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Ravi Bhatia, Dinesh Rajwaniya
Congenital hypothyroidism remains one of the most common preventable causes of mental retardation among children. Screening for congenital hypothyroidism remains one of the most cost-effective tools to prevent mental retardation in the population. Umbilical cord blood thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels remain an attractive and a practical step for screening for congenital hypothyroidism. The aims of this study were as follows: (1) to find normative values of cord blood TSH for the study group and (2) to use cord blood TSH levels as a marker for screening of congenital hypothyroidism...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Lulu Abushaban, Thinakar Vel Mariappa, Jebaraj Rathinasamy, Prem N Sharma
Objective: To establish normal reference ranges and Z -scores for aortic diameters in preterm infants according to the body surface area and assess their correlation with body weight, body surface area, and gestational age. Patients and methods: In a prospective study, 268 preterm infants who fulfilled the criteria for inclusion were examined. Echocardiograms were performed to measure the ascending aorta, transverse aorta, and aortic isthmus diameters on 0 days to 6 days of life and at weekly intervals until the babies reached 36 weeks...
April 2018: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
Mohini Yadav, Gauri Chauhan, A K Bhardwaj, P D Sharma
The clinical and etiological pattern of ventilated newborns, their outcome in relation to morbidity and mortality was studied with 50 ventilated newborns, including outborns. M:f ratio was 2.1:1. The most common gestational age 28-36 weeks (60%) and mostly were appropriate for gestational age (66%). Survival rate 40% (20/50) being directly proportional to the gestational age and intrauterine growth pattern ( P < 0.01). Babies by LSCS Lower Segment Cessarian Section survived more than born by normal vaginal delivery (46...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
J Manuel Palomino, Lori Jones, Tom Vanhanen, Gabriela F Mastromonaco, Rachel Busato, Gregg P Adams
This study evaluated the feasibility of using an embryo transfer protocol in an alpaca farm in Canada. Alpaca donors and recipients were synchronized with 2 doses of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), 12 days apart. In donors ( n = 5), superstimulation was induced with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) given daily (40 mg) for 5 days beginning 2 days after the second GnRH treatment. Cloprostenol was given on the last day of FSH, the donors were bred 2 days later, embryos were collected 7 days after breeding...
June 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Po-Ming Wu, Hsin-I Shih, Wen-Hao Yu, Li-Wen Chen, Lie-Chuan Wang, Chao-Ching Huang, Yi-Fang Tu
BACKGROUND: The neonatal changes of corpus callosum or cerebellar volume in preterm infants have been shown to link with abnormal mentality and motor disability in early childhood. This study aims to predict the long-term neurological outcomes by measuring these changes on neonatal brain ultrasound in preterm infants. METHODS: Our cohort consisted of infants aged below 32 weeks' gestation with very low birth body weights who completed neuro-assessments at 5 years of age...
June 1, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Jenny McLeish, Maggie Redshaw
BACKGROUND: Disadvantaged mothers and their babies are at increased risk of poor perinatal outcomes and have less positive experiences of maternity care. AIM: To explore the maternity care experiences of mothers with multiple disadvantages. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study based on semi-structured interviews with 40 mothers with multiple disadvantages, using thematic analysis. FINDINGS: Four themes emerged: 'A confusing and frightening time', 'Longing to be respected as an individual', 'The importance of choice and control', and 'Needing trust to feel safe'...
June 14, 2018: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
A Tasseau, E Walter-Nicolet, F Autret
INTRODUCTION: The first exchanges between a newborn baby and its mother are essential. Any separation can have negative effects on the establishment of the first connections as well as breastfeeding. OBJECTIVE: To establish the current state of management of healthy newborn babies in the delivery room and assess the reasons for possible separation and the feelings of mothers facing this separation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational descriptive single-center study, made up of two parts: 1/a questionnaire given to the mothers, postpartum; 2/the collection of data concerning the transfer of healthy newborn babies to the nursery...
June 14, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
S Humphry, D Thompson, R Evans, N Price, P Williams
Introduction In 2014 our centre started a dedicated clinic for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The aim of the clinic was to streamline DDH referrals, enabling timely review, imaging and multidisciplinary treatment. Ongoing audit has been carried out based on the UK National Screening Committee newborn and infant physical examination (NIPE) guidelines, first published in 2008. Methods A three-year prospective audit was undertaken between 2014 and 2016 assessing compliance with NIPE standards (ST2b and ST2d) relating to timeliness of expert consultation following positive ultrasonography findings of DDH with positive examination or risk factors...
June 18, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
István Gera
Data from epidemiological and clinical studies published in the past two decades indicate certain association between periodontal disease and increased risk for preterm birth or low birth weight. Although the strength of those observed associations is weak, periodontitis today is considered as one of the potentially modifiable risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aims of the publication are to summarize the epidemiological and clinical evidence for the impact of periodontal disease on adverse pregnancy outcomes and to make an attempt to overview the potential biological mechanism behind this association...
June 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Iman F Iskander, Khaled M Salama, Rasha M Gamaleldin, Jerard Seghatchian
Preterm neonates represent one of the most transfused categories of patients. Their target hematocrits, however, are mainly based on expert opinion. The risk of transfusions are very high in the smallest preterm baby with a weak immune response, immature antioxidant ability, fragile germinal matrix and impaired cerebral autoregulation, yet red cell transfusions remain the only life saving measure in the baby with symptomatic anemia. Minimizing phlebotomy losses, following a restrictive transfusion policy and using screened, leukocyte depleted, irradiated, single donor blood remain the best means of avoiding the possible risks while maximizing the benefits of red cell transfusions in the preterm newborn...
May 9, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Simon Fishel
On July 25, 1978, the first human was born following extracorporeal fertilization, an event that opened up a new medical science: expanding our knowledge of and developing novel treatments for infertility, radically changing the opportunities for families with inherited monogenic disorders, generating the new discipline of clinical embryology, and paving the way for studies into stem cell biology. In vitro fertilization (IVF), as it became known in its simplest form, went even further: it engaged the myriad of minds in human society...
June 13, 2018: Fertility and Sterility
Edward Fottrell, Naveed Ahmed, Badrun Nahar, Sanjit Kumer Shaha, Abdul Kuddus, Carlos S Grijalva-Eternod, Tasmin Nahar, Caroline Fall, Clive Osmond, Virginia Govoni, Sarah Finer, Chittaranjan Yajnik, A K Azad Khan, Anthony Costello, Kishwar Azad, Graham A Hitman
BACKGROUND: Women's groups interventions in Bangladesh reduced neonatal deaths by 38% and improved hygienic delivery, newborn care practices and breast feeding. We explore the longer-term impact of exposure to women's groups during pregnancy on child growth at 2-4 years. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey of child anthropometric measures (analysed as z-scores) among children born to women who had participated in the women's groups interventions while pregnant, compared with an age-matched and sex-matched sample of children born to control mothers...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Panagiotis Tsikouras, Anna Christoforidou, Anastasia Bothou, Dorelia Deuteraiou, Xanthoula Anthoulaki, Anna Chalkidou, Stefanos Zervoudis, Georgios Galazios
BACKGROUND: The risk of thromboembolic events during pregnancy in patients with antithrombin deficiency is increased. Preventing thromboembolic events during pregnancy in the case of antithrombin deficiency is still a matter of concern. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 19-year-old primigravida Greek Pomak woman, who was diagnosed as having congenital antithrombin deficiency. She had a history of recurrent miscarriages and a family history of thrombosis...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Margaret W Moreland, Claudiu Faraon-Pogaceanu, Linda S Nield
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: Clinical Pediatrics
Tengda Zhao, Yuehua Xu, Yong He
The human brain undergoes explosive growth during the prenatal period and the first few postnatal years, establishing an early infrastructure for the later development of behaviors and cognitions. Revealing the developmental rules during the early phrase is essential in understanding the emergence of brain function and the origin of developmental disorders. The graph-theoretical network modeling in combination with multiple neuroimaging probes provides an important research framework to explore early development of the topological wiring and organizational paradigms of the brain...
June 12, 2018: NeuroImage
Jonathan Huang, Brenda Eskenazi, Riana Bornman, Stephen Rauch, Jonathan Chevrier
BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides, conducted in low- and middle-income countries to control malaria, may result in high exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), its breakdown product dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), or pyrethroids. Animal studies suggest in utero exposure to these chemicals may increase childhood infection frequency. OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between maternal DDT/E and pyrethroid metabolite concentration and child infection associations in an IRS setting in which susceptibility factors are common and infections are leading causes of child morbidity and mortality...
June 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Megan Lydon, Monica Longwe, Dyson Likomwa, Victoria Lwesha, Lydia Chimtembo, Pamela Donohue, Tanya Guenther, Bina Valsangar
Background: Despite introduction of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) in Malawi over a decade ago, preterm birth remains the leading cause of neonatal mortality. Although KMC is initiated in the health care facility, robust community follow-up is critical for survival and optimal development of preterm and low birth weight infants post-discharge. The objective of this qualitative study was to gain insight into community and health worker understanding, attitudes, beliefs and practices around preterm and low birth weight babies and KMC in Malawi...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
Thuy-My N Truong, Taryn N McGilvery, Tove M Goldson, Samuel N Forjuoh
A previously healthy 3-month-old girl was admitted to the hospital after 1 day of fever, decreased oral intake, irritability, lethargy, and decreased activity. Examination disclosed a bulging anterior fontanelle, tachycardia (heart rate of 160 beats/minute), and urate crystals in her diaper. Lumbar puncture revealed meningitis. She was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and fluids. A urine culture was negative, but blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures came back positive for Salmonella species, nontyphoid...
July 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
Michelle M Haby, Mariona Pinart, Vanessa Elias, Ludovic Reveiz
Objective: To conduct a systematic review to estimate the prevalence of asymptomatic Zika virus infection in the general population and in specific population groups. Methods: We searched PubMed®, Embase® and LILACS online databases from inception to 26 January 2018. We included observational epidemiological studies where laboratory testing was used to confirm positive exposure of participants to Zika virus and in which Zika virus symptom status was also recorded...
June 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Jon Cohen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2018: Science
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