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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820910/impaired-dendritic-growth-and-positioning-of-cortical-pyramidal-neurons-by-activation-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-signaling-in-the-developing-mouse
#1
Eiki Kimura, Ken-Ichiro Kubo, Toshihiro Endo, Wenting Ling, Kazunori Nakajima, Masaki Kakeyama, Chiharu Tohyama
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors exert multiple functions in mammalian cerebral cortex development. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a member of the bHLH-Per-Arnt-Sim subfamily, is a ligand-activated transcription factor reported to regulate nervous system development in both invertebrates and vertebrates, but the functions that AhR signaling pathway may have for mammalian cerebral cortex development remains elusive. Although the endogenous ligand involved in brain developmental process has not been identified, the environmental pollutant dioxin potently binds AhR and induces abnormalities in higher brain function of laboratory animals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820892/maternal-autoimmune-antibodies-alter-the-dendritic-arbor-and-spine-numbers-in-the-infragranular-layers-of-the-cortex
#2
Jeanelle Ariza, Jesus Hurtado, Haille Rogers, Raymond Ikeda, Michael Dill, Craig Steward, Donnay Creary, Judy Van de Water, Verónica Martínez-Cerdeño
An association between maternal IgG antibodies reactive against proteins in fetal brain and an outcome of autism in the child has been identified. Using a mouse model of prenatal intraventricular administration of autism-specific maternal IgG, we demonstrated that these antibodies produce behavioral alterations similar to those in children with ASD. We previously demonstrated that these antibodies bind to radial glial stem cells (RG) and observed an increase in the number of divisions of translocating RG in the developing cortex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814778/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-sex-differences-in-the-dendritic-morphology-of-developing-murine-hippocampal-and-cortical-neurons
#3
Kimberly P Keil, Sunjay Sethi, Machelle D Wilson, Hao Chen, Pamela J Lein
Altered dendritic morphology is common in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), many of which show sex biases in prevalence, onset and/or severity. However, whether dendritic morphology varies as a function of sex in juvenile mice or primary neuronal cell cultures is largely unknown even though both are widely used models for studying NDDs. To address this gap, we quantified dendritic morphology in CA1 pyramidal hippocampal and adjacent somatosensory pyramidal cortical neurons from male and female postnatal day (P)28 C57BL/6J mice...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813843/addition-of-forelimb-training-reduces-gains-from-robotic-gait-training-in-a-rat-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Nathan D Neckel, Haining Dai, Olga C Rodriguez
To restore locomotor function following spinal cord injury the disrupted descending supraspinal drive needs to be re-connected to regions caudal to the injury. Robotic gait training aims to facilitate recovery by stimulating the proprioceptive networks of the legs in a coordinated walking pattern while the descending supraspinal connections are re-established. In incomplete injuries, it is believed that the interneuronal networks near the injury site form relay circuits to reroute the supraspinal signals through the spared tissue...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813474/binge-like-sucrose-consumption-reduces-the-dendritic-length-and-complexity-of-principal-neurons-in-the-adolescent-rat-basolateral-amygdala
#5
Masroor Shariff, Paul Klenowski, Michael Morgan, Omkar Patkar, Erica Mu, Mark Bellingham, Arnauld Belmer, Selena E Bartlett
A compelling body of evidence suggests that the worldwide obesity epidemic is underpinned by excessive sugar consumption, typified by the modern western diet. Furthermore, evidence is beginning to emerge of maladaptive changes in the mesolimbic reward pathway of the brain in relation to excess sugar consumption that highlights the importance of examining this neural circuitry in an attempt to understand and subsequently mitigate the associated morbidities with obesity. While the basolateral amygdala (BLA) has been shown to mediate the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, it has also been shown to play an important role in affective and motivated behaviours and has been shown to undergo maladaptive changes in response to drugs of abuse and stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803923/stress-induced-neural-reorganization-a-conceptual-framework-linking-depression-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Jennifer A Ross, Gediminas Gliebus, Elisabeth J Van Bockstaele
Chronic stress is a risk factor for a number of physiological disorders including cardiovascular disease, obesity and gastrointestinal disorders, as well as psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. There are a number of underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms altered in the course of chronic stress, which may increase the vulnerability of individuals to develop psychiatric disorders such as depression, and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). This is evident in the influence of stress on large-scale brain networks, including the resting state Default Mode Network (DMN), the effects of stress on neuronal circuitry and architecture, and the cellular and molecular adaptations to stress, which may render individuals with stress related psychiatric disorders more vulnerable to neurodegenerative disease later in life...
August 10, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803920/open-chromatin-profiling-in-hipsc-derived-neurons-prioritizes-functional-noncoding-psychiatric-risk-variants-and-highlights-neurodevelopmental-loci
#7
Marc P Forrest, Hanwen Zhang, Winton Moy, Heather McGowan, Catherine Leites, Leonardo E Dionisio, Zihui Xu, Jianxin Shi, Alan R Sanders, William J Greenleaf, Chad A Cowan, Zhiping P Pang, Pablo V Gejman, Peter Penzes, Jubao Duan
Most disease variants lie within noncoding genomic regions, making their functional interpretation challenging. Because chromatin openness strongly influences transcriptional activity, we hypothesized that cell-type-specific open chromatin regions (OCRs) might highlight disease-relevant noncoding sequences. To investigate, we mapped global OCRs in neurons differentiating from hiPSCs, a cellular model for studying neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia (SZ). We found that the OCRs are highly dynamic and can stratify GWAS-implicated SZ risk variants...
August 4, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803873/neural-circuitry-that-evokes-escape-behavior-upon-activation-of-nociceptive-sensory-neurons-in-drosophila-larvae
#8
Jiro Yoshino, Rei K Morikawa, Eri Hasegawa, Kazuo Emoto
Noxious stimuli trigger a stereotyped escape response in animals. In Drosophila larvae, class IV dendrite arborization (C4 da) sensory neurons in the peripheral nervous system are responsible for perception of multiple nociceptive modalities, including noxious heat and harsh mechanical stimulation, through distinct receptors [1-9]. Silencing or ablation of C4 da neurons largely eliminates larval responses to noxious stimuli [10-12], whereas optogenetic activation of C4 da neurons is sufficient to provoke corkscrew-like rolling behavior similar to what is observed when larvae receive noxious stimuli, such as high temperature or harsh mechanical stimulation [10-12]...
August 21, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790895/brain-metal-distribution-and-neuro-inflammatory-profiles-after-chronic-vanadium-administration-and-withdrawal-in-mice
#9
Oluwabusayo R Folarin, Amanda M Snyder, Douglas G Peters, Funmilayo Olopade, James R Connor, James O Olopade
Vanadium is a potentially toxic environmental pollutant and induces oxidative damage in biological systems including the central nervous system (CNS). Its deposition in brain tissue may be involved in the pathogenesis of certain neurological disorders which after prolonged exposure can culminate into more severe pathology. Most studies on vanadium neurotoxicity have been done after acute exposure but in reality some populations are exposed for a lifetime. This work was designed to ascertain neurodegenerative consequences of chronic vanadium administration and to investigate the progressive changes in the brain after withdrawal from vanadium treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781169/satb1-regulates-contactin-5-to-pattern-dendrites-of-a-mammalian-retinal-ganglion-cell
#10
Yi-Rong Peng, Nicholas M Tran, Arjun Krishnaswamy, Dimitar Kostadinov, Emily M Martersteck, Joshua R Sanes
The size and shape of dendritic arbors are prime determinants of neuronal connectivity and function. We asked how ON-OFF direction-selective ganglion cells (ooDSGCs) in mouse retina acquire their bistratified dendrites, in which responses to light onset and light offset are segregated to distinct strata. We found that the transcriptional regulator Satb1 is selectively expressed by ooDSGCs. In Satb1 mutant mice, ooDSGC dendrites lack ON arbors, and the cells selectively lose ON responses. Satb1 regulates expression of a homophilic adhesion molecule, Contactin 5 (Cntn5)...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769796/s-47445-produces-antidepressant-and-anxiolytic-like-effects-through-neurogenesis-dependent-and-independent-mechanisms
#11
Indira Mendez-David, Jean-Philippe Guilloux, Mariusz Papp, Laurent Tritschler, Elisabeth Mocaer, Alain M Gardier, Sylvie Bretin, Denis J David
Glutamatergic dysfunctions are observed in the pathophysiology of depression. The glutamatergic synapse as well as the AMPA receptor's (AMPAR) activation may represent new potential targets for therapeutic intervention in the context of major depressive disorders. S 47445 is a novel AMPARs positive allosteric modulator (AMPA-PAM) possessing procognitive, neurotrophic properties and enhancing synaptic plasticity. Here, we investigated the antidepressant/anxiolytic-like effects of S 47445 in a mouse model of anxiety/depression based on chronic corticosterone administration (CORT) and in the Chronic Mild Stress (CMS) model in rats...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764650/immunocytochemistry-and-fluorescence-imaging-efficiently-identify-individual-neurons-with-crispr-cas9-mediated-gene-disruption-in-primary-cortical-cultures
#12
Hiroto Tsunematsu, Akiko Uyeda, Nobuhiko Yamamoto, Noriyuki Sugo
BACKGROUND: CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful method to investigate the role of genes by introducing a mutation selectively and efficiently to specific genome positions in cell and animal lines. However, in primary neuron cultures, this method is affected by the issue that the effectiveness of CRISPR/Cas9 is different in each neuron. Here, we report an easy, quick and reliable method to identify mutants induced by the CRISPR/Cas9 system at a single neuron level, using immunocytochemistry (ICC) and fluorescence imaging...
August 1, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761413/curcuma-longa-l-extract-improves-the-cortical-neural-connectivity-during-the-aging-process
#13
REVIEW
Gonzalo Flores
Turmeric or Curcuma is a natural product that has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic pharmacological properties. It can be used in the control of the aging process that involves oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Aging is a physiological process that affects higher cortical and cognitive functions with a reduction in learning and memory, limited judgment and deficits in emotional control and social behavior. Moreover, aging is a major risk factor for the appearance of several disorders such as cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760865/dystroglycan-maintains-inner-limiting-membrane-integrity-to-coordinate-retinal-development
#14
Reena Clements, Rolf Turk, Kevin P Campbell, Kevin M Wright
Proper neural circuit formation requires the precise regulation of neuronal migration, axon guidance and dendritic arborization. Mutations affecting the function of the transmembrane glycoprotein dystroglycan cause a form of congenital muscular dystrophy that is frequently associated with neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Despite its importance in brain development, the role for dystroglycan in regulating retinal development remains poorly understood. Using a mouse model of dystroglycanopathy (ISPD(L79*) ) and conditional dystroglycan mutants of both sexes, we show that dystroglycan is critical for the proper migration, axon guidance and dendritic stratification of neurons in the inner retina...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756270/neuronal-territory-formation-by-the-atypical-cadherins-and-clustered-protocadherins
#15
REVIEW
Julie L Lefebvre
Spatial patterns of neuronal connectivity are critical for neural circuit function and information processing. For many neuron types, the development of stereotyped dendritic and axonal territories involves reiterative contacts between neurites and successive re-calibration of branch outgrowth and directionality. Here I review emerging roles for members of the atypical cadherins (Fmi/Celsrs) and the clustered Protocadherins (Pcdhs) in neurite patterning. These cell-surface molecules have shared functions: they engage in homophilic recognition and mediate dynamic and contact-dependent interactions to establish reproducible and space-filling arborization patterns...
July 26, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742076/altered-neurite-morphology-and-cholinergic-function-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neurons-from-a-patient-with-kleefstra-syndrome-and-autism
#16
J Nagy, J Kobolák, S Berzsenyi, Z Ábrahám, H X Avci, I Bock, Z Bekes, B Hodoscsek, A Chandrasekaran, A Téglási, P Dezső, B Koványi, E T Vörös, L Fodor, T Szél, K Németh, A Balázs, A Dinnyés, B Lendvai, G Lévay, V Román
The aim of the present study was to establish an in vitro Kleefstra syndrome (KS) disease model using the human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology. Previously, an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patient with Kleefstra syndrome (KS-ASD) carrying a deleterious premature termination codon mutation in the EHMT1 gene was identified. Patient specific hiPSCs generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the KS-ASD patient were differentiated into post-mitotic cortical neurons. Lower levels of EHMT1 mRNA as well as protein expression were confirmed in these cells...
July 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740141/an-optogenetic-toolbox-for-unbiased-discovery-of-functionally-connected-cells-in-neural-circuits
#17
Dominique Förster, Marco Dal Maschio, Eva Laurell, Herwig Baier
Optical imaging approaches have revolutionized our ability to monitor neural network dynamics, but by themselves are unable to link a neuron's activity to its functional connectivity. We present a versatile genetic toolbox, termed 'Optobow', for all-optical discovery of excitatory connections in vivo. By combining the Gal4-UAS system with Cre/lox recombination, we target the optogenetic actuator ChrimsonR and the sensor GCaMP6 to stochastically labeled, nonoverlapping and sparse subsets of neurons. Photostimulation of single cells using two-photon computer-generated holography evokes calcium responses in downstream neurons...
July 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740074/cdkl5-localizes-at-the-centrosome-and-midbody-and-is-required-for-faithful-cell-division
#18
Isabella Barbiero, Davide Valente, Chetan Chandola, Fiorenza Magi, Anna Bergo, Laura Monteonofrio, Marco Tramarin, Maria Fazzari, Silvia Soddu, Nicoletta Landsberger, Cinzia Rinaldo, Charlotte Kilstrup-Nielsen
The cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene has been associated with rare neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by the early onset of seizures and intellectual disability. The CDKL5 protein is widely expressed in most tissues and cells with both nuclear and cytoplasmic localization. In post-mitotic neurons CDKL5 is mainly involved in dendritic arborization, axon outgrowth, and spine formation while in proliferating cells its function is still largely unknown. Here, we report that CDKL5 localizes at the centrosome and at the midbody in proliferating cells...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735442/mechanisms-regulating-dendritic-arbor-patterning
#19
REVIEW
Fernanda Ledda, Gustavo Paratcha
The nervous system is populated by diverse types of neurons, each of which has dendritic trees with strikingly different morphologies. These neuron-specific morphologies determine how dendritic trees integrate thousands of synaptic inputs to generate different firing properties. To ensure proper neuronal function and connectivity, it is necessary that dendrite patterns are precisely controlled and coordinated with synaptic activity. Here, we summarize the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the formation of cell type-specific dendrite patterns during development...
July 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706281/thiamine-metabolism-is-critical-for-regulating-correlated-growth-of-dendrite-arbors-and-neuronal-somata
#20
Huimin Liu, Shaoming Sang, Yuan Lu, Zhongfeng Wang, Xiang Yu, Chunjiu Zhong
Thiamine is critical for cellular function, as its phosphorylated and active form, thiamine diphosphate (TDP), acts as coenzyme for three key enzymes in glucose metabolism. Mutations in thiamine transporter, TDP synthesizing enzyme or carrier, including solute carrier family 19 member 3 (SLC19A3), thiamine pyrophosphokinase (TPK1) and solute carrier family 25 member 19 (SLC25A19), have been associated with developmental neurological disorders, including microcephaly and Leigh syndrome. However, little is known about how thiamine metabolism regulates neuronal morphology at the cellular level...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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