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dendrite arborization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213784/microglia-in-the-primate-macula-specializations-in-microglial-distribution-and-morphology-with-retinal-position-and-with-aging
#1
Janani Singaravelu, Lian Zhao, Robert N Fariss, T Michael Nork, Wai T Wong
Microglia, the principal resident immune cell in the retina, play constitutive roles in immune surveillance and synapse maintenance, and are also associated with retinal disease, including those occurring in the macula. Perspectives on retinal microglia function have derived largely from rodent models and how these relate to the macula-bearing primate retina is unclear. In this study, we examined microglial distribution and cellular morphology in the adult rhesus macaque retina, and performed comparative characterizations in three retinal locations along the center-to-periphery axis (parafoveal, macular, and the peripheral retina)...
February 17, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209776/distance-dependent-gradient-in-nmdar-driven-spine-calcium-signals-along-tapering-dendrites
#2
Alison S Walker, Guilherme Neves, Federico Grillo, Rachel E Jackson, Mark Rigby, Cian O'Donnell, Andrew S Lowe, Gema Vizcay-Barrena, Roland A Fleck, Juan Burrone
Neurons receive a multitude of synaptic inputs along their dendritic arbor, but how this highly heterogeneous population of synaptic compartments is spatially organized remains unclear. By measuring N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR)-driven calcium responses in single spines, we provide a spatial map of synaptic calcium signals along dendritic arbors of hippocampal neurons and relate this to measures of synapse structure. We find that quantal NMDAR calcium signals increase in amplitude as they approach a thinning dendritic tip end...
February 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209644/mitochondrial-dysfunction-induces-dendritic-loss-via-eif2%C3%AE-phosphorylation
#3
Taiichi Tsuyama, Asako Tsubouchi, Tadao Usui, Hiromi Imamura, Tadashi Uemura
Mitochondria are key contributors to the etiology of diseases associated with neuromuscular defects or neurodegeneration. How changes in cellular metabolism specifically impact neuronal intracellular processes and cause neuropathological events is still unclear. We here dissect the molecular mechanism by which mitochondrial dysfunction induced by Prel aberrant function mediates selective dendritic loss in Drosophila melanogaster class IV dendritic arborization neurons. Using in vivo ATP imaging, we found that neuronal cellular ATP levels during development are not correlated with the progression of dendritic loss...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205531/wnt5a-is-a-crucial-regulator-of-neurogenesis-during-cerebellum-development
#4
Chandramohan Subashini, Sivadasan Bindu Dhanesh, Chih-Ming Chen, Paul Ann Riya, Vadakkath Meera, Thulasi Sheela Divya, Rejji Kuruvilla, Kerstin Buttler, Jackson James
The role of Wnt5a has been extensively explored in various aspects of development but its role in cerebellar development remains elusive. Here, for the first time we unravel the expression pattern and functional significance of Wnt5a in cerebellar development using Wnt5a(-/-) and Nestin-Cre mediated conditional knockout mouse models. We demonstrate that loss of Wnt5a results in cerebellar hypoplasia and depletion of GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. Besides, Purkinje cells of the mutants displayed stunted, poorly branched dendritic arbors...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203140/tamoxifen-activation-of-cre-recombinase-has-no-persisting-effects-on-adult-neurogenesis-or-learning-and-anxiety
#5
Peter Rotheneichner, Pasquale Romanelli, Lara Bieler, Sebastian Pagitsch, Pia Zaunmair, Christina Kreutzer, Richard König, Julia Marschallinger, Ludwig Aigner, Sébastien Couillard-Després
Adult neurogenesis is a tightly regulated process continuously taking place in the central nervous system of most mammalian species. In neuroscience research, transgenic animals bearing the tamoxifen-inducible CreER(T2)-Lox system are widely used. In this study, we made use of a Nestin-CreER(T2)/R26R-YFP transgenic mouse model in which the CreER(T2) activates the expression of YFP in multipotent neural stem cells upon tamoxifen application. Humoral factors, such as the levels of estrogens, have been reported to affect the hippocampal neurogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179879/cannabinoid-receptors-modulate-neuronal-morphology-and-ankyring-density-at-the-axon-initial-segment
#6
Mónica Tapia, Ana Dominguez, Wei Zhang, Ana Del Puerto, María Ciorraga, María José Benitez, Carmen Guaza, Juan José Garrido
Neuronal polarization underlies the ability of neurons to integrate and transmit information. This process begins early in development with axon outgrowth, followed by dendritic growth and subsequent maturation. In between these two steps, the axon initial segment (AIS), a subcellular domain crucial for generating action potentials (APs) and maintaining the morphological and functional polarization, starts to develop. However, the cellular/molecular mechanisms and receptors involved in AIS initial development and maturation are mostly unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178528/quantitative-map-of-proteome-dynamics-during-neuronal-differentiation
#7
Christian K Frese, Marina Mikhaylova, Riccardo Stucchi, Violette Gautier, Qingyang Liu, Shabaz Mohammed, Albert J R Heck, A F Maarten Altelaar, Casper C Hoogenraad
Neuronal differentiation is a multistep process that shapes and re-shapes neurons by progressing through several typical stages, including axon outgrowth, dendritogenesis, and synapse formation. To systematically profile proteome dynamics throughout neuronal differentiation, we took cultured rat hippocampal neurons at different developmental stages and monitored changes in protein abundance using a combination of stable isotope labeling and high-resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
February 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160495/nmda-receptor-subunit-composition-controls-dendritogenesis-of-hippocampal-neurons-through-camkii-creb-p-and-h3k27ac
#8
Fernando J Bustos, Nur Jury, Pablo Martinez, Estibaliz Ampuero, Matias Campos, Sebastian Abarzúa, Karen Jaramillo, Susanne Ibing, Muriel D Mardones, Henny Haensgen, Julia Kzhyshkowska, Maria Florencia Tevy, Rachael Neve, Magdalena Sanhueza, Lorena Varela-Nallar, Martín Montecino, Brigitte van Zundert
Dendrite arbor growth, or dendritogenesis, is choreographed by a diverse set of cues, including the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) subunits NR2A and NR2B. While NR1NR2B receptors are predominantly expressed in immature neurons and promote plasticity, NR1NR2A receptors are mainly expressed in mature neurons and induce circuit stability. How the different subunits regulate these processes is unclear, but this is likely related to the presence of their distinct C-terminal sequences that couple different signaling proteins...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148643/developmental-nicotine-exposure-alters-potassium-currents-in-hypoglossal-motoneurons-of-neonatal-rat
#9
Marina Cholanian, Jesse Wealing, Richard B Levine, Ralph F Fregosi
We previously showed that nicotine exposure in utero and after birth via breast milk [developmental nicotine exposure (DNE)] is associated with many changes in the structure and function of hypoglossal motoneurons (XIIMNs), including a reduction in the size of the dendritic arbor and an increase in cell excitability. Interestingly, the elevated excitability was associated with a reduction in the expression of glutamate receptors on the cell body. Together, these observations are consistent with a homeostatic compensation aimed at restoring cell excitability...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132832/intra-neuronal-competition-for-synaptic-partners-conserves-the-amount-of-dendritic-building-material
#10
Stefanie Ryglewski, Fernando Vonhoff, Kathryn Scheckel, Carsten Duch
Brain development requires correct targeting of multiple thousand synaptic terminals onto staggeringly complex dendritic arbors. The mechanisms by which input synapse numbers are matched to dendrite size, and by which synaptic inputs from different transmitter systems are correctly partitioned onto a postsynaptic arbor, are incompletely understood. By combining quantitative neuroanatomy with targeted genetic manipulation of synaptic input to an identified Drosophila neuron, we show that synaptic inputs of two different transmitter classes locally direct dendrite growth in a competitive manner...
February 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130356/a-novel-human-camk2a-mutation-disrupts-dendritic-morphology-and-synaptic-transmission-and-causes-asd-related-behaviors
#11
Jason R Stephenson, Xiaohan Wang, Tyler L Perfitt, Walker P Parrish, Brian C Shonesy, Christian R Marks, Douglas P Mortlock, Terunaga Nakagawa, James S Sutcliffe, Roger J Colbran
: Characterizing the functional impact of novel mutations linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provides a deeper mechanistic understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Here we show that a de novo Glu183 to Val (E183V) mutation in the CaMKIIα catalytic domain, identified in a proband diagnosed with ASD, decreases both CaMKIIα substrate phosphorylation and regulatory autophosphorylation, and that the mutated kinase acts in a dominant-negative manner to reduce CaMKIIα-WT autophosphorylation...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128287/striatal-neurons-expressing-d1-and-d2-receptors-are-morphologically-distinct-and-differently-affected-by-dopamine-denervation-in-mice
#12
D Gagnon, S Petryszyn, M G Sanchez, C Bories, J M Beaulieu, Y De Koninck, A Parent, M Parent
The loss of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease induces a reduction in the number of dendritic spines on medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum expressing D1 or D2 dopamine receptor. Consequences on MSNs expressing both receptors (D1/D2 MSNs) are currently unknown. We looked for changes induced by dopamine denervation in the density, regional distribution and morphological features of D1/D2 MSNs, by comparing 6-OHDA-lesioned double BAC transgenic mice (Drd1a-tdTomato/Drd2-EGFP) to sham-lesioned animals...
January 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122236/lhx2-expression-in-postmitotic-cortical-neurons-initiates-assembly-of-the-thalamocortical-somatosensory-circuit
#13
Chia-Fang Wang, Hsiang-Wei Hsing, Zi-Hui Zhuang, Meng-Hsuan Wen, Wei-Jen Chang, Carlos G Briz, Marta Nieto, Bai Chuang Shyu, Shen-Ju Chou
Cortical neurons must be specified and make the correct connections during development. Here, we examine a mechanism initiating neuronal circuit formation in the barrel cortex, a circuit comprising thalamocortical axons (TCAs) and layer 4 (L4) neurons. When Lhx2 is selectively deleted in postmitotic cortical neurons using conditional knockout (cKO) mice, L4 neurons in the barrel cortex are initially specified but fail to form cellular barrels or develop polarized dendrites. In Lhx2 cKO mice, TCAs from the thalamic ventral posterior nucleus reach the barrel cortex but fail to further arborize to form barrels...
January 24, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117774/immunostaining-of-biocytin-filled-and-processed-sections-for-neurochemical-markers
#14
Bogumila Swietek, Akshay Gupta, Archana Proddutur, Vijayalakshmi Santhakumar
Electrophysiological recordings of cells using the patch clamp technique have allowed for the identification of different neuronal types based on firing patterns. The inclusion of biocytin/neurobiotin in the recording electrode permits post-hoc recovery of morphological details, which are necessary to determine the dendritic arborization and the regions targeted by the axons of the recorded neurons. However, given the presence of morphologically similar neurons with distinct neurochemical identities and functions, immunohistochemical staining for cell-type-specific proteins is essential to definitively identify neurons...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114319/reduced-insulin-insulin-like-growth-factor-receptor-signaling-mitigates-defective-dendrite-morphogenesis-in-mutants-of-the-er-stress-sensor-ire-1
#15
Yehuda Salzberg, Andrew J Coleman, Kevin Celestrin, Moran Cohen-Berkman, Thomas Biederer, Sivan Henis-Korenblit, Hannes E Bülow
Neurons receive excitatory or sensory inputs through their dendrites, which often branch extensively to form unique neuron-specific structures. How neurons regulate the formation of their particular arbor is only partially understood. In genetic screens using the multidendritic arbor of PVD somatosensory neurons in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified a mutation in the ER stress sensor IRE-1/Ire1 (inositol requiring enzyme 1) as crucial for proper PVD dendrite arborization in vivo. We further found that regulation of dendrite growth in cultured rat hippocampal neurons depends on Ire1 function, showing an evolutionarily conserved role for IRE-1/Ire1 in dendrite patterning...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089852/dopamine-d1-receptor-agonist-treatment-attenuates-extinction-of-morphine-conditioned-place-preference-while-increasing-dendritic-complexity-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core
#16
Kendra L Kobrin, Danielle T Arena, Stephen C Heinrichs, Olivia H Nguyen, Gary B Kaplan
The dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) has a role in opioid reward and conditioned place preference (CPP), but its role in CPP extinction is undetermined. We examined the effect of D1R agonist SKF81297 on the extinction of opioid CPP and associated dendritic morphology in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a region involved with reward integration and its extinction. During the acquisition of morphine CPP, mice received morphine and saline on alternate days; injections were given immediately before each of eight daily conditioning sessions...
January 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081563/interactions-with-astroglia-influence-the-shape-of-the-developing-dendritic-arbor-and-restrict-dendrite-growth-independent-of-promoting-synaptic-contacts
#17
Ginger S Withers, Jennifer R Farley, Jeffrey R Sterritt, Andrés B Crane, Christopher S Wallace
Astroglia play key roles in the development of neurons, ranging from regulating neuron survival to promoting synapse formation, yet basic questions remain about whether astrocytes might be involved in forming the dendritic arbor. Here, we used cultured hippocampal neurons as a simple in vitro model that allowed dendritic growth and geometry to be analyzed quantitatively under conditions where the extent of interactions between neurons and astrocytes varied. When astroglia were proximal to neurons, dendrites and dendritic filopodia oriented toward them, but the general presence of astroglia significantly reduced overall dendrite growth...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069946/wnt5a-is-essential-for-hippocampal-dendritic-maintenance-and-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-adult-mice
#18
Chih-Ming Chen, Lauren L Orefice, Shu-Ling Chiu, Tara A LeGates, Samer Hattar, Richard L Huganir, Haiqing Zhao, Baoji Xu, Rejji Kuruvilla
Stability of neuronal connectivity is critical for brain functions, and morphological perturbations are associated with neurodegenerative disorders. However, how neuronal morphology is maintained in the adult brain remains poorly understood. Here, we identify Wnt5a, a member of the Wnt family of secreted morphogens, as an essential factor in maintaining dendritic architecture in the adult hippocampus and for related cognitive functions in mice. Wnt5a expression in hippocampal neurons begins postnatally, and its deletion attenuated CaMKII and Rac1 activity, reduced GluN1 glutamate receptor expression, and impaired synaptic plasticity and spatial learning and memory in 3-mo-old mice...
January 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069920/folding-but-not-surface-area-expansion-is-associated-with-cellular-morphological-maturation-in-the-fetal-cerebral-cortex
#19
Xiaojie Wang, Colin Studholme, Peta L Grigsby, Antonio E Frias, Verginia C Cuzon Carlson, Christopher D Kroenke
: Altered macroscopic anatomical characteristics of the cerebral cortex have been identified in individuals affected by various neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the cellular developmental mechanisms that give rise to these abnormalities are not understood. Recently, advances in image reconstruction of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (diffusion MRI) have made possible high resolution in utero measurements of water diffusion anisotropy in the fetal brain. Here, diffusion anisotropy within the developing fetal cerebral cortex is longitudinally characterized in the rhesus macaque, focusing on gestation days (G) 85 through G135 of the 165 day term...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065198/random-spatial-patterning-of-cone-bipolar-cell-mosaics-in-the-mouse-retina
#20
Patrick W Keeley, Jason J Kim, Sammy C S Lee, Silke Haverkamp, Benjamin E Reese
Retinal bipolar cells spread their dendritic arbors to tile the retinal surface, extending them to the tips of the dendritic fields of their homotypic neighbors, minimizing dendritic overlap. Such uniform nonredundant dendritic coverage of these populations would suggest a degree of spatial order in the properties of their somal distributions, yet few studies have examined the patterning in retinal bipolar cell mosaics. The present study examined the organization of two types of cone bipolar cells in the mouse retina, the Type 2 cells and the Type 4 cells, and compared their spatial statistical properties with those of the horizontal cells and the cholinergic amacrine cells, as well as to random simulations of cells matched in density and constrained by soma size...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
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