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dendrite arborization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204911/repeated-shock-stress-facilitates-basolateral-amygdala-synaptic-plasticity-through-decreased-camp-specific-phosphodiesterase-type-iv-pde4-expression
#1
Steve Ryan, Chenchen Li, Aurélie Menigoz, Rimi Hazra, Joanna Dabrowska, David Ehrlich, Katelyn Gordon, Donald G Rainnie
Previous studies have shown that exposure to stressful events can enhance fear memory and anxiety-like behavior as well as increase synaptic plasticity in the rat basolateral amygdala (BLA). We have evidence that repeated unpredictable shock stress (USS) elicits a long-lasting increase in anxiety-like behavior in rats, but the cellular mechanisms mediating this response remain unclear. Evidence from recent morphological studies suggests that alterations in the dendritic arbor or spine density of BLA principal neurons may underlie stress-induced anxiety behavior...
December 4, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194585/complex-interactions-between-hypoxia-ischemia-and-inflammation-in-preterm-brain-injury
#2
REVIEW
Robert Galinsky, Christopher A Lear, Justin M Dean, Guido Wassink, Simerdeep K Dhillon, Mhoyra Fraser, Joanne O Davidson, Laura Bennet, Alistair J Gunn
Children surviving preterm birth have a high risk of disability, particularly cognitive and learning problems. There is extensive clinical and experimental evidence that disability is now primarily related to dysmaturation of white and gray matter, defined by failure of oligodendrocyte maturation and neuronal dendritic arborization, rather than cell death alone. The etiology of this dysmaturation is multifactorial, with contributions from hypoxia-ischemia, infection/inflammation and barotrauma. Intriguingly, these factors can interact to both increase and decrease damage...
December 1, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178418/dense-core-vesicle-biogenesis-and-exocytosis-in-neurons-lacking-chromogranins-a-and-b
#3
Natalia Dominguez, Jan Rt van Weering, Ricardo Borges, Ruud F Toonen, Matthijs Verhage
Chromogranin A and B (Cgs) are considered to be master regulators of cargo sorting for the regulated secretory pathway (RSP) and Dense-Core Vesicle (DCV) biogenesis. To test this, we analyzed the release of NPY-pHluorin, a live RSP reporter, and the distribution, number and appearance of DCVs, in mouse hippocampal neurons lacking expression of CHGA and CHGB genes. qRT-PCR analysis showed that expression of other granin family members was not significantly altered in CgA/B-/- neurons. As synaptic maturation of developing neurons depends on secretion of trophic factors in the RSP, we first analyzed neuronal development in standardized neuronal cultures...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178372/thc-alters-alters-morphology-of-neurons-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-orbital-prefrontal-cortex-and-nucleus-accumbens-and-alters-the-ability-of-later-experience-to-promote-structural-plasticity
#4
Bryan Kolb, Yilin Li, Terry Robinson, Linda A Parker
Psychoactive drugs have the ability to alter the morphology of neuronal dendrites and spines and to influence later experience-dependent structural plasticity. If rats are given repeated injections of psychomotor stimulants (amphetamine, cocaine, nicotine) prior to being placed in complex environments, the drug experience interferes with the ability of the environment to increase dendritic arborization and spine density. Repeated exposure to Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) changes the morphology of dendrites in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc)...
November 27, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175955/the-autism-protein-ube3a-e6ap-remodels-neuronal-dendritic-arborization-via-caspase-dependent-microtubule-destabilization
#5
Natasha Khatri, James P Gilbert, Yuda Huo, Roozhin Sharaflari, Michael Nee, Hui Qiao, Heng-Ye Man
UBE3A gene copy number variation and the resulting overexpression of the protein E6AP is directly linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), however the underlying cellular and molecular neurobiology remains less clear. Here we report the role of ASD-related increased dosage of Ube3A/E6AP in dendritic arborization during brain development. We show that increased E6AP expression in primary cultured neurons leads to a reduction in dendritic branch number and length. The E6AP-dependent remodeling of dendritic arborization results from retraction of dendrites by thinning and fragmentation at the tips of dendrite branches, leading to shortening or removal of dendrites...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174891/local-signals-in-mouse-horizontal-cell-dendrites
#6
Camille A Chapot, Christian Behrens, Luke E Rogerson, Tom Baden, Sinziana Pop, Philipp Berens, Thomas Euler, Timm Schubert
The mouse retina contains a single type of horizontal cell, a GABAergic interneuron that samples from all cone photoreceptors within reach and modulates their glutamatergic output via parallel feedback mechanisms. Because horizontal cells form an electrically coupled network, they have been implicated in global signal processing, such as large-scale contrast enhancement. Recently, it has been proposed that horizontal cells can also act locally at the level of individual cone photoreceptors. To test this possibility physiologically, we used two-photon microscopy to record light stimulus-evoked Ca2+ signals in cone axon terminals and horizontal cell dendrites as well as glutamate release in the outer plexiform layer...
November 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163054/motor-deficits-and-cerebellar-atrophy-in-elovl5-knock-out-mice
#7
Eriola Hoxha, Rebecca M C Gabriele, Ilaria Balbo, Francesco Ravera, Linda Masante, Vanessa Zambelli, Cristian Albergo, Nico Mitro, Donatella Caruso, Eleonora Di Gregorio, Alfredo Brusco, Barbara Borroni, Filippo Tempia
Spino-Cerebellar-Ataxia type 38 (SCA38) is caused by missense mutations in the very long chain fatty acid elongase 5 gene, ELOVL5. The main clinical findings in this disease are ataxia, hyposmia and cerebellar atrophy. Mice in which Elovl5 has been knocked out represent a model of the loss of function hypothesis of SCA38. In agreement with this hypothesis, Elovl5 knock out mice reproduced the main symptoms of patients, motor deficits at the beam balance test and hyposmia. The cerebellar cortex of Elovl5 knock out mice showed a reduction of thickness of the molecular layer, already detectable at 6 months of age, confirmed at 12 and 18 months...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163013/motor-areas-show-altered-dendritic-structure-in-an-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-mouse-model
#8
Matthew J Fogarty, Erica W H Mu, Nickolas A Lavidis, Peter G Noakes, Mark C Bellingham
Objective: Motor neurons (MNs) die in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a clinically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease of unknown etiology. In human or rodent studies, MN loss is preceded by increased excitability. As increased neuronal excitability correlates with structural changes in dendritic arbors and spines, we have examined longitudinal changes in dendritic structure in vulnerable neuron populations in a mouse model of familial ALS. Methods: We used a modified Golgi-Cox staining method to determine the progressive changes in dendritic structure of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, striatal medium spiny neurons, and resistant (trochlear, IV) or susceptible (hypoglossal, XII; lumbar) MNs from brainstem and spinal cord of mice over-expressing the human SOD1(G93A) (SOD1) mutation, in comparison to wild-type (WT) mice, at four postnatal (P) ages of 8-15, 28-35, 65-75, and 120 days...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158584/ketamine-enhances-structural-plasticity-in-mouse-mesencephalic-and-human-ipsc-derived-dopaminergic-neurons-via-ampar-driven-bdnf-and-mtor-signaling
#9
L Cavalleri, E Merlo Pich, M J Millan, C Chiamulera, T Kunath, P F Spano, G Collo
Among neurobiological mechanisms underlying antidepressant properties of ketamine, structural remodeling of prefrontal and hippocampal neurons has been proposed as critical. The suggested mechanism involves downstream activation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, which trigger mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent structural plasticity via brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and protein neo-synthesis. We evaluated whether ketamine elicits similar molecular events in dopaminergic (DA) neurons, known to be affected in mood disorders, using a novel, translational strategy that involved mouse mesencephalic and human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived DA neurons...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153770/rats-exposed-to-2-45ghz-of-non-ionizing-radiation-exhibit-behavioral-changes-with-increased-brain-expression-of-apoptotic-caspase-3
#10
Rini Varghese, Anuradha Majumdar, Girish Kumar, Amit Shukla
In recent years there has been a tremendous increase in use of Wi-Fi devices along with mobile phones, globally. Wi-Fi devices make use of 2.4GHz frequency. The present study evaluated the impact of 2.45GHz radiation exposure for 4h/day for 45days on behavioral and oxidative stress parameters in female Sprague Dawley rats. Behavioral tests of anxiety, learning and memory were started from day 38. Oxidative stress parameters were estimated in brain homogenates after sacrificing the rats on day 45. In morris water maze, elevated plus maze and light dark box test, the 2...
November 14, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142232/tdp-43-misexpression-causes-defects-in-dendritic-growth
#11
Josiah J Herzog, Mugdha Deshpande, Leah Shapiro, Avital A Rodal, Suzanne Paradis
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) share overlapping genetic causes and disease symptoms, and are linked neuropathologically by the RNA binding protein TDP-43 (TAR DNA binding protein-43 kDa). TDP-43 regulates RNA metabolism, trafficking, and localization of thousands of target genes. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which dysfunction of TDP-43 contributes to disease pathogenesis and progression remain unclear. Severe changes in the structure of neuronal dendritic arbors disrupt proper circuit connectivity, which in turn could contribute to neurodegenerative disease...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114073/cellular-and-molecular-analysis-of-dendritic-morphogenesis-in-a-retinal-cell-type-that-senses-color-contrast-and-ventral-motion
#12
Jinyue Liu, Joshua R Sanes
As neuronal dendrites develop, they acquire cell type-specific features including characteristic size, shape, arborization, location and synaptic patterns. These features, in turn, are major determinants of type-specific neuronal function. Because neuronal diversity complicates the task of relating developmental programs to adult structure and function, we analyzed dendritic morphogenesis in a single retinal ganglion cell (RGC) type in mouse called J-RGC. We documented the emergence of five dendritic features that underlie J-RGC physiology: (1) dendritic field size, which approximate receptive field size; (2) dendritic complexity, which affects how J-RGCs sample space; (3) asymmetry, which contributes to direction-selectivity; (4) restricted lamination within the inner plexiform layer (IPL), which renders J-RGCs responsive to light decrements; and (5) distribution of synaptic inputs, which generate a color-opponent receptive field...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114051/dscam-mediated-control-of-dendritic-and-axonal-arbor-outgrowth-enforces-tiling-and-inhibits-synaptic-plasticity
#13
Aaron B Simmons, Samuel J Bloomsburg, Joshua M Sukeena, Calvin J Miller, Yohaniz Ortega-Burgos, Bart G Borghuis, Peter G Fuerst
Mature mammalian neurons have a limited ability to extend neurites and make new synaptic connections, but the mechanisms that inhibit such plasticity remain poorly understood. Here, we report that OFF-type retinal bipolar cells in mice are an exception to this rule, as they form new anatomical connections within their tiled dendritic fields well after retinal maturity. The Down syndrome cell-adhesion molecule (Dscam) confines these anatomical rearrangements within the normal tiled fields, as conditional deletion of the gene permits extension of dendrite and axon arbors beyond these borders...
November 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107098/corticosteroid-induced-dendrite-loss-and-behavioral-deficiencies-can-be-blocked-by-activation-of-abl2-arg-kinase
#14
Lauren P Shapiro, Mitchell H Omar, Anthony J Koleske, Shannon L Gourley
Stressor exposure induces neuronal remodeling in specific brain regions. Given the persistence of stress-related illnesses, key next steps in determining the contributions of neural structure to mental health are to identify cell types that fail to recover from stressor exposure and to identify "trigger points" and molecular underpinnings of stress-related neural degeneration. We evaluated dendrite arbor structure on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons before, during, and following prolonged exposure to one key mediator of the stress response - corticosterone (cortisol in humans)...
October 26, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094302/morphological-determinants-of-dendritic-arborization-neurons-in-drosophila-larva
#15
Sumit Nanda, Ravi Das, Shatabdi Bhattacharjee, Daniel N Cox, Giorgio A Ascoli
Pairing in vivo imaging and computational modeling of dendritic arborization (da) neurons from the fruit fly larva provides a unique window into neuronal growth and underlying molecular processes. We image, reconstruct, and analyze the morphology of wild-type, RNAi-silenced, and mutant da neurons. We then use local and global rule-based stochastic simulations to generate artificial arbors, and identify the parameters that statistically best approximate the real data. We observe structural homeostasis in all da classes, where an increase in size of one dendritic stem is compensated by a reduction in the other stems of the same neuron...
November 1, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089437/transient-hypoxemia-chronically-disrupts-maturation-of-preterm-fetal-ovine-subplate-neuron-arborization-and-activity
#16
Evelyn McClendon, Daniel C Shaver, Kiera Degener-O'Brien, Xi Gong, Thuan Nguyen, Anna Hoerder-Suabedissen, Zoltán Molnár, Claudia Mohr, Ben D Richardson, David J Rossi, Stephen A Back
Preterm infants are at risk for a broad spectrum of neurobehavioral disabilities associated with diffuse disturbances in cortical growth and development. During brain development, subplate neurons (SPNs) are a largely transient population that serves a critical role to establish functional cortical circuits. By dynamically integrating into developing cortical circuits they assist in consolidation of intra and extracortical circuits. Although SPNs reside in close proximity to cerebral white matter, which is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress, the susceptibility of SPNs remains controversial...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078305/%C3%AE-iii-spectrin-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-5-mutation-reveals-a-dominant-cytoskeletal-mechanism-that-underlies-dendritic-arborization
#17
Adam W Avery, David D Thomas, Thomas S Hays
A spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 (SCA5) L253P mutation in the actin-binding domain (ABD) of β-III-spectrin causes high-affinity actin binding and decreased thermal stability in vitro. Here we show in mammalian cells, at physiological temperature, that the mutant ABD retains high-affinity actin binding. Significantly, we provide evidence that the mutation alters the mobility and recruitment of β-III-spectrin in mammalian cells, pointing to a potential disease mechanism. To explore this mechanism, we developed a Drosophila SCA5 model in which an equivalent mutant Drosophila β-spectrin is expressed in neurons that extend complex dendritic arbors, such as Purkinje cells, targeted in SCA5 pathogenesis...
October 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074578/dynein-and-eff-1-control-dendrite-morphology-through-regulating-the-localization-pattern-of-sax-7-in-epidermal-cells
#18
Ting Zhu, Xing Liang, Xiangming Wang, Kang Shen
Our previous work showed the cell adhesion molecule SAX-7 formed an elaborate pattern in epidermal cell, which instructs PVD dendrite branching. However, the molecular mechanism forming the SAX-7 pattern in the epidermis is not fully understood. Here, we report that the dynein light intermediate chain DLI-1, and the fusogen EFF-1 are required in epidermal cells to pattern SAX-7. While previous reports suggest these two molecules act cell-autonomously in PVD, our results showed the disorganized PVD dendritic arbors in these mutants are due to the abnormal SAX-7 localization patterns in epidermal cells...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069439/2-45%C3%A2-ghz-microwave-radiation-impairs-hippocampal-learning-and-spatial-memory-involvement-of-local-stress-mechanism-induced-suppression-of-iglur-erk-creb-signaling
#19
Saba Shahin, Somanshu Banerjee, Vivek Swarup, Surya Pal Singh, Chandra Mohini Chaturvedi
Microwave (MW) radiation induced oxidative stress reduces dendritic arborization, spine density and number of hippocampal pyramidal neurons and hence, impair learning and spatial memory through p53-dependent/independent apoptosis of hippocampal neuronal and non-neuronal cells. However, the mechanisms responsible for MW radiation induced impairment in memory formation remains still unknown. Present study elucidates the effect of short (15 days) and long-term (30 and 60 days) low level 2.45 GHz MW radiation induced local stress on the hippocampal spatial memory formation pathway in adult male mice...
October 23, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066292/rem2-signaling-affects-neuronal-structure-and-function-in-part-by-regulation-of-gene-expression
#20
Katelyn Kenny, Leandro Royer, Anna R Moore, Xiao Chen, Michael T Marr, Suzanne Paradis
The central nervous system has the remarkable ability to convert changes in the environment in the form of sensory experience into long-term alterations in synaptic connections and dendritic arborization, in part through changes in gene expression. Surprisingly, the molecular mechanisms that translate neuronal activity into changes in neuronal connectivity and morphology remain elusive. Rem2, a member of the Rad/Rem/Rem2/Gem/Kir (RGK) subfamily of small Ras-like GTPases, is a positive regulator of synapse formation and negative regulator of dendritic arborization...
October 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
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