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neuron arborization

Hanna Zwaka, Daniel Münch, Gisela Manz, Randolf Menzel, Jürgen Rybak
In the honeybee brain, two prominent tracts - the medial and the lateral antennal lobe tract - project from the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobes (ALs), to the central brain, the mushroom bodies (MBs), and the protocerebral lobe (PL). Intracellularly stained uniglomerular projection neurons were reconstructed, registered to the 3D honeybee standard brain atlas, and then used to derive the spatial properties and quantitative morphology of the neurons of both tracts. We evaluated putative synaptic contacts of projection neurons (PNs) using confocal microscopy...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Ying Wang, Wen-Yuan Li, Zhi-Gang Li, Li-Xin Guan, Ling-Xiao Deng
Injury to the nervous system induces localized damage in neural structures and neuronal death through the primary insult, as well as delayed atrophy and impaired plasticity of the delicate dendritic fields necessary for interneuronal communication. Excitotoxicity and other secondary biochemical events contribute to morphological changes in neurons following injury. Evidence suggests that various transcription factors are involved in the dendritic response to injury and potential therapies. Transcription factors play critical roles in the intracellular regulation of neuronal morphological plasticity and dendritic growth and patterning...
October 11, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Qian Song, Ge Feng, Zehua Huang, Xiaoman Chen, Zhaohuan Chen, Yong Ping
Impaired sleep patterns are common symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cellular mechanisms underlying sleep disturbance in AD remain largely unknown. Here, using a Drosophila Aβ42 AD model, we show that Aβ42 markedly decreases sleep in a large population, which is accompanied with postdevelopmental axonal arborization of wake-promoting pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) neurons. The arborization is mediated in part via JNK activation and can be reversed by decreasing JNK signaling activity. Axonal arborization and impaired sleep are correlated in Aβ42 and JNK kinase hemipterous mutant flies...
October 7, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Tomofumi Oga, Tsuguhisa Okamoto, Ichiro Fujita
Neurons in the mammalian primary visual cortex (V1) are systematically arranged across the cortical surface according to the location of their receptive fields (RFs), forming a visuotopic (or retinotopic) map. Within this map, the foveal visual field is represented by a large cortical surface area, with increasingly peripheral visual fields gradually occupying smaller cortical areas. Although cellular organization in the retina, such as the spatial distribution of ganglion cells, can partially account for the eccentricity-dependent differences in the size of cortical representation, whether morphological differences exist across V1 neurons representing different eccentricities is unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Christopher K Thompson, Hollis T Cline
: Thyroid hormone (TH) regulates many cellular events underlying perinatal brain development in vertebrates. Whether and how TH regulates brain development when neural circuits are first forming is less clear. Furthermore, although the molecular mechanisms that impose spatiotemporal constraints on TH action in the brain have been described, the effects of local TH signaling are poorly understood. We determined the effects of manipulating TH signaling on development of the optic tectum in stage 46-49 Xenopus laevis tadpoles...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Dolores Irala, Antonela Bonafina, Paula Aldana Fontanet, Fernando Cruz Alsina, Gustavo Paratcha, Fernanda Ledda
The formation of synaptic connections during nervous system development requires the precise control of dendrite growth and synapse formation. Although Glial Cell line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) and its receptor GFRα1 are expressed in the forebrain, the role of this system in hippocampus remains unclear. In this work, we investigated the consequences of GFRα1 deficiency for the development of hippocampal connections. Analysis of conditional GFRα1-knockout mice shows a reduction in dendritic length and complexity, as well as a decrease in postsynaptic density (PSD) specializations and in the synaptic localization of postsynaptic proteins in hippocampal neurons...
October 5, 2016: Development
M L Ou, G Liu, D Xiao, B H Zhang, C C Guo, X G Ye, Y Liu, N Zhang, M Wang, Y J Han, X H Ye, C X Jing, G Yang
miR-137, a brain-enriched microRNA, is involved in the control of neuronal proliferation, differentiation, and dendritic arborization, all of which are important for proper neurogenesis and relevant to schizophrenia. miR-137 is also known to regulate many genes implicated in schizophrenia risk. Although reports have associated the miR-137 polymorphism rs1625579 with this disease, their results have been inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the relationship between rs1625579 and schizophrenia...
September 16, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Guillermo López-Doménech, Nathalie F Higgs, Victoria Vaccaro, Hana Roš, I Lorena Arancibia-Cárcamo, Andrew F MacAskill, Josef T Kittler
Correct mitochondrial distribution is critical for satisfying local energy demands and calcium buffering requirements and supporting key cellular processes. The mitochondrially targeted proteins Miro1 and Miro2 are important components of the mitochondrial transport machinery, but their specific roles in neuronal development, maintenance, and survival remain poorly understood. Using mouse knockout strategies, we demonstrate that Miro1, as opposed to Miro2, is the primary regulator of mitochondrial transport in both axons and dendrites...
October 4, 2016: Cell Reports
Wei Zou, Ao Shen, Xintong Dong, Madina Tugizova, Yang K Xiang, Kang Shen
Ligand receptor interactions instruct axon guidance during development. How dendrites are guided to specific targets is less understood. The C. elegans PVD sensory neuron innervates muscle-skin interface with its elaborate dendritic branches. Here, we found that LECT-2, the ortholog of leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (LECT2), is secreted from the muscles and required for muscle innervation by PVD. Mosaic analyses showed that LECT-2 acted locally to guide the growth of terminal branches. Ectopic expression of LECT-2 from seam cells is sufficient to redirect the PVD dendrites onto seam cells...
October 5, 2016: ELife
Gabriela Tavares, Manuella Martins, Joana Sofia Correia, Vanessa Morais Sardinha, Sónia Guerra-Gomes, Sofia Pereira das Neves, Fernanda Marques, Nuno Sousa, João Filipe Oliveira
Astrocytes display important features that allow them to maintain a close dialog with neurons, ultimately impacting brain function. The complex morphological structure of astrocytes is crucial to the role of astrocytes in brain networks. Therefore, assessing morphologic features of astrocytes will help provide insights into their physiological relevance in healthy and pathological conditions. Currently available tools that allow the tridimensional reconstruction of astrocytes present a number of disadvantages, including the need for advanced computational skills and powerful hardware, and are either time-consuming or costly...
September 30, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Pankhuri Vyas, Jingjing Sherry Wu, Amanda Zimmerman, Paul Fuchs, Elisabeth Glowatzki
Acoustic information propagates from the ear to the brain via spiral ganglion neurons that innervate hair cells in the cochlea. These afferents include unmyelinated type II fibers that constitute 5 % of the total, the majority being myelinated type I neurons. Lack of specific genetic markers of type II afferents in the cochlea has been a roadblock in studying their functional role. Unexpectedly, type II afferents were visualized by reporter proteins induced by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-driven Cre recombinase...
September 30, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Stefania Averaimo, Ahlem Assali, Oriol Ros, Sandrine Couvet, Yvrick Zagar, Ioana Genescu, Alexandra Rebsam, Xavier Nicol
The development of neuronal circuits is controlled by guidance molecules that are hypothesized to interact with the cholesterol-enriched domains of the plasma membrane termed lipid rafts. Whether such domains enable local intracellular signalling at the submicrometre scale in developing neurons and are required for shaping the nervous system connectivity in vivo remains controversial. Here, we report a role for lipid rafts in generating domains of local cAMP signalling in axonal growth cones downstream of ephrin-A repulsive guidance cues...
October 3, 2016: Nature Communications
Shiwei Wang, Marta Bolós, Rosemary Clark, Carlie L Cullen, Katherine A Southam, Lisa Foa, Tracey C Dickson, Kaylene M Young
The amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane protein that is widely expressed within the central nervous system (CNS). While the pathogenic dysfunction of this protein has been extensively studied in the context of Alzheimer's disease, its normal function is poorly understood, and reports have often appeared contradictory. In this study we have examined the role of APP in regulating neurogenesis in the adult mouse brain by comparing neural stem cell proliferation, as well as new neuron number and morphology between APP knockout mice and C57bl6 controls...
September 21, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Jill R Crittenden, Paul W Tillberg, Michael H Riad, Yasuyuki Shima, Charles R Gerfen, Jeffrey Curry, David E Housman, Sacha B Nelson, Edward S Boyden, Ann M Graybiel
The dopamine systems of the brain powerfully influence movement and motivation. We demonstrate that striatonigral fibers originating in striosomes form highly unusual bouquet-like arborizations that target bundles of ventrally extending dopamine-containing dendrites and clusters of their parent nigral cell bodies. Retrograde tracing showed that these clustered cell bodies in turn project to the striatum as part of the classic nigrostriatal pathway. Thus, these striosome-dendron formations, here termed "striosome-dendron bouquets," likely represent subsystems with the nigro-striato-nigral loop that are affected in human disorders including Parkinson's disease...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Stephanie E Zimmer, Steven G Doll, A Denise R Garcia, Michael R Akins
The autism-related protein Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an RNA binding protein that plays important roles during both nervous system development and experience dependent plasticity. Alternative splicing of the Fmr1 locus gives rise to 12 different FMRP splice forms that differ in the functional and regulatory domains they contain as well as in their expression profile among brain regions and across development. Complete loss of FMRP leads to morphological and functional changes in neurons, including an increase in the size and complexity of the axonal arbor...
September 19, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Jason E Pipkin, Eric A Bushong, Mark H Ellisman, William B Kristan
Microscale connectomics involves the large-scale acquisition of high-resolution serial electron micrographs from which neuronal arbors can be reconstructed and synapses can be detected. In addition to connectivity information, these data sets are also rich with structural information, including vesicle types, number of postsynaptic partners at a given presynaptic site, and spatial distribution of synaptic inputs and outputs. This study uses serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (EM) to collect two volumes of serial EM data from ganglia of the medicinal leech...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Julien Guy, Alexandra Sachkova, Martin Möck, Mirko Witte, Robin J Wagener, Jochen F Staiger
Layer IV (LIV) of the rodent somatosensory cortex contains the somatotopic barrel field. Barrels receive much of the sensory input to the cortex through innervation by thalamocortical axons from the ventral posteromedial nucleus. In the reeler mouse, the absence of cortical layers results in the formation of mispositioned barrel-equivalent clusters of LIV fated neurons. Although functional imaging suggests that sensory input activates the cortex, little is known about the cellular and synaptic properties of identified excitatory neurons of the reeler cortex...
September 12, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Nathan D Okerlund, Robert E Stanley, Benjamin N R Cheyette
The transmembrane protein Vangl2, a key regulator of the Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, is involved in dendrite arbor elaboration, dendritic spine formation and glutamatergic synapse formation in mammalian central nervous system neurons. Cultured forebrain neurons from Vangl2 knockout mice have simpler dendrite arbors, fewer total spines, less mature spines and fewer glutamatergic synapse inputs on their dendrites than control neurons. Neurons from mice heterozygous for a semidominant Vangl2 mutation have similar but not identical phenotypes, and these phenotypes are also observed in Golgi-stained brain tissue from adult mutant mice...
July 2016: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
Alina Ilie, Andy Y L Gao, Jonathan Reid, Annie Boucher, Cassandra McEwan, Hervé Barrière, Gergely L Lukacs, R Anne McKinney, John Orlowski
BACKGROUND: Christianson Syndrome, a recently identified X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder, is caused by mutations in the human gene SLC9A6 encoding the recycling endosomal alkali cation/proton exchanger NHE6. The patients have pronounced limitations in cognitive ability, motor skills and adaptive behaviour. However, the mechanistic basis for this disorder is poorly understood as few of the more than 20 mutations identified thus far have been studied in detail. METHODS: Here, we examined the molecular and cellular consequences of a 6 base-pair deletion of amino acids Glu(287) and Ser(288) (∆ES) in the predicted seventh transmembrane helix of human NHE6 expressed in established cell lines (CHO/AP-1, HeLa and neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y) and primary cultures of mouse hippocampal neurons by measuring levels of protein expression, stability, membrane trafficking, endosomal function and cell viability...
2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Samuel D Gale, Gabe J Murphy
UNLABELLED: Neurons respond to specific features of sensory stimuli. In the visual system, for example, some neurons respond to motion of small but not large objects, whereas other neurons prefer motion of the entire visual field. Separate neurons respond equally to local and global motion but selectively to additional features of visual stimuli. How and where does response selectivity emerge? Here, we show that wide-field (WF) cells in retino-recipient layers of the mouse superior colliculus (SC) respond selectively to small moving objects...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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