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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458193/attenuation-of-neuro-inflammation-improves-survival-and-neurodegeneration-in-a-mouse-model-of-severe-neonatal-hyperbilirubinemia
#1
Simone Vodret, Giulia Bortolussi, Alessandra Iaconcig, Elena Martinelli, Claudio Tiribelli, Andrés F Muro
All pre-term newborns and a high proportion of term newborns develop neonatal jaundice. Neonatal jaundice is usually a benign condition and self-resolves within few days after birth. However, a combination of unfavorable complications may lead to acute hyperbilirubinemia. Excessive hyperbilirubinemia may be toxic for the developing nervous system leading to severe neurological damage and death by kernicterus. Survivors show irreversible neurological deficits such as motor, sensitive and cognitive abnormalities...
February 16, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454834/functional-implications-of-inhibitory-synapse-placement-on-signal-processing-in-pyramidal-neuron-dendrites
#2
REVIEW
Josiah R Boivin, Elly Nedivi
A rich literature describes inhibitory innervation of pyramidal neurons in terms of the distinct inhibitory cell types that target the soma, axon initial segment, or dendritic arbor. Less attention has been devoted to how localization of inhibition to specific parts of the pyramidal dendritic arbor influences dendritic signal detection and integration. The effect of inhibitory inputs can vary based on their placement on dendritic spines versus shaft, their distance from the soma, and the branch order of the dendrite they inhabit...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444844/the-stomatogastric-nervous-system-of-the-medicinal-leech-its-anatomy-physiology-and-associated-aminergic-neurons
#3
Karen A Mesce, Magda Alania, Quentin Gaudry, Joshua G Puhl
Blood feeding is an essential and signature activity of the medicinal leech species, Hirudo verbana Despite keen interest in understanding the neuronal substrates of this behavior, a major component of the nervous system associated with feeding has remained overlooked. In this study, for the first time, we report on the presence and characteristics of five stomatogastic ganglia (STGs) comprising the visceral stomatogastric nervous system (STN) of the leech. Although Hanke (1948) provided a brief report that a ring of three ganglia (not five) was associated with the cephalic ganglia, this information was never integrated into subsequent neurobiological studies of feeding...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429939/an-attractive-reelin-gradient-establishes-synaptic-lamination-in-the-vertebrate-visual-system
#4
Vincenzo Di Donato, Flavia De Santis, Shahad Albadri, Thomas Oliver Auer, Karine Duroure, Marine Charpentier, Jean-Paul Concordet, Christoph Gebhardt, Filippo Del Bene
A conserved organizational and functional principle of neural networks is the segregation of axon-dendritic synaptic connections into laminae. Here we report that targeting of synaptic laminae by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) arbors in the vertebrate visual system is regulated by a signaling system relying on target-derived Reelin and VLDLR/Dab1a on the projecting neurons. Furthermore, we find that Reelin is distributed as a gradient on the target tissue and stabilized by heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) in the extracellular matrix (ECM)...
February 5, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429617/spatial-receptive-fields-for-odor-localization
#5
Hiroshi Nishino, Masazumi Iwasaki, Marco Paoli, Itsuro Kamimura, Atsushi Yoritsune, Makoto Mizunami
Animals rely on olfaction to navigate through complex olfactory landscapes, but the mechanisms that allow an animal to encode the spatial structure of an odorous environment remain unclear. To acquire information about the spatial distribution of an odorant, animals may rely on bilateral olfactory organs and compare side differences of odor intensity and timing [1-6] or may perform spatial and temporal signal integration of subsequent samplings [7]. The American cockroach can efficiently locate a source of sex pheromone even after the removal of one antenna, suggesting that bilateral comparison is not a prerequisite for odor localization in this species [8, 9]...
February 7, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429047/the-small-gtpase-rac1-ced-10-is-essential-in-maintaining-dopaminergic-neuron-function-and-survival-against-%C3%AE-synuclein-induced-toxicity
#6
Hanna Kim, Carles Calatayud, Sangib Guha, Irene Fernández-Carasa, Laura Berkowitz, Iria Carballo-Carbajal, Mario Ezquerra, Rubén Fernández-Santiago, Pankaj Kapahi, Ángel Raya, Antonio Miranda-Vizuete, Jose Miguel Lizcano, Miquel Vila, Kim A Caldwell, Guy A Caldwell, Antonella Consiglio, Esther Dalfo
Parkinson's disease is associated with intracellular α-synuclein accumulation and ventral midbrain dopaminergic neuronal death in the Substantia Nigra of brain patients. The Rho GTPase pathway, mainly linking surface receptors to the organization of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons, has been suggested to participate to Parkinson's disease pathogenesis. Nevertheless, its exact contribution remains obscure. To unveil the participation of the Rho GTPase family to the molecular pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, we first used C elegans to demonstrate the role of the small GTPase RAC1 (ced-10 in the worm) in maintaining dopaminergic function and survival in the presence of alpha-synuclein...
February 10, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424424/adult-specific-insulin-producing-neurons-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
Yuya Ohhara, Satoru Kobayashi, Kimiko Yamakawa-Kobayashi, Naoki Yamanaka
Holometabolous insects undergo metamorphosis to reorganize their behavioral and morphological features into adult-specific ones. In the central nervous system (CNS), some larval neurons undergo programmed cell death, whereas others go through remodeling of axonal and dendritic arbors to support functions of re-established adult organs. Although there are multiple neuropeptides that have stage-specific roles in holometabolous insects, the reorganization pattern of the entire neuropeptidergic system through metamorphosis still remains largely unclear...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420692/neural-representations-of-the-full-spatial-field-in-auditory-cortex-of-awake-marmoset-callithrix-jacchus
#8
Evan D Remington, Xiaoqin Wang
Unlike visual signals, sound can reach the ears from any direction, and the ability to localize sounds from all directions is essential for survival in a natural environment. Previous studies have largely focused on the space in front of a subject that is also covered by vision and were often limited to measuring spatial tuning along the horizontal (azimuth) plane. As a result, we know relatively little about how the auditory cortex responds to sounds coming from spatial locations outside the frontal space where visual information is unavailable...
February 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413766/radiofrequency-electromagnetic-radiation-exposure-effects-on-amygdala-morphology-place-preference-behavior-and-brain-caspase-3-activity-in-rats
#9
Sareesh Naduvil Narayanan, Nirupam Mohapatra, Pamala John, Nalini K, Raju Suresh Kumar, Satheesha B Nayak, P Gopalakrishna Bhat
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the changes in amygdala morphology and emotional behaviors, upon exposure to chronic RF-EMR in adolescent rats. Four weeks old male albino Wistar rats were exposed to 900 MHz (power density:146.60 μW/cm2) from a mobile phone in silent-mode for 28 days. Amygdala morphology was studied using cresyl violet, TUNEL and Golgi-Cox staining. Place preference behavior was studied using light/dark chamber test and following this brain caspase-3 activity was determined. Number of healthy neurons was decreased in the basolateral amygdala and cortical amygdala but not in the central amygdala after RF-EMR exposure...
January 31, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395908/differing-strategies-despite-shared-lineages-of-motor-neurons-and-glia-to-achieve-robust-development-of-an-adult-neuropil-in-drosophila
#10
Jonathan Enriquez, Laura Quintana Rio, Richard Blazeski, Stephanie Bellemin, Pierre Godement, Carol Mason, Richard S Mann
In vertebrates and invertebrates, neurons and glia are generated in a stereotyped manner from neural stem cells, but the purpose of invariant lineages is not understood. We show that two stem cells that produce leg motor neurons in Drosophila also generate neuropil glia, which wrap and send processes into the neuropil where motor neuron dendrites arborize. The development of the neuropil glia and leg motor neurons is highly coordinated. However, although motor neurons have a stereotyped birth order and transcription factor code, the number and individual morphologies of the glia born from these lineages are highly plastic, yet the final structure they contribute to is highly stereotyped...
February 7, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391132/neonatal-ethanol-and-choline-treatments-alter-the-morphology-of-developing-rat-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons-in-opposite-directions
#11
C M Goeke, M L Roberts, J G Hashimoto, D A Finn, M Guizzetti
Some of the neurobehavioral deficits identified in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) have been recapitulated in a binge model of gestational third trimester-equivalent ethanol (EtOH) exposure, in which Sprague-Dawley rats are intragastrically intubated between post-natal day (PD) 4 and PD9 with high doses of EtOH. In this model, the ameliorating effects of choline (Chol) administration on hippocampus-dependent behaviors altered by EtOH have also been extensively documented. In the present study, we investigated the effects of EtOH (5 g/kg/day) and/or Chol (100 mg/kg/day) on morphometric parameters of CA1 pyramidal neurons by Golgi-Cox staining followed by Neurolucida tracing and analysis...
January 29, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386258/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-contributes-to-the-loss-of-newborn-hippocampal-neurons-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Kimberly N Hood, Jing Zhao, John B Redell, Michael J Hylin, Brynn Harris, Alec Perez, Anthony N Moore, Pramod K Dash
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been shown to be required for certain types of cognitive function. For example, studies have shown that these neurons are critical for pattern separation, the ability to store similar experiences as distinct memories. Although traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been shown to cause the loss of newborn hippocampal neurons, the signaling pathway(s) that triggers their death is unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates the PERK-eIF2α pathway that acts to restore ER function and improve cell survival...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368093/parkinson-s-disease-the-dopaminergic-neuron-and-gammahydroxybutyrate
#13
Mortimer Mamelak
The high energy demands of the substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic (DASNc) neurons render these neurons vulnerable to degeneration. These energy demands are a function of their long and extensively arborized axons and very large number of transmitter release sites, and are further augmented by their natural pacemaking activity. Pacemaking is driven by the rhythmic entry of Ca2+ into the cell and, while the entry of Ca2+ into the neuron stimulates energy (ATP) production, the extrusion of Ca2+ conversely saps the energy that is generated...
January 24, 2018: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360992/the-female-epilepsy-protein-pcdh19-is-a-new-gabaar-binding-partner-that-regulates-gabaergic-transmission-as-well-as-migration-and-morphological-maturation-of-hippocampal-neurons
#14
Silvia Bassani, Andrzej W Cwetsch, Laura Gerosa, Giulia M Serratto, Alessandra Folci, Ignacio F Hall, Michele Mazzanti, Laura Cancedda, Maria Passafaro
The PCDH19 gene (Xp22.1) encodes the cell-adhesion protein protocadherin-19 (PCDH19) and is responsible for a neurodevelopmental pathology characterized by female-limited epilepsy, cognitive impairment and autistic features, the pathogenic mechanisms of which remain to be elucidated.Here, we identified a new interaction between PCDH19 and GABAA receptor (GABAAR) alpha subunits in the rat brain. PCDH19 shRNA-mediated downregulation reduces GABAAR surface expression and affects the frequency and kinetics of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) in cultured hippocampal neurons...
January 17, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360104/design-and-implementation-of-multi-signal-and-time-varying-neural-reconstructions
#15
Sumit Nanda, Hanbo Chen, Ravi Das, Shatabdi Bhattacharjee, Hermann Cuntz, Benjamin Torben-Nielsen, Hanchuan Peng, Daniel N Cox, Erik De Schutter, Giorgio A Ascoli
Several efficient procedures exist to digitally trace neuronal structure from light microscopy, and mature community resources have emerged to store, share, and analyze these datasets. In contrast, the quantification of intracellular distributions and morphological dynamics is not yet standardized. Current widespread descriptions of neuron morphology are static and inadequate for subcellular characterizations. We introduce a new file format to represent multichannel information as well as an open-source Vaa3D plugin to acquire this type of data...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349289/mixed-neurodevelopmental-and-neurodegenerative-pathology-in-nhe6-null-mouse-model-of-christianson-syndrome
#16
Meiyu Xu, Qing Ouyang, Jingyi Gong, Matthew F Pescosolido, Brandon S Pruett, Sasmita Mishra, Michael Schmidt, Richard N Jones, Ece D Gamsiz Uzun, Sofia B Lizarraga, Eric M Morrow
Christianson syndrome (CS) is an X-linked disorder resulting from loss-of-function mutations in SLC9A6, which encodes the endosomal Na+/H+ exchanger 6 (NHE6). Symptoms include early developmental delay, seizures, intellectual disability, nonverbal status, autistic features, postnatal microcephaly, and progressive ataxia. Neuronal development is impaired in CS, involving defects in neuronal arborization and synaptogenesis, likely underlying diminished brain growth postnatally. In addition to neurodevelopmental defects, some reports have supported neurodegenerative pathology in CS with age...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346028/biophysics-model-of-heavy-ion-degradation-of-neuron-morphology-in-mouse-hippocampal-granular-cell-layer-neurons
#17
Murat Alp, Francis A Cucinotta
Exposure to heavy-ion radiation during cancer treatment or space travel may cause cognitive detriments that have been associated with changes in neuron morphology and plasticity. Observations in mice of reduced neuronal dendritic complexity have revealed a dependence on radiation quality and absorbed dose, suggesting that microscopic energy deposition plays an important role. In this work we used morphological data for mouse dentate granular cell layer (GCL) neurons and a stochastic model of particle track structure and microscopic energy deposition (ED) to develop a predictive model of high-charge and energy (HZE) particle-induced morphological changes to the complex structures of dendritic arbors...
January 18, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337045/increased-dendritic-length-in-ca1-and-ca3-hippocampal-neurons-during-the-metestrus-phase-in-wistar-rats
#18
Anayeli López Mendoza, Dolores Adriana Bravo Durán, Adriana Berenice Silva Gómez
Studies have shown that changes in ovarian hormone concentrations promote natural fluctuations in the density of dendritic spines of hippocampal neurons in female Sprague-Dawley rats, without changes in dendritic length, throughout the estrous cycle. However, it is still unknown whether these fluctuations are present in other rat strains. Due to our interest in Wistar, the objective of the present study was to determine if there is natural dendritic remodeling in the female Wistar rat throughout the estrous cycle...
January 11, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327199/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-regulates-equilibrium-between-neurogenesis-and-gliogenesis-in-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-crosstalk-with-wnt-and-notch-signaling
#19
Sonu Singh, Akanksha Mishra, Sachi Bharti, Virendra Tiwari, Jitendra Singh, Parul, Shubha Shukla
Neurogenesis involves generation of functional newborn neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs). Insufficient formation or accelerated degeneration of newborn neurons may contribute to the severity of motor/nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the functional role of adult neurogenesis in PD is yet not explored and whether glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) affects multiple steps of adult neurogenesis in PD is still unknown. We investigated the possible underlying molecular mechanism of impaired adult neurogenesis associated with PD...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321240/pigment-dispersing-factor-expressing-neurons-convey-circadian-information-in-the-honey-bee-brain
#20
Katharina Beer, Esther Kolbe, Noa B Kahana, Nadav Yayon, Ron Weiss, Pamela Menegazzi, Guy Bloch, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Pigment-Dispersing Factor (PDF) is an important neuropeptide in the brain circadian network of Drosophila and other insects, but its role in bees in which the circadian clock influences complex behaviour is not well understood. We combined high-resolution neuroanatomical characterizations, quantification of PDF levels over the day and brain injections of synthetic PDF peptide to study the role of PDF in the honey bee Apis mellifera We show that PDF co-localizes with the clock protein Period (PER) in a cluster of laterally located neurons and that the widespread arborizations of these PER/PDF neurons are in close vicinity to other PER-positive cells (neurons and glia)...
January 2018: Open Biology
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