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neuron arborization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666910/ontogeny-and-development-of-the-tritocerebral-commissure-giant-tcg-an-identified-neuron-in-the-brain-of-the-grasshopper-schistocerca-gregaria
#1
George Stephen Boyan, Leslie Williams, Tobias Müller, Jonathan P Bacon
The tritocerebral commissure giant (TCG) of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria is one of the best anatomically and physiologically described arthropod brain neurons. A member of the so-called Ventral Giant cluster of cells, it integrates sensory information from visual, antennal and hair receptors, and synapses with thoracic motor neurons in order to initiate and regulate flight behavior. Its ontogeny, however, remains unclear. In this study, we use bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and cyclin labeling to reveal proliferative neuroblasts in the region of the embryonic brain where the ventral giant cluster is located...
April 17, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663392/sushi-repeat-containing-protein-x-linked-2-a-novel-phylogenetically-conserved-hypothalamo-pituitary-protein
#2
Mehwish Anwer, Tamuna Bolkvadze, Xavier Ekolle Ndode-Ekane, Noora Puhakka, Tuomas Rauramaa, Ville Leinonen, Erwin A van Vliet, Dick F Swaab, Annakaisa Haapasalo, Stina Leskelä, Nea Bister, Tarja Malm, Synnöve Carlson, Eleonora Aronica, Asla Pitkänen
Sushi repeat-containing protein X-linked 2 (SRPX2) is a novel protein associated with language development, synaptic plasticity, tissue remodeling, and angiogenesis. We investigated the expression and spatial localization of SRPX2 in normal mouse, rat, monkey, and human brain using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Antibody specificity was determined using in vitro siRNA based silencing of SRPX2. Cell type-specific expression was verified by double-labeling with oxytocin or vasopressin. Western blot was used to detect SRPX2 protein in rat and human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628040/-patterns-of-brain-ageing
#3
Carlos Fernández Viadero, Rosario Verduga Vélez, Dámaso Crespo Santiago
Neuroplasticity lends the brain a strong ability to adapt to changes in the environment that occur during ageing. Animal models have shown alterations in neurotransmission and imbalances in the expression of neural growth factor. Changes at the morphometric level are not constant. Volume loss is related to alterations in neuroplasticity and involvement of the cerebral neuropil. Although there are no conclusive data, physical exercise improves the molecular, biological, functional and behavioural-cognitive changes associated with brain ageing...
June 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625118/fus-causes-synaptic-hyperexcitability-in-drosophila-dendritic-arborization-neurons
#4
James B Machamer, Brian M Woolums, Gregory Fuller, Thomas E Lloyd
Mutations in the nuclear localization signal of the RNA binding protein FUS cause both Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). These mutations result in a loss of FUS from the nucleus and the formation of FUS-containing cytoplasmic aggregates in patients. To better understand the role of cytoplasmic FUS mislocalization in the pathogenesis of ALS, we identified a population of cholinergic neurons in Drosophila that recapitulate these pathologic hallmarks. Expression of mutant FUS or the Drosophila homolog, Cabeza (Caz), in class IV dendritic arborization neurons results in cytoplasmic mislocalization and axonal transport to presynaptic terminals...
April 3, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617663/brv1-is-required-for-drosophila-larvae-to-sense-gentle-touch
#5
Mingfeng Zhang, Xia Li, Honglan Zheng, Xiaoxu Wen, Sihan Chen, Jia Ye, Siyang Tang, Fuqiang Yao, Yuezhou Li, Zhiqiang Yan
How we sense touch is fundamental for many physiological processes. However, the underlying mechanism and molecular identity for touch sensation are largely unknown. Here, we report on defective gentle-touch behavioral responses in brv1 loss-of-function Drosophila larvae. RNAi and Ca2+ imaging confirmed the involvement of Brv1 in sensing touch and demonstrated that Brv1 mediates the mechanotransduction of class III dendritic arborization neurons. Electrophysiological recordings further revealed that the expression of Brv1 protein in HEK293T cells gives rise to stretch-activated cation channels...
April 3, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615895/hypertension-accelerates-alzheimer-s-disease-related-pathologies-in-pigs-and-3xtg-mice
#6
Yao-Hsiang Shih, Shih-Ying Wu, Megan Yu, Sheng-Huai Huang, Chu-Wan Lee, Meei-Jyh Jiang, Pao-Yen Lin, Ting-Ting Yang, Yu-Min Kuo
Epidemiological studies suggest there is an association between midlife hypertension and increased risk of late-life Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether hypertension accelerates the onset of AD or is a distinct disease that becomes more prevalent with age (comorbidity) remains unclear. This study aimed to test the possible relationship between hypertension and AD pathogenesis. Two animal models were used in this study. For the first model, 7-month-old Lanyu-miniature-pigs were given the abdominal aortic constriction operation to induce hypertension and their AD-related pathologies were assessed at 1, 2, and 3 months after the operation...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615872/projections-of-the-diencephalospinal-dopaminergic-system-to-peripheral-sense-organs-in-larval-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#7
Melanie Haehnel-Taguchi, António M Fernandes, Margit Böhler, Ina Schmitt, Lena Tittel, Wolfgang Driever
Dopaminergic neurons of the descending diencephalospinal system are located in the posterior tuberculum (PT) in zebrafish ( Danio rerio ), and correspond in mammals to the A11 group in hypothalamus and thalamus. In the larval zebrafish, they are likely the only source of central dopaminergic projections to the periphery. Here, we characterized posterior tubercular dopaminergic fibers projecting to peripheral sense organs, with a focus on the lateral line neuromasts. We labeled and identified catecholaminergic neurons and their projections by combining two immunofluorescence techniques, (i) using an antibody against Tyrosine hydroxylase, and (ii) using an antibody against GFP in transgenic zebrafish expressing in catecholaminergic neurons either membrane-anchored GFP to track fibers, or a Synaptophysin-GFP fusion to visualize putative synapses...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610457/cntnap2-stabilizes-interneuron-dendritic-arbors-through-cask
#8
Ruoqi Gao, Nicolas H Piguel, Alexandria E Melendez-Zaidi, Maria Dolores Martin-de-Saavedra, Sehyoun Yoon, Marc P Forrest, Kristoffer Myczek, Gefei Zhang, Theron A Russell, John G Csernansky, D James Surmeier, Peter Penzes
Contactin associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2) has emerged as a prominent susceptibility gene implicated in multiple complex neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD), intellectual disability (ID), and schizophrenia (SCZ). The presence of seizure comorbidity in many of these cases, as well as inhibitory neuron dysfunction in Cntnap2 knockout (KO) mice, suggests CNTNAP2 may be crucial for proper inhibitory network function. However, underlying cellular mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that cultured Cntnap2 KO mouse neurons exhibit an inhibitory neuron-specific simplification of the dendritic tree...
April 2, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601832/antidepressant-effects-of-acupoint-stimulation-and-fluoxetine-by-increasing-dendritic-arborization-and-spine-density-in-ca1-hippocampal-neurons-of-socially-isolated-rats
#9
Amalia Dávila-Hernández, Sergio R Zamudio, Lucía Martínez-Mota, Roberto González-González, Eduardo Ramírez-San Juan
Given the importance of depression and the adverse effects of conventional treatment, it is necessary to seek complementary therapies. In a rat model of depression, this study aimed to assess the behavioral and morphological effects of embedding absorbable thread in acupoints (acu-catgut), and compare the results to those of fluoxetine treatment and the corresponding control groups. Therefore, depressive-like behavior was evaluated with the forced swimming test, and dendritic morphology (in the CA1 hippocampal region) with the Golgi-Cox technique and Sholl analysis...
March 27, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580891/repeated-social-stress-leads-to-contrasting-patterns-of-structural-plasticity-in-the-amygdala-and-hippocampus
#10
D Patel, S Anilkumar, S Chattarji, B Buwalda
Previous studies have demonstrated that repeated immobilization and restraint stress cause contrasting patterns of dendritic reorganization as well as alterations in spine density in amygdalar and hippocampal neurons. Whether social and ethologically relevant stressors can induce similar patterns of morphological plasticity remains largely unexplored. Hence, we assessed the effects of repeated social defeat stress on neuronal morphology in basolateral amygdala (BLA), hippocampal CA1 and infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
March 23, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575722/differential-effects-of-transient-and-sustained-activation-of-bdnf-trkb-signaling
#11
REVIEW
Wei Guo, Guhan Nagappan, Bai Lu
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serves a pleiotropic role in the central nervous system, ranging from promoting neuronal survival and differentiation during development and synaptic modulation in the adult. An important yet unanswered question is how BDNF could serve such diverse functions, sometimes in the same cell. At least two modes of BDNF actions have been elucidated so far based on BDNF signaling kinetics and/or the activity status of the responding neurons. Acute and gradual increases in extracellular BDNF concentrations elicit, respectively, transient and sustained activation of TrkB receptor and its downstream signaling, leading to differential molecular and cellular functions...
March 25, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571023/pretreatment-with-taurine-prevented-brain-injury-and-exploratory-behaviour-associated-with-administration-of-anticancer-drug-cisplatin-in-rats
#12
Olatunde Owoeye, Isaac A Adedara, Ebenezer O Farombi
The neurotoxicity associated with cisplatin treatment is one of the major side effects compromising the efficacy of the anti-cancer treatment. The present study investigated the possible protective effects of taurine, an intracellular amino acid, on cisplatin-induced brain injury and exploratory behaviour using five groups of ten female rats each. Group I received drinking water only. Group II orally received taurine alone at 200 mg/kg whereas Group III received cisplatin alone intraperitoneally at 10 mg/kg...
March 20, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563866/the-3-utrs-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-transcripts-differentially-regulate-the-dendritic-arbor
#13
Kate M O'Neill, Katherine E Donohue, Anton Omelchenko, Bonnie L Firestein
The patterning of dendrites is regulated by many factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which our laboratory has previously shown alters the dendritic arbor uniquely depending on the mode of extracellular application. In the current work, we examine how BDNF affects dendritogenesis in hippocampal neurons when it is overexpressed intracellularly by transcripts previously reported to be transported to distinct cellular compartments. The BDNF gene is processed at two different polyadenylation sites, leading to mRNA transcription with two different length 3' untranslated regions (UTRs), and therefore, different mRNA localization preferences...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563183/dendrite-regeneration-of-adult-drosophila-sensory-neurons-diminishes-with-aging-and-is-inhibited-by-epidermal-derived-matrix-metalloproteinase-2
#14
Laura DeVault, Tun Li, Sarah Izabel, Katherine L Thompson-Peer, Lily Yeh Jan, Yuh Nung Jan
Dendrites possess distinct structural and functional properties that enable neurons to receive information from the environment as well as other neurons. Despite their key role in neuronal function, current understanding of the ability of neurons to regenerate dendrites is lacking. This study characterizes the structural and functional capacity for dendrite regeneration in vivo in adult animals and examines the effect of neuronal maturation on dendrite regeneration. We focused on the class IV dendritic arborization (c4da) neuron of the Drosophila sensory system, which has a dendritic arbor that undergoes dramatic remodeling during the first 3 d of adult life and then maintains a relatively stable morphology thereafter...
March 21, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551301/dissecting-the-functional-consequences-of-de-novo-dna-methylation-dynamics-in-human-motor-neuron-differentiation-and-physiology
#15
Michael J Ziller, Juan A Ortega, Katharina A Quinlan, David P Santos, Hongcang Gu, Eric J Martin, Christina Galonska, Ramona Pop, Susanne Maidl, Alba Di Pardo, Mei Huang, Herbert Y Meltzer, Andreas Gnirke, C J Heckman, Alexander Meissner, Evangelos Kiskinis
The somatic DNA methylation (DNAme) landscape is established early in development but remains highly dynamic within focal regions that overlap with gene regulatory elements. The significance of these dynamic changes, particularly in the central nervous system, remains unresolved. Here, we utilize a powerful human embryonic stem cell differentiation model for the generation of motor neurons (MNs) in combination with genetic mutations in the de novo DNAme machinery. We quantitatively dissect the role of DNAme in directing somatic cell fate with high-resolution genome-wide bisulfite-, bulk-, and single-cell-RNA sequencing...
March 14, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542210/corticothalamic-axon-morphologies-and-network-architecture
#16
Kathleen S Rockland
Recent commentaries on the role of the thalamus consider a wide sphere of influence beyond sensory-motor transformation, to include task-relevant cognitive processes. In this short review, I reconsider known anatomic features of corticothalamic connectivity, primarily for macaque monkey, and discuss these as part of an intricate network architecture consistent with multiple connectional re-combinations and a diversity of functional tasks. Drawing mainly on results from single axon analysis for the two broad classes of corticothalamic (CT) connections, I review the strikingly complementary spatial parameters of their extrinsic CT arbors in relation to intrinsic cortical collaterals...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531524/ropinirole-and-pramipexole-promote-structural-plasticity-in-human-ipsc-derived-dopaminergic-neurons-via-bdnf-and-mtor-signaling
#17
Ginetta Collo, Laura Cavalleri, Federica Bono, Cristina Mora, Stefania Fedele, Roberto William Invernizzi, Massimo Gennarelli, Giovanna Piovani, Tilo Kunath, Mark J Millan, Emilio Merlo Pich, PierFranco Spano
The antiparkinsonian ropinirole and pramipexole are D3 receptor- (D3R-) preferring dopaminergic (DA) agonists used as adjunctive therapeutics for the treatment resistant depression (TRD). While the exact antidepressant mechanism of action remains uncertain, a role for D3R in the restoration of impaired neuroplasticity occurring in TRD has been proposed. Since D3R agonists are highly expressed on DA neurons in humans, we studied the effect of ropinirole and pramipexole on structural plasticity using a translational model of human-inducible pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527094/a-discrete-event-simulation-approach-to-identify-rules-that-govern-arbor-remodeling-for-branching-cutaneous-afferents-in-hairy-skin
#18
Hyojung Kang, Rachel L Orlowsky, Gregory J Gerling
In mammals, touch is encoded by sensory receptors embedded in the skin. For one class of receptors in the mouse, the architecture of its Merkel cells, unmyelinated neurites, and heminodes follow particular renewal and remodeling trends over hair cycle stages from ages 4 to 10 weeks. As it is currently impossible to observe such trends across a single animal's hair cycle, this work employs discrete event simulation to identify and evaluate policies of Merkel cell and heminode dynamics. Well matching the observed data, the results show that the baseline model replicates dynamic remodeling behaviors between stages of the hair cycle - based on particular addition and removal polices and estimated probabilities tied to constituent parts of Merkel cells, terminal branch neurites and heminodes...
December 2017: Proceedings of the Winter Simulation Conference
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522720/lhx2-an-evolutionarily-conserved-multifunctional-regulator-of-forebrain-development
#19
REVIEW
Shen-Ju Chou, Shubha Tole
A hundred years after Lhx2 ortholog apterous was identified as a critical regulator of wing development in Drosophila, LIM-HD gene family members have proved to be versatile and powerful components of the molecular machinery that executes the blueprint of embryogenesis across vertebrate and invertebrate species. Here, we focus on the spatio-temporally varied functions of LIM-homeodomain transcription factor LHX2 in the developing mouse forebrain. Right from its earliest known role in telencephalic and eye field patterning, to the control of the neuron-glia cell fate switch, and the regulation of axon pathfinding and dendritic arborization in late embryonic stages, LHX2 has been identified as a fundamental, temporally dynamic, always necessary, and often sufficient factor in a range of critical developmental phenomena...
March 6, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522509/neuronal-gain-modulability-is-determined-by-dendritic-morphology-a-computational-optogenetic-study
#20
Sarah Jarvis, Konstantin Nikolic, Simon R Schultz
The mechanisms by which the gain of the neuronal input-output function may be modulated have been the subject of much investigation. However, little is known of the role of dendrites in neuronal gain control. New optogenetic experimental paradigms based on spatial profiles or patterns of light stimulation offer the prospect of elucidating many aspects of single cell function, including the role of dendrites in gain control. We thus developed a model to investigate how competing excitatory and inhibitory input within the dendritic arbor alters neuronal gain, incorporating kinetic models of opsins into our modeling to ensure it is experimentally testable...
March 9, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
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