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neuron arborization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089852/dopamine-d1-receptor-agonist-treatment-attenuates-extinction-of-morphine-conditioned-place-preference-while-increasing-dendritic-complexity-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core
#1
Kendra L Kobrin, Danielle T Arena, Stephen C Heinrichs, Olivia H Nguyen, Gary B Kaplan
The dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) has a role in opioid reward and conditioned place preference (CPP), but its role in CPP extinction is undetermined. We examined the effect of D1R agonist SKF81297 on the extinction of opioid CPP and associated dendritic morphology in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a region involved with reward integration and its extinction. During the acquisition of morphine CPP, mice received morphine and saline on alternate days; injections were given immediately before each of eight daily conditioning sessions...
January 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081563/interactions-with-astroglia-influence-the-shape-of-the-developing-dendritic-arbor-and-restrict-dendrite-growth-independent-of-promoting-synaptic-contacts
#2
Ginger S Withers, Jennifer R Farley, Jeffrey R Sterritt, Andrés B Crane, Christopher S Wallace
Astroglia play key roles in the development of neurons, ranging from regulating neuron survival to promoting synapse formation, yet basic questions remain about whether astrocytes might be involved in forming the dendritic arbor. Here, we used cultured hippocampal neurons as a simple in vitro model that allowed dendritic growth and geometry to be analyzed quantitatively under conditions where the extent of interactions between neurons and astrocytes varied. When astroglia were proximal to neurons, dendrites and dendritic filopodia oriented toward them, but the general presence of astroglia significantly reduced overall dendrite growth...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069946/wnt5a-is-essential-for-hippocampal-dendritic-maintenance-and-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-adult-mice
#3
Chih-Ming Chen, Lauren L Orefice, Shu-Ling Chiu, Tara A LeGates, Samer Hattar, Richard L Huganir, Haiqing Zhao, Baoji Xu, Rejji Kuruvilla
Stability of neuronal connectivity is critical for brain functions, and morphological perturbations are associated with neurodegenerative disorders. However, how neuronal morphology is maintained in the adult brain remains poorly understood. Here, we identify Wnt5a, a member of the Wnt family of secreted morphogens, as an essential factor in maintaining dendritic architecture in the adult hippocampus and for related cognitive functions in mice. Wnt5a expression in hippocampal neurons begins postnatally, and its deletion attenuated CaMKII and Rac1 activity, reduced GluN1 glutamate receptor expression, and impaired synaptic plasticity and spatial learning and memory in 3-mo-old mice...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046203/visualizing-changes-in-neuronal-dendritic-morphology-in-response-to-stress-and-pharmacological-challenge
#4
Cara L Wellman
This unit outlines a protocol for Golgi staining, which has been used extensively to reliably and quantitatively assess alterations in dendritic arborization and spine density as a result of a variety of factors, including chronic administration of glucocorticoids, chronic stress, and pharmacological manipulations. The method stains neurons in their entirety, allowing for sophisticated analyses of branch lengths and numbers as well as patterns of dendritic branching. Advantages of the technique include its usefulness in multisite collaborations and its utility in visualizing neurons in multiple regions within the same brain...
January 3, 2017: Current Protocols in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035673/somatic-and-neuritic-spines-on-tyrosine-hydroxylase-immunopositive-cells-of-rat-retina
#5
Anna Fasoli, James Dang, Aaron H Gouw, Jeffrey S Johnson, Alex Fogli Iseppe, Andrew T Ishida
Dopamine- and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunopositive cells (TH cells) modulate visually driven signals as they flow through retinal photoreceptor, bipolar, and ganglion cells. Previous studies suggested that TH cells release dopamine from varicose axons arborizing in the inner and outer plexiform layers after glutamatergic synapses depolarize TH cell dendrites in the inner plexiform layer and these depolarizations propagate to the varicosities. Although it has been proposed that these excitatory synapses are formed onto appendages resembling dendritic spines, spines have not been found on TH cells of most species examined to date or on TH cell somata which release dopamine when exposed to glutamate receptor agonists...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033671/visual-experience-dependent-regulation-of-neuronal-structure-and-function-by-histone-deacetylase-1-in-developing-xenopus-tectum-in-vivo
#6
Hangze Ruan, Juanmei Gao, Xianjie Qi, Yi Tao, Xia Guo, Zhaoyi Guo, Lijun Zheng, Yaling Song, Yuan Liao, Wanhua Shen
Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) is thought to play pivotal roles in neurogenesis and neurodegeneration. However, the role of HDAC1 in neuronal growth and structural plasticity in the developing brain in vivo remains unclear. Here, we show that in the optic tectum of Xenopus laevis, HDAC1 knockdown dramatically decreased the frequency of AMPAR-mediated synaptic currents and increased the frequency of GABAAR-mediated currents, whereas HDAC1 overexpression significantly decreased the frequency of GABAAR-mediated synaptic currents...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032119/increased-synaptic-excitation-and-abnormal-dendritic-structure-of-prefrontal-cortex-layer-v-pyramidal-neurons-following-prolonged-binge-like-consumption-of-ethanol
#7
Paul M Klenowski, Matthew J Fogarty, Masroor Shariff, Arnauld Belmer, Mark C Bellingham, Selena E Bartlett
Long-term alcohol use causes a multitude of neurochemical changes in cortical regions that facilitate the transition to dependence. Therefore, we used a model of long-term, binge-like ethanol consumption in rats to determine the effects on morphology and synaptic physiology of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) layer V pyramidal neurons. Following 10 weeks of ethanol consumption, we recorded synaptic currents from mPFC neurons and used neurobiotin filling to analyze their morphology. We then compared these data to measurements obtained from age-matched, water-drinking control rats...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027303/olfactory-sensory-neurons-control-dendritic-complexity-of-mitral-cells-via-notch-signaling
#8
Yuko Muroyama, Atsushi Baba, Motoo Kitagawa, Tetsuichiro Saito
Mitral cells (MCs) of the mammalian olfactory bulb have a single primary dendrite extending into a single glomerulus, where they receive odor information from olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Molecular mechanisms for controlling dendritic arbors of MCs, which dynamically change during development, are largely unknown. Here we found that MCs displayed more complex dendritic morphologies in mouse mutants of Maml1, a crucial gene in Notch signaling. Similar phenotypes were observed by conditionally misexpressing a dominant negative form of MAML1 (dnMAML1) in MCs after their migration...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009273/life-at-low-copy-number-how-dendrites-manage-with-so-few-mrnas
#9
REVIEW
Kenneth S Kosik
Most mammalian dendrites have surprisingly few copy numbers of mRNAs relative to the large number of synapses and consequently, at any given moment, the majority of synapses do not have a repertoire of mRNAs within their immediate locale capable of initiating translation-dependent plasticity. The dimensions of the translationally serviceable locale around synapses have boundary parameters that can be estimated. When a synapse receives an input beyond that boundary, the requisite mRNAs for local translation and plasticity may not be there...
December 21, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007906/igf1-neuronal-response-in-the-absence-of-mecp2-is-dependent-on-tralpha-3
#10
Janaina S de Souza, Cassiano Carromeu, Laila B Torres, Bruno H S Araujo, Fernanda R Cugola, Rui M B Maciel, Alysson R Muotri, Gisele Giannocco
Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder in which the MECP2 (methyl CpG-binding protein 2) gene is mutated. Recent studies showed that RTT-derived neurons have many cellular deficits when compared to control, such as: less synapses, lower dendritic arborization and reduced spine density. Interestingly, treatment of RTT-derived neurons with Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF1) could rescue some of these cellular phenotypes. Given the critical role of IGF1 during neurodevelopment, the present study used human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from RTT and control individuals to investigate the gene expression profile of IGF1 and IGF1R on different developmental stages of differentiation...
December 22, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005311/eltrombopag-a-thrombopoietin-mimetic-crosses-the-blood-brain-barrier-and-impairs-iron-dependent-hippocampal-neuron-dendrite-development
#11
Thomas W Bastian, Kari A Duck, George C Michalopoulos, Michael J Chen, Zhi-Jian Liu, James R Connor, Lorene M Lanier, Martha C Sola-Visner, Michael K Georgieff
BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia is common in sick neonates. Thrombopoietin mimetics (e.g., eltrombopag (ELT)) might provide an alternative therapy for selected neonates with severe and prolonged thrombocytopenia, and for infants and young children with different varieties of thrombocytopenia. However, ELT chelates intracellular iron, which may adversely affect developing organs with high metabolic requirements. Iron deficiency (ID) is particularly deleterious during brain development, impairing neuronal myelination, dopamine signaling, and dendritic maturation and ultimately impairing long-term neurological function (e...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003438/bde-47-and-bde-49-inhibit-axonal-growth-in-primary-rat-hippocampal-neuron-glia-co-cultures-via-ryanodine-receptor-dependent-mechanisms
#12
Hao Chen, Karin M Streifel, Vikrant Singh, Dongren Yang, Linley Mangini, Heike Wulff, Pamela J Lein
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widespread environmental contaminants associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in children and preclinical models; however, the mechanisms by which PBDEs cause developmental neurotoxicity remain speculative. The structural similarity between PBDEs and non-dioxin-like (NDL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) suggests shared toxicological properties. Consistent with this, both NDL PCBs and PBDEs have been shown to stabilize ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in the open configuration...
December 20, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003347/olfactory-bulb-deep-short-axon-cells-mediate-widespread-inhibition-of-tufted-cell-apical-dendrites
#13
Shawn D Burton, Greg LaRocca, Annie Liu, Claire E J Cheetham, Nathaniel N Urban
: In the main olfactory bulb (MOB), the first station of sensory processing in the olfactory system, GABAergic interneuron signaling shapes principal neuron activity to regulate olfaction. Lack of known selective markers for MOB interneurons has strongly impeded cell type-selective investigation of interneuron function, however. Here, we identify the first selective marker of glomerular layer-projecting deep short-axon cells (GL-dSACs) and systematically investigate the structure, abundance, intrinsic physiology, feedforward sensory input, neuromodulation, synaptic output, and functional role of GL-dSACs in the mouse MOB circuit...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999124/activity-independent-effects-of-creb-on-neuronal-survival-and-differentiation-during-mouse-cerebral-cortex-development
#14
Bruna Soares Landeira, Themis Taynah da Silva Santana, Jéssica Alves de Medeiros Araújo, Elie I Tabet, Bakhos A Tannous, Timm Schroeder, Marcos R Costa
Neuronal survival and morphological maturation depends on the action of the transcription factor calcium responsive element binding protein (CREB), which regulates expression of several target genes in an activity-dependent manner. However, it remains largely unknown whether CREB-mediated transcription could play a role at early stages of neuronal differentiation, prior to the establishment of functional synaptic contacts. Here, we show that CREB is phosphorylated at very early stages of neuronal differentiation in vivo and in vitro, even in the absence of depolarizing agents...
December 19, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997986/anatomy-and-spatial-organization-of-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-in-mouse-retina
#15
Jingjing Wang, Matthew L O'Sullivan, Dibyendu Mukherjee, Vanessa M Puñal, Sina Farsiu, Jeremy N Kay
Müller glia, the most abundant glia of vertebrate retina, have an elaborate morphology characterized by a vertical stalk that spans the retina and branches in each retinal layer. Müller glia play diverse, critical roles in retinal homeostasis, which are presumably enabled by their complex anatomy. However, much remains unknown, particularly in mouse, about the anatomical arrangement of Müller cells and their arbors, and how these features arise in development. Here we use membrane-targeted fluorescent proteins to reveal the fine structure of mouse Müller arbors...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997694/spatial-patterning-of-excitatory-and-inhibitory-neuropil-territories-during-spinal-circuit-development
#16
Qing Yan, Lu Zhai, Bo Zhang, Julia E Dallman
To generate rhythmic motor behaviors, both single neurons and neural circuits require a balance between excitatory inputs that trigger action potentials and inhibitory inputs that promote a stable resting potential (E/I balance). Previous studies have focused on individual neurons and have shown that, over a short spatial scale, excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) synapses tend to form structured territories with inhibitory inputs enriched on cell bodies and proximal dendrites and excitatory inputs on distal dendrites...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979975/tlr3-downregulates-expression-of-schizophrenia-gene-disc1-via-myd88-to-control-neuronal-morphology
#17
Chiung-Ya Chen, Hsin-Yu Liu, Yi-Ping Hsueh
Viral infection during fetal or neonatal stages increases the risk of developing neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. Although neurons express several key regulators of innate immunity, the role of neuronal innate immunity in psychiatric disorders is still unclear. Using cultured neurons and in vivo mouse brain studies, we show here that Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) acts through myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MYD88) to negatively control Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (Disc1) expression, resulting in impairment of neuronal development...
January 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977132/mk-801-dizocilpine-regulates-multiple-steps-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-alters-psychological-symptoms-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-parkinsonian-rats
#18
Sonu Singh, Akanksha Mishra, Neha Srivastava, Shubha Shukla
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is directly involved in regulation of stress, anxiety, and depression that are commonly observed nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). These symptoms do not respond to pharmacological dopamine replacement therapy. Excitotoxic damage to neuronal cells by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation is also a major contributing factor in PD development, but whether it regulates hippocampal neurogenesis and nonmotor symptoms in PD is yet unexplored. Herein, for the first time, we studied the effect of MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist, on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and behavioral functions in 6-OHDA (6-hydroxydopamine) induced rat model of PD...
December 15, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956032/alterations-in-hypoglossal-motor-neurons-due-to-gad67-and-vgat-deficiency-in-mice
#19
Matthew J Fogarty, Refik Kanjhan, Yuchio Yanagawa, Peter G Noakes, Mark C Bellingham
There is an emerging body of evidence that glycinergic and GABAergic synaptic inputs onto motor neurons (MNs) help regulate the final number of MNs and axonal muscle innervation patterns. Using mutant glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VGAT) deficient mice, we describe the effect that deficiencies of presynaptic GABAergic and/or glycinergic release have on the post-synaptic somato-dendritic structure of motor neurons, and the development of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to MNs...
December 10, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940019/the-habenula-as-a-critical-node-in-chronic-stress-related-anxiety
#20
Luis R Jacinto, Rui Mata, Ashley Novais, Fernanda Marques, Nuno Sousa
The habenula is activated in response to stressful and aversive events, resulting in exploratory inhibition. Although possible mechanisms for habenula activation have been proposed, the effects of chronic stress on the habenular structure have never been studied. Herein, we assessed changes in volume, cell density and dendritic structure of habenular cells after chronic stress exposure using stereological and 3D morphological analysis. This study shows for the first time that there is a hemispherical asymmetry in the medial habenula (MHb) of the adult rat, with the right MHb containing more neurons than its left counterpart...
December 7, 2016: Experimental Neurology
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