCs) differentiated from the affected CNTNAP2 carrier in this trio...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974418/mge-derived-nnos-interneurons-promote-fear-acquisition-in-nnos-mice
#6
Lin Zhang, Hong-Jin Yuan, Bo Cao, Cheng-Cheng Kong, Fang Yuan, Jun Li, Huan-Yu Ni, Hai-Yin Wu, Lei Chang, Yan Liu, Chun-Xia Luo
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) (1), mainly responsible for NO release in central nervous system (CNS) (2), plays a significant role in multiple physiological functions. However, the function of nNOS(+) interneurons in fear learning has not been much explored. Here we focused on the medial ganglionic eminences (MGE) (3)-derived nNOS(+) interneurons in fear learning. To determine the origin of nNOS(+) interneurons, we cultured neurons in vitro from MGE, cortex, lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) (4), caudal ganglionic eminences (CGE) (5) and preoptic area (POA) (6)...
September 30, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973139/homeostatic-plasticity-can-be-induced-and-expressed-to-restore-synaptic-strength-at-neuromuscular-junctions-undergoing-als-related-degeneration
#7
Sarah Perry, Yifu Han, Anushka Das, Dion Dickman
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is debilitating neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor neuron dysfunction and progressive weakening of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Hereditary ALS is strongly associated with variants in the human C9orf72 gene. We have characterized C9orf72 pathology at the Drosophila NMJ and utilized several approaches to restore synaptic strength in this model. First, we demonstrate a dramatic reduction in synaptic arborization and active zone number at NMJs following C9orf72 transgenic expression in motor neurons...
July 28, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971478/mouse-subthalamic-nucleus-neurons-with-local-axon-collaterals
#8
Laurie-Anne Gouty-Colomer, François J Michel, Agnès Baude, Catherine Lopez-Pauchet, Amandine Dufour, Rosa Cossart, Constance Hammond
The neuronal population of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has the ability to prolong incoming cortical excitation. This could result from intra-STN feedback excitation. The combination of inducible genetic fate mapping techniques with in vitro targeted patch-clamp recordings, allowed identifying a new type of STN neurons that possess a highly collateralized intrinsic axon. The time window of birth dates was found to be narrow (E10.5-E14.5) with very few STN neurons born at E10.5 or E14.5. The fate mapped E11...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970473/patient-derived-hipsc-neurons-with-heterozygous-cntnap2-deletions-display-altered-neuronal-gene-expression-and-network-activity
#9
Erin Flaherty, Rania M Deranieh, Elena Artimovich, Inkyu S Lee, Arthur J Siegel, Deborah L Levy, Michael W Nestor, Kristen J Brennand
Variants in CNTNAP2, a member of the neurexin family of genes that function as cell adhesion molecules, have been associated with multiple neuropsychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability; animal studies indicate a role for CNTNAP2 in axon guidance, dendritic arborization and synaptogenesis. We previously reprogrammed fibroblasts from a family trio consisting of two carriers of heterozygous intragenic CNTNAP2 deletions into human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and described decreased migration in the neural progenitor cells (NPCs) differentiated from the affected CNTNAP2 carrier in this trio...
October 2, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965520/the-multifaceted-role-of-inhibitory-interneurons-in-the-dorsal-lateral-geniculate-nucleus
#10
Charles L Cox, Joseph A Beatty
Intrinsic interneurons within the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) provide a feed-forward inhibitory pathway for afferent visual information originating from the retina. These interneurons are unique because in addition to traditional axodendritic output onto thalamocortical neurons, these interneurons have presynaptic dendrites that form dendrodendritic synapses onto thalamocortical neurons as well. These presynaptic dendrites, termed F2 terminals, are tightly coupled to the retinogeniculate afferents that synapse onto thalamocortical relay neurons...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954223/enclosure-of-dendrites-by-epidermal-cells-restricts-branching-and-permits-coordinated-development-of-spatially-overlapping-sensory-neurons
#11
Conrad M Tenenbaum, Mala Misra, Rebecca A Alizzi, Elizabeth R Gavis
Spatial arrangement of different neuron types within a territory is essential to neuronal development and function. How development of different neuron types is coordinated for spatial coexistence is poorly understood. In Drosophila, dendrites of four classes of dendritic arborization (C1-C4da) neurons innervate overlapping receptive fields within the larval epidermis. These dendrites are intermittently enclosed by epidermal cells, with different classes exhibiting varying degrees of enclosure. The role of enclosure in neuronal development and its underlying mechanism remain unknown...
September 26, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947574/spatial-structure-of-synchronized-inhibition-in-the-olfactory-bulb
#12
Hannah A Arnson, Ben W Strowbridge
Olfactory sensory input is detected by receptor neurons in the nose which then send information to the olfactory bulb, the first brain region for processing olfactory information. Within the olfactory bulb, many local circuit interneurons, including axonless granule cells, function to facilitate fine odor discrimination. How interneurons interact with principal cells to affect bulbar processing is not known though the mechanism is likely to be different than in sensory cortical regions since the olfactory bulb lacks an obvious topographical organization; neighboring glomerular columns, representing inputs from different receptor neuron subtypes, typically have different odor tuning...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929566/protracted-dendritic-growth-in-the-typically-developing-human-amygdala-and-increased-spine-density-in-young-asd-brains
#13
R K Weir, M D Bauman, B Jacobs, C M Schumann
The amygdala is a medial temporal lobe structure implicated in social and emotional regulation. In typical development (TD), the amygdala continues to increase volumetrically throughout childhood and into adulthood, while other brain structures are stable or decreasing in volume. In autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the amygdala undergoes rapid early growth, making it volumetrically larger in children with ASD compared to TD children. Here we explore: 1) if dendritic arborization in the amygdala follows the pattern of protracted growth in TD and early overgrowth in ASD and 2), if spine density in the amygdala in ASD cases differs from TD from youth to adulthood...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924188/dopamine-d1-receptor-subtype-mediates-acute-stress-induced-dendritic-growth-in-excitatory-neurons-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-contributes-to-suppression-of-stress-susceptibility-in-mice
#14
R Shinohara, M Taniguchi, A T Ehrlich, K Yokogawa, Y Deguchi, Y Cherasse, M Lazarus, Y Urade, A Ogawa, S Kitaoka, A Sawa, S Narumiya, T Furuyashiki
Dopamine in prefrontal cortices is implicated in cognitive and emotional functions, and the dysfunction of prefrontal dopamine has been associated with cognitive and emotional deficits in mental illnesses. These findings have led to clinical trials of dopamine-targeting drugs and brain imaging of dopamine receptors in patients with mental illnesses. Rodent studies have suggested that dopaminergic pathway projecting to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) suppresses stress susceptibility. Although various types of mPFC neurons express several dopamine receptor subtypes, previous studies neither isolated a role of dopamine receptor subtype nor identified the site of its action in mPFC...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921686/the-effects-of-dynamical-synapses-on-firing-rate-activity-a-spiking-neural-network-model
#15
Radwa Khalil, Marie Z Moftah, Ahmed A Moustafa
Accumulating evidence relates the fine-tuning of synaptic maturation and regulation of neural network activity to several key factors, including GABAA signaling and a lateral spread length between neighboring neurons (i.e. local connectivity). Furthermore, a number of studies consider Short-Term synaptic Plasticity (STP) as an essential element in the instant modification of synaptic efficacy in the neuronal network and in modulating responses to sustained ranges of external Poisson Input Frequency (IF). Nevertheless, evaluating the firing activity in response to the dynamical interaction between STP (triggered by ranges of IF), and these key parameters in vitro remains elusive...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910410/the-function-of-drosophila-larval-class-iv-dendritic-arborization-sensory-neurons-in-the-larval-pupal-transition-is-separable-from-their-function-in-mechanical-nociception-responses
#16
Hannah E Brown, Trishna Desai, Allison J Murphy, Harshida Pancholi, Zachary W Schmidt, Hannah Swahn, Eric C Liebl
The sensory and physiological inputs which govern the larval-pupal transition in Drosophila, and the neuronal circuity that integrates them, are complex. Previous work from our laboratory identified a dosage-sensitive genetic interaction between the genes encoding the Rho-GEF Trio and the zinc-finger transcription factor Sequoia that interfered with the larval-pupal transition. Specifically, we reported heterozygous mutations in sequoia (seq) dominantly exacerbated the trio mutant phenotype, and this seq-enhanced trio mutant genotype blocked the transition of third instar larvae from foragers to wanderers, a requisite behavioral transition prior to pupation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899992/depletion-of-progranulin-reduces-glun2b-containing-nmda-receptor-density-tau-phosphorylation-and-dendritic-arborization-in-mouse-primary-cortical-neurons
#17
Francesca Longhena, Michela Zaltieri, Jessica Grigoletto, Gaia Faustini, Luca La Via, Roberta Ghidoni, Luisa Benussi, Cristina Missale, PierFranco Spano, Arianna Bellucci
Loss-of-function mutations in the progranulin (PGRN) gene are a common cause of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). This age-related neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by brain atrophy in the frontal and temporal lobes and such typical symptoms as cognitive and memory impairment, profound behavioral abnormalities, and personality changes is thought to be related to connectome dysfunctions. Recently, PGRN reduction has been found to induce a behavioral phenotype reminiscent of FTLD symptoms in mice by affecting neuron spine density and morphology, suggesting that the protein can influence neuronal structural plasticity...
November 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899869/autism-like-behavior-caused-by-deletion-of-vaccinia-related-kinase-3-is-improved-by-trkb-stimulation
#18
Myung-Su Kang, Tae-Yong Choi, Hye Guk Ryu, Dohyun Lee, Seung-Hyun Lee, Se-Young Choi, Kyong-Tai Kim
Vaccinia-related kinases (VRKs) are multifaceted serine/threonine kinases that play essential roles in various aspects of cell signaling, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and neuronal development and differentiation. However, the neuronal function of VRK3 is still unknown despite its etiological potential in human autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we report that VRK3-deficient mice exhibit typical symptoms of autism-like behavior, including hyperactivity, stereotyped behaviors, reduced social interaction, and impaired context-dependent spatial memory...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884472/a-crustacean-lobula-plate-morphology-connections-and-retinotopic-organization
#19
Mercedes Bengochea, Martín Berón de Astrada, Daniel Tomsic, Julieta Sztarker
The lobula plate is part of the lobula complex, the third optic neuropil, in the optic lobes of insects. It has been extensively studied in dipterous insects, where its role in processing flow-field motion information used for controlling optomotor responses was discovered early. Recently, a lobula plate was also found in malacostracan crustaceans. Here we provide the first detailed description of the neuroarchitecture, the input and output connections and the retinotopic organization of the lobula plate in a crustacean, the crab Neohelice granulata using a variety of histological methods that include silver reduced staining and mass staining with dextran-conjugated dyes...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875935/golgi-independent-secretory-trafficking-through-recycling-endosomes-in-neuronal-dendrites-and-spines
#20
Aaron B Bowen, Ashley M Bourke, Brian G Hiester, Cyril Hanus, Matthew J Kennedy
Neurons face the challenge of regulating the abundance, distribution and repertoire of integral membrane proteins within their immense, architecturally complex dendritic arbors. While the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) supports dendritic translation, most dendrites lack the Golgi apparatus (GA), an essential organelle for conventional secretory trafficking. Thus, whether secretory cargo is locally trafficked in dendrites through a non-canonical pathway remains a fundamental question. Here we define the dendritic trafficking itinerary for key synaptic molecules in rat cortical neurons...
September 6, 2017: ELife
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