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dendrite arborization

Marco Bacigaluppi, Gianluca Luigi Russo, Luca Peruzzotti-Jametti, Silvia Rossi, Stefano Sandrone, Erica Butti, Roberta De Ceglia, Andrea Bergamaschi, Caterina Motta, Mattia Gallizioli, Valeria Studer, Emanuela Colombo, Cinthia Farina, Giancarlo Comi, Letterio Salvatore Politi, Luca Muzio, Claudia Villani, Roberto William Invernizzi, Dirk Matthias Hermann, Diego Centonze, Gianvito Martino
: Ischemic stroke is the leading cause of disability, but effective therapies are currently widely lacking. Recovery from stroke is very much dependent on the possibility to develop treatments able to both halt the neurodegenerative process as well as to foster adaptive tissue plasticity. Here we show that ischemic mice treated with neural precursor cell (NPC) transplantation had on neurophysiological analysis, early after treatment, reduced presynaptic release of glutamate within the ipsilesional corticospinal tract (CST), and an enhanced NMDA-mediated excitatory transmission in the contralesional CST...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ying Wang, Wen-Yuan Li, Zhi-Gang Li, Li-Xin Guan, Ling-Xiao Deng
Injury to the nervous system induces localized damage in neural structures and neuronal death through the primary insult, as well as delayed atrophy and impaired plasticity of the delicate dendritic fields necessary for interneuronal communication. Excitotoxicity and other secondary biochemical events contribute to morphological changes in neurons following injury. Evidence suggests that various transcription factors are involved in the dendritic response to injury and potential therapies. Transcription factors play critical roles in the intracellular regulation of neuronal morphological plasticity and dendritic growth and patterning...
October 11, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Tomofumi Oga, Tsuguhisa Okamoto, Ichiro Fujita
Neurons in the mammalian primary visual cortex (V1) are systematically arranged across the cortical surface according to the location of their receptive fields (RFs), forming a visuotopic (or retinotopic) map. Within this map, the foveal visual field is represented by a large cortical surface area, with increasingly peripheral visual fields gradually occupying smaller cortical areas. Although cellular organization in the retina, such as the spatial distribution of ganglion cells, can partially account for the eccentricity-dependent differences in the size of cortical representation, whether morphological differences exist across V1 neurons representing different eccentricities is unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Christopher K Thompson, Hollis T Cline
: Thyroid hormone (TH) regulates many cellular events underlying perinatal brain development in vertebrates. Whether and how TH regulates brain development when neural circuits are first forming is less clear. Furthermore, although the molecular mechanisms that impose spatiotemporal constraints on TH action in the brain have been described, the effects of local TH signaling are poorly understood. We determined the effects of manipulating TH signaling on development of the optic tectum in stage 46-49 Xenopus laevis tadpoles...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Dolores Irala, Antonela Bonafina, Paula Aldana Fontanet, Fernando Cruz Alsina, Gustavo Paratcha, Fernanda Ledda
The formation of synaptic connections during nervous system development requires the precise control of dendrite growth and synapse formation. Although Glial Cell line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) and its receptor GFRα1 are expressed in the forebrain, the role of this system in hippocampus remains unclear. In this work, we investigated the consequences of GFRα1 deficiency for the development of hippocampal connections. Analysis of conditional GFRα1-knockout mice shows a reduction in dendritic length and complexity, as well as a decrease in postsynaptic density (PSD) specializations and in the synaptic localization of postsynaptic proteins in hippocampal neurons...
October 5, 2016: Development
M L Ou, G Liu, D Xiao, B H Zhang, C C Guo, X G Ye, Y Liu, N Zhang, M Wang, Y J Han, X H Ye, C X Jing, G Yang
miR-137, a brain-enriched microRNA, is involved in the control of neuronal proliferation, differentiation, and dendritic arborization, all of which are important for proper neurogenesis and relevant to schizophrenia. miR-137 is also known to regulate many genes implicated in schizophrenia risk. Although reports have associated the miR-137 polymorphism rs1625579 with this disease, their results have been inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the relationship between rs1625579 and schizophrenia...
September 16, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Guillermo López-Doménech, Nathalie F Higgs, Victoria Vaccaro, Hana Roš, I Lorena Arancibia-Cárcamo, Andrew F MacAskill, Josef T Kittler
Correct mitochondrial distribution is critical for satisfying local energy demands and calcium buffering requirements and supporting key cellular processes. The mitochondrially targeted proteins Miro1 and Miro2 are important components of the mitochondrial transport machinery, but their specific roles in neuronal development, maintenance, and survival remain poorly understood. Using mouse knockout strategies, we demonstrate that Miro1, as opposed to Miro2, is the primary regulator of mitochondrial transport in both axons and dendrites...
October 4, 2016: Cell Reports
Wei Zou, Ao Shen, Xintong Dong, Madina Tugizova, Yang K Xiang, Kang Shen
Ligand receptor interactions instruct axon guidance during development. How dendrites are guided to specific targets is less understood. The C. elegans PVD sensory neuron innervates muscle-skin interface with its elaborate dendritic branches. Here, we found that LECT-2, the ortholog of leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (LECT2), is secreted from the muscles and required for muscle innervation by PVD. Mosaic analyses showed that LECT-2 acted locally to guide the growth of terminal branches. Ectopic expression of LECT-2 from seam cells is sufficient to redirect the PVD dendrites onto seam cells...
October 5, 2016: ELife
Shiwei Wang, Marta Bolós, Rosemary Clark, Carlie L Cullen, Katherine A Southam, Lisa Foa, Tracey C Dickson, Kaylene M Young
The amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane protein that is widely expressed within the central nervous system (CNS). While the pathogenic dysfunction of this protein has been extensively studied in the context of Alzheimer's disease, its normal function is poorly understood, and reports have often appeared contradictory. In this study we have examined the role of APP in regulating neurogenesis in the adult mouse brain by comparing neural stem cell proliferation, as well as new neuron number and morphology between APP knockout mice and C57bl6 controls...
September 21, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Jill R Crittenden, Paul W Tillberg, Michael H Riad, Yasuyuki Shima, Charles R Gerfen, Jeffrey Curry, David E Housman, Sacha B Nelson, Edward S Boyden, Ann M Graybiel
The dopamine systems of the brain powerfully influence movement and motivation. We demonstrate that striatonigral fibers originating in striosomes form highly unusual bouquet-like arborizations that target bundles of ventrally extending dopamine-containing dendrites and clusters of their parent nigral cell bodies. Retrograde tracing showed that these clustered cell bodies in turn project to the striatum as part of the classic nigrostriatal pathway. Thus, these striosome-dendron formations, here termed "striosome-dendron bouquets," likely represent subsystems with the nigro-striato-nigral loop that are affected in human disorders including Parkinson's disease...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Winda Ariyani, Toshiharu Iwasaki, Wataru Miyazaki, Erdene Khongorzul, Takahito Nakajima, Satomi Kameo, Hiroshi Koyama, Yoshito Tsushima, Noriyuki Koibuchi
Gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are used in diagnostic imaging to enhance the quality of magnetic resonance imaging or angiography. After intravenous injection, GBCAs can accumulate in the brain. Thyroid hormones (THs) are critical for the development and functional maintenance of the central nervous system. TH actions in brain are mainly exerted through nuclear TH receptors (TRs). We examined the effects of GBCAs on TR-mediated transcription in CV-1 cells using transient transfection-based reporter assay and TH-mediated cerebellar Purkinje cell morphogenesis in primary culture...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005484.].
September 2016: PLoS Genetics
Nathan D Okerlund, Robert E Stanley, Benjamin N R Cheyette
The transmembrane protein Vangl2, a key regulator of the Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, is involved in dendrite arbor elaboration, dendritic spine formation and glutamatergic synapse formation in mammalian central nervous system neurons. Cultured forebrain neurons from Vangl2 knockout mice have simpler dendrite arbors, fewer total spines, less mature spines and fewer glutamatergic synapse inputs on their dendrites than control neurons. Neurons from mice heterozygous for a semidominant Vangl2 mutation have similar but not identical phenotypes, and these phenotypes are also observed in Golgi-stained brain tissue from adult mutant mice...
July 2016: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
Joaquín Martí, Vanesa Molina, M C Santa-Cruz, José P Hervás
Postnatal development of the cerebellar cortex was studied in rats administered with a single dose (2 mg/g) of the cytotoxic agent hydroxyurea (HU) on postnatal day (P) 9 and collected at appropriate times ranging from 6 h to 45 days. Quantification of several parameters such as the density of pyknotic, mitotic, BrdU-positive, and vimentin-stained cells revealed that HU compromises the survival of the external granular layer (EGL) cells. Moreover, vimentin immunocytochemistry revealed overexpression and thicker immunoreactive glial processes in HU-treated rats...
September 6, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Alina Ilie, Andy Y L Gao, Jonathan Reid, Annie Boucher, Cassandra McEwan, Hervé Barrière, Gergely L Lukacs, R Anne McKinney, John Orlowski
BACKGROUND: Christianson Syndrome, a recently identified X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder, is caused by mutations in the human gene SLC9A6 encoding the recycling endosomal alkali cation/proton exchanger NHE6. The patients have pronounced limitations in cognitive ability, motor skills and adaptive behaviour. However, the mechanistic basis for this disorder is poorly understood as few of the more than 20 mutations identified thus far have been studied in detail. METHODS: Here, we examined the molecular and cellular consequences of a 6 base-pair deletion of amino acids Glu(287) and Ser(288) (∆ES) in the predicted seventh transmembrane helix of human NHE6 expressed in established cell lines (CHO/AP-1, HeLa and neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y) and primary cultures of mouse hippocampal neurons by measuring levels of protein expression, stability, membrane trafficking, endosomal function and cell viability...
2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Yvonne Ou, Rebecca E Jo, Erik M Ullian, Rachel O L Wong, Luca Della Santina
UNLABELLED: Key issues concerning ganglion cell type-specific loss and synaptic changes in animal models of experimental glaucoma remain highly debated. Importantly, changes in the structure and function of various RGC types that occur early, within 14 d after acute, transient intraocular pressure elevation, have not been previously assessed. Using biolistic transfection of individual RGCs and multielectrode array recordings to measure light responses in mice, we examined the effects of laser-induced ocular hypertension on the structure and function of a subset of RGCs...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Samuel D Gale, Gabe J Murphy
UNLABELLED: Neurons respond to specific features of sensory stimuli. In the visual system, for example, some neurons respond to motion of small but not large objects, whereas other neurons prefer motion of the entire visual field. Separate neurons respond equally to local and global motion but selectively to additional features of visual stimuli. How and where does response selectivity emerge? Here, we show that wide-field (WF) cells in retino-recipient layers of the mouse superior colliculus (SC) respond selectively to small moving objects...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jun Yamada, Jun Hatabe, Kaori Tankyo, Shozo Jinno
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with various brain functions, such as learning, memory, and emotion. Intriguingly, reduction in new cell production in the hippocampus in middle age may underlie some of the cognitive deficits. Among several factors that may affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis, estrogens have been suggested to be critically involved in the cognitive impairment of postmenopausal women. Phytoestrogens, such as daidzein and genistein, are expected to work as estrogen substitutes. In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of daidzein on adult hippocampal neurogenesis using middle-aged (12-month-old) female mice...
December 2016: Neuropharmacology
Yi Cai, Cory Chew, Fernando Muñoz, Dale R Sengelaub
Partial depletion of spinal motoneuron populations induces dendritic atrophy in neighboring motoneurons, and treatment with testosterone is neuroprotective, attenuating induced dendritic atrophy. In this study we examined whether the protective effects of testosterone could be mediated via its androgenic or estrogenic metabolites. Furthermore, to assess whether these neuroprotective effects were mediated through steroid hormone receptors, we used receptor antagonists to attempt to prevent the neuroprotective effects of hormones after partial motoneuron depletion...
August 29, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Ravi Bansal, Xuejun Hao, Bradley S Peterson
We propose a method for segmenting brain tissue as either gray matter or white matter in the presence of varying tissue contrast, which can derive from either differential changes in tissue water content or increasing myelin content of white matter. Our method models the spatial distribution of intensities as a Markov Random Field (MRF) and estimates the parameters for the MRF model using a maximum likelihood approach. Although previously described methods have used similar models to segment brain tissue, accurate model of the conditional probabilities of tissue intensities and adaptive estimates of tissue properties to local intensities generates tissue definitions that are accurate and robust to variations in tissue contrast with age and across illnesses...
August 25, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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