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neuron arborization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324222/bdnf-mrna-splice-variants-differentially-impact-ca1-and-ca3-dendrite-complexity-and-spine-morphology-in-the-hippocampus
#1
Kristen R Maynard, John W Hobbs, Mahima Sukumar, Alisha S Kardian, Dennisse V Jimenez, Robert J Schloesser, Keri Martinowich
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an activity-dependent neurotrophin critical for neuronal plasticity in the hippocampus. BDNF is encoded by multiple transcripts with alternative 5' untranslated regions (5'UTRS) that display activity-induced targeting to distinct subcellular compartments. While individual Bdnf 5'UTR transcripts influence dendrite morphology in cultured hippocampal neurons, it is unknown whether Bdnf splice variants impact dendrite arborization in functional classes of neurons in the intact hippocampus...
March 21, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297673/%C3%AE-protocadherins-interact-with-neuroligin-1-and-negatively-regulate-dendritic-spine-morphogenesis
#2
Michael J Molumby, Rachel M Anderson, Dillan J Newbold, Norah K Koblesky, Andrew M Garrett, Dietmar Schreiner, Jason J Radley, Joshua A Weiner
The 22 γ-Protocadherin (γ-Pcdh) cell adhesion molecules are critical for the elaboration of complex dendritic arbors in the cerebral cortex. Here, we provide evidence that the γ-Pcdhs negatively regulate synapse development by inhibiting the postsynaptic cell adhesion molecule, neuroligin-1 (Nlg1). Mice lacking all γ-Pcdhs in the forebrain exhibit significantly increased dendritic spine density in vivo, while spine density is significantly decreased in mice overexpressing one of the 22 γ-Pcdh isoforms...
March 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291258/adult-hippocampal-neuroplasticity-triggers-susceptibility-to-recurrent-depression
#3
N D Alves, J S Correia, P Patrício, A Mateus-Pinheiro, A R Machado-Santos, E Loureiro-Campos, M Morais, J M Bessa, N Sousa, L Pinto
Depression is a highly prevalent and recurrent neuropsychiatric disorder associated with alterations in emotional and cognitive domains. Neuroplastic phenomena are increasingly considered central to the etiopathogenesis of and recovery from depression. Nevertheless, a high number of remitted patients experience recurrent episodes of depression, remaining unclear how previous episodes impact on behavior and neuroplasticity and/or whether modulation of neuroplasticity is important to prevent recurrent depression...
March 14, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287546/large-scale-reconstructions-and-independent-unbiased-clustering-based-on-morphological-metrics-to-classify-neurons-in-selective-populations
#4
Elise M Bragg, Farran Briggs
This protocol outlines large-scale reconstructions of neurons combined with the use of independent and unbiased clustering analyses to create a comprehensive survey of the morphological characteristics observed among a selective neuronal population. Combination of these techniques constitutes a novel approach for the collection and analysis of neuroanatomical data. Together, these techniques enable large-scale, and therefore more comprehensive, sampling of selective neuronal populations and establish unbiased quantitative methods for describing morphologically unique neuronal classes within a population...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283540/extrinsic-repair-of-injured-dendrites-as-a-paradigm-for-regeneration-by-fusion-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#5
Meital Oren-Suissa, Tamar Gattegno, Veronika Kravtsov, Benjamin Podbilewicz
Injury triggers regeneration of axons and dendrites. Research identified factors required for axonal regeneration outside the CNS, but little is known about regeneration triggered by dendrotomy. Here we study neuronal plasticity triggered by dendrotomy and determine the fate of complex PVD arbors following laser surgery of dendrites. We find that severed primary dendrites grow towards each other and reconnect via branch fusion. Simultaneously, terminal branches lose self-avoidance and grow towards each other, meeting and fusing at the tips via an AFF-1-mediated process...
March 10, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279707/centella-asiatica-attenuates-a%C3%AE-induced-neurodegenerative-spine-loss-and-dendritic-simplification
#6
Nora E Gray, Jonathan A Zweig, Charles Murchison, Maya Caruso, Donald G Matthews, Colleen Kawamoto, Christopher J Harris, Joseph F Quinn, Amala Soumyanath
The medicinal plant Centella asiatica has long been used to improve memory and cognitive function. We have previously shown that a water extract from the plant (CAW) is neuroprotective against the deleterious cognitive effects of amyloid-β (Aβ) exposure in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, and improves learning and memory in healthy aged mice as well. This study explores the physiological underpinnings of those effects by examining how CAW, as well as chemical compounds found within the extract, modulate synaptic health in Aβ-exposed neurons...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269651/neuromorphic-circuit-modeling-directional-selectivity-in-the-visual-cortex
#7
Saeid Barzegarjalali, Alice C Parker
We have designed a neuromorphic circuit that models directional selectivity in the visual cortex, where selected neurons fire depending on the direction of object motion, along with the size and orientation of the object. The neuromorphic circuit is biomimetic. It consists of neurons and synapses, and models biological mechanisms. Neurons (including the Axon Hillock and the Dendritic Arbor) are designed with CMOS technology and synapses (both excitatory and inhibitory) are designed with Carbon Nanotube Transistors...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267433/hemi-ovariectomies-promote-a-decrease-in-the-dendritic-lengths-of-ca1-and-ca3-neurons-a-dimorphic-effect-of-the-cerebral-hemispheres
#8
Dolores Adriana Bravo Durán, Adriana Berenice Silva Gómez, Ana Coral Gutiérrez Rosas, Angélica Trujillo
Certain structures of the central nervous system (CNS) are morphologically and functionally related to the ovaries. Ovariectomy has been used to study the functional role of the ovaries in the CNS, as well as the role of the CNS on the reproductive system. In the present study, the effects of left and right hemi-ovariectomy on the morphology of pyramidal neurons from the CA1 and CA3 regions of the ventral hippocampus were studied. During the estrus phase, female Long-Evans rats underwent either left and right hemi-ovariectomies or left and right sham surgeries...
March 3, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266018/cell-type-dependent-axonal-localization-of-translational-regulators-and-mrna-in-mouse-peripheral-olfactory-neurons
#9
Lulu I T Korsak, Katherine A Shepard, Michael R Akins
Local protein synthesis in mature axons may play a role in synaptic plasticity, axonal arborization, or functional diversity of the circuit. To gain insight into this question, we investigated the axonal localization of translational regulators and associated mRNAs in five parallel olfactory circuits, four in the main olfactory bulb and one in the accessory olfactory bulb. Axons in all four main olfactory bulb circuits exhibited axonal localization of Fragile X granules (FXGs), structures that comprise ribosomes, mRNA, and RNA binding proteins including the Fragile X protein FMRP (Fragile X mental retardation protein) and the related protein FXR2P...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264928/inhibition-of-coactivator-associated-arginine-methyltransferase-1-modulates-dendritic-arborization-and-spine-maturation-of-cultured-hippocampal-neurons
#10
Chol Seung Lim, Daniel L Alkon
An improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms in synapse formation provides insight into both learning and memory and the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders. Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) is a protein methyltransferase that negatively regulates synaptic gene expression and inhibits neuronal differentiation. Despite its regulatory function in neurons, little is known about CARM1's cellular location and its role in dendritic maturation and synapse formation. Here, we examined the effects of CARM1 inhibition on dendritic spine and synapse morphology in the rat hippocampus...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262759/role-of-a-circadian-relevant-gene-nr1d1-in-brain-development-possible-involvement-in-the-pathophysiology-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
Masahide Goto, Makoto Mizuno, Ayumi Matsumoto, Zhiliang Yang, Eriko F Jimbo, Hidenori Tabata, Takanori Yamagata, Koh-Ichi Nagata
In our previous study, we screened autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients with and without sleep disorders for mutations in the coding regions of circadian-relevant genes, and detected mutations in several clock genes including NR1D1. Here, we further screened ASD patients for NR1D1 mutations and identified three novel mutations including a de novo heterozygous one c.1499 G > A (p.R500H). We then analyzed the role of Nr1d1 in the development of the cerebral cortex in mice. Acute knockdown of mouse Nr1d1 with in utero electroporation caused abnormal positioning of cortical neurons during corticogenesis...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256936/proteomic-analysis-of-the-neurotrophic-effect-of-gelidium-amansii-in-primary-cultured-neurons
#12
Md Abdul Hannan, Md Mohibbullah, Yong-Ki Hong, Il Soo Moon
Gelidium amansii is an edible and economically important red alga consumed in South Eastern Asia. In previous studies, we reported that the ethanol extracts of G. amansii (GAE) has promising modulatory activity with respect to the morphological and functional maturation of hippocampal neurons in culture. In this study, we show that the chloroform (CHCl3) subfraction of GAE and the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction dose-dependently promoted neurite outgrowth, and their effects were comparable with that of GAE. We further assessed in cultured cortical neurons, proteins differentially expressed in the presence/absence of the GAE, CHCl3 subfraction, and the EtOAc fraction by 2D-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
March 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254942/layer-specific-modulation-of-neocortical-dendritic-inhibition-during-active-wakefulness
#13
William Muñoz, Robin Tremblay, Daniel Levenstein, Bernardo Rudy
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic inputs are strategically positioned to gate synaptic integration along the dendritic arbor of pyramidal cells. However, their spatiotemporal dynamics during behavior are poorly understood. Using an optical-tagging electrophysiological approach to record and label somatostatin-expressing (Sst) interneurons (GABAergic neurons specialized for dendritic inhibition), we discovered a layer-specific modulation of their activity in behaving mice. Sst interneuron subtypes, residing in different cortical layers and innervating complementary laminar domains, exhibited opposite activity changes during transitions to active wakefulness...
March 3, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239515/reduced-interneuronal-dendritic-arborization-in-ca1-but-not-in-ca3-region-of-mice-subjected-to-chronic-mild-stress
#14
Javier Gilabert-Juan, Clara Bueno-Fernandez, Esther Castillo-Gomez, Juan Nacher
INTRODUCTION: Chronic stress induces dendritic atrophy and decreases spine density in excitatory hippocampal neurons, although there is also ample evidence indicating that the GABAergic system is altered in the hippocampus after this aversive experience. Chronic stress causes dendritic remodeling both in excitatory neurons and interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex and the amygdala. METHODS: In order to know whether it also has an impact on the structure and neurotransmission of hippocampal interneurons, we have analyzed the dendritic arborization, spine density, and the expression of markers of inhibitory synapses and plasticity in the hippocampus of mice submitted to 21 days of mild restrain stress...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227909/neuromorphic-circuit-modeling-directional-selectivity-in-the-visual-cortex
#15
Saeid Barzegarjalali, Alice C Parker, Saeid Barzegarjalali, Alice C Parker, Alice C Parker, Saeid Barzegarjalali
We have designed a neuromorphic circuit that models directional selectivity in the visual cortex, where selected neurons fire depending on the direction of object motion, along with the size and orientation of the object. The neuromorphic circuit is biomimetic. It consists of neurons and synapses, and models biological mechanisms. Neurons (including the Axon Hillock and the Dendritic Arbor) are designed with CMOS technology and synapses (both excitatory and inhibitory) are designed with Carbon Nanotube Transistors...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209776/distance-dependent-gradient-in-nmdar-driven-spine-calcium-signals-along-tapering-dendrites
#16
Alison S Walker, Guilherme Neves, Federico Grillo, Rachel E Jackson, Mark Rigby, Cian O'Donnell, Andrew S Lowe, Gema Vizcay-Barrena, Roland A Fleck, Juan Burrone
Neurons receive a multitude of synaptic inputs along their dendritic arbor, but how this highly heterogeneous population of synaptic compartments is spatially organized remains unclear. By measuring N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR)-driven calcium responses in single spines, we provide a spatial map of synaptic calcium signals along dendritic arbors of hippocampal neurons and relate this to measures of synapse structure. We find that quantal NMDAR calcium signals increase in amplitude as they approach a thinning dendritic tip end...
March 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209644/mitochondrial-dysfunction-induces-dendritic-loss-via-eif2%C3%AE-phosphorylation
#17
Taiichi Tsuyama, Asako Tsubouchi, Tadao Usui, Hiromi Imamura, Tadashi Uemura
Mitochondria are key contributors to the etiology of diseases associated with neuromuscular defects or neurodegeneration. How changes in cellular metabolism specifically impact neuronal intracellular processes and cause neuropathological events is still unclear. We here dissect the molecular mechanism by which mitochondrial dysfunction induced by Prel aberrant function mediates selective dendritic loss in Drosophila melanogaster class IV dendritic arborization neurons. Using in vivo ATP imaging, we found that neuronal cellular ATP levels during development are not correlated with the progression of dendritic loss...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209589/second-generation-drosophila-chemical-tags-sensitivity-versatility-and-speed
#18
Ben Sutcliffe, Julian Ng, Thomas O Auer, Mathias Pasche, Richard Benton, Gregory S X E Jefferis, Sebastian Cachero
Labeling and visualizing cells and subcellular structures within thick tissues, whole organs and even intact animals is key to studying biological processes. This is particularly true for studies of neural circuits where neurons form submicron synapses but have arbors that may span millimeters in length. Traditionally, labeling is achieved by immunofluorescence; however diffusion of antibody molecules (>100 kDa) is slow and often results in uneven labeling with very poor penetration into the centre of thick specimens; these limitations can be partially addressed by extending staining protocols to over a week (Drosophila brain) and months (mice)...
February 16, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205531/wnt5a-is-a-crucial-regulator-of-neurogenesis-during-cerebellum-development
#19
Chandramohan Subashini, Sivadasan Bindu Dhanesh, Chih-Ming Chen, Paul Ann Riya, Vadakkath Meera, Thulasi Sheela Divya, Rejji Kuruvilla, Kerstin Buttler, Jackson James
The role of Wnt5a has been extensively explored in various aspects of development but its role in cerebellar development remains elusive. Here, for the first time we unravel the expression pattern and functional significance of Wnt5a in cerebellar development using Wnt5a(-/-) and Nestin-Cre mediated conditional knockout mouse models. We demonstrate that loss of Wnt5a results in cerebellar hypoplasia and depletion of GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. Besides, Purkinje cells of the mutants displayed stunted, poorly branched dendritic arbors...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190643/left-habenula-mediates-light-preference-behavior-in-zebrafish-via-an-asymmetrical-visual-pathway
#20
Bai-Bing Zhang, Yuan-Yuan Yao, He-Fei Zhang, Koichi Kawakami, Jiu-Lin Du
Habenula (Hb) plays critical roles in emotion-related behaviors through integrating inputs mainly from the limbic system and basal ganglia. However, Hb also receives inputs from multiple sensory modalities. The function and underlying neural circuit of Hb sensory inputs remain unknown. Using larval zebrafish, we found that left dorsal Hb (dHb, a homolog of mammalian medial Hb) mediates light-preference behavior by receiving visual inputs from a specific subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) through eminentia thalami (EmT)...
February 22, 2017: Neuron
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