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Daveena Meeks, Susan E Robinson, David Macleod, Eugene Oteng-Ntim
Pregnancy in women with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) has been linked with an increased incidence of adverse foetal outcomes when compared to women without haemoglobinopathies (HbAA). There's a paucity of data into foetal outcomes for infants born to women with SCD. Customised growth charts have been demonstrated to be better than population-based growth charts at identifying unhealthy small babies. We analysed the mean birth weight and customised birth weight centiles of infants born to mothers with SCD versus mothers with HbAA genotype, to quantify the risk of having a smaller baby...
2016: PloS One
Joey Berlin
A shoulder dystocia birth in which the baby was born with neurologic dysfunction is the focus of a negligence lawsuit with broad legal implications.
October 1, 2016: Texas Medicine
Gavino Faa, Mirko Manchia, Roberta Pintus, Clara Gerosa, Maria Antonietta Marcialis, Vassilios Fanos
Starting from the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypotheses proposed by David Barker, namely fetal programming, in the past years, there is a growing evidence of the major role played by epigenetic factors during the intrauterine life and the perinatal period. Furthermore, it has been assessed that these factors can affect the health status in infancy and even in adulthood. In this review, we focus our attention on the fetal programming of the brain, analyzing the most recent literature concerning the epigenetic factors that can influence the development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorders, major depressive disorders, and schizophrenia...
October 24, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
Valerie J Morley, Mark Sistrom, Jose A Usme-Ciro, Susanna K Remold, Paul E Turner
Virus populations may be challenged to evolve in spatially heterogeneous environments, such as mixtures of host cells that pose differing selection pressures. Spatial heterogeneity may select for evolved polymorphisms, where multiple virus subpopulations coexist by specializing on a narrow subset of the available hosts. Alternatively, spatial heterogeneity may select for evolved generalism, where a single genotype dominates the virus population by occupying a relatively broader host niche. In addition, the extent of spatial heterogeneity should influence the degree of divergence among virus populations encountering identical environmental challenges...
January 2016: Virus Evolution
Sonia M Suter
Advances in science have made possible the derivation of reproductively viable gametes in vitro from mice. The research on human cells suggests that in vitro gametogenesis ("IVG") with reproductive potential may one day be possible with humans. This technology would allow same-sex couples to have children who are biologically related to both of them; allow single individuals to procreate without the genetic contribution of another individual; and facilitate "multiplex" parenting, where groups of more than two individuals procreate together, producing children who are the genetic progeny of them all...
April 2016: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
Ankana Daga, Fredrick Dapaah-Siakwan, Sharina Rajbhandari, Cassandra Arevalo, Agnes Salvador
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill premature infants. There is a lack of consensus on the diagnostic definition of AKI in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. The primary aim of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for AKI in VLBW infants using the AKI network (AKIN) and pRIFLE (pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage) criteria and to evaluate whether Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB II) score is a predictor of AKI. The secondary objective was to determine the extent of agreement between the AKIN and pRIFLE criteria in the diagnosis of AKI in VLBW infants...
September 28, 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Lisa I Iezzoni, Amy J Wint, Suzanne C Smeltzer, Jeffrey L Ecker
BACKGROUND: Although growing numbers of women with mobility disability are becoming pregnant and desiring motherhood, relatively little is known about their pregnancy experiences or what they might recommend to other women with mobility disability contemplating pregnancy. METHODS: Using a semistructured, open-ended interview protocol, we conducted 2-hour telephone interviews with 22 women who had a significant mobility disability before becoming pregnant and had delivered babies within the prior 10 years...
October 20, 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Julia M Goodman, Sylvia Guendelman, Kristen H Kjerulff
BACKGROUND: Most employed American women work during pregnancy and continue working through the month they deliver. Yet, few studies estimate the relationship between maternity leave taken during pregnancy and maternal health. We evaluate the association of antenatal leave (ANL) uptake with obstetric outcomes, assessing the potential role of protective and adverse selection pathways on this relationship. METHODS: We sample 1,740 employed women who delivered at term from the First Baby Study, a prospective cohort of nulliparous women in Pennsylvania...
October 20, 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Levent Cerit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Geeta Karambelkar, Sudhir Malwade, Rajendra Karambelkar
OBJECTIVE: To study the actual cost of care per patient in private-sector level IIIa Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). METHODS: Prospective cost-analysis study. Cost incurred by the family on the treatment of baby, separately for every newborn for entire length of hospitalization, was calculated. RESULTS: 126 newborns were enrolled; High level of intervention was needed for 25.4% babies. The mean cost of care was US $ 90.7 per patient per day...
September 8, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Tomás Lejarraga, Jan K Woike, Ralph Hertwig
A few years ago, the world experienced the most severe economic crisis since the Great Depression. According to the depression baby hypothesis, people who live through such macroeconomic shocks take less financial risk in their future lives (e.g., lower stock market participation). This hypothesis has previously been tested against survey data. Here, we tested it in a simulated experimental stock market (based on the Spanish stock index, IBEX-35), varying both the length of historical data available to participants (including or excluding a macroeconomic shock) and the mode of learning about macroeconomic events (through sequential experience or symbolic descriptions)...
October 20, 2016: Cognition
M Kochlamazashvili, Kh Khatiashvili, M Butsashvili, O Chubinishvili, Sh Khetsuriani, G Kamkamidze
In Georgia, causative agents among infants with systemic infections are generally not identified and "neonatal sepsis" is usually diagnosed and treated without determining the etiology. The objective of this study was to estimate the role of viral pathogens (Herpesviridae and Enteroviruses) among neonates with generalized infections. A cross-sectional study was performed among neonates younger than <8 weeks admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at the two largest pediatric hospitals in Tbilisi, Georgia...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Nail Altunay, Ramazan Gürkan, Ulaş Orhan
Acrylamide is a toxic species for human health, and is a Maillard reaction product which forms spontaneously in heat treatment process of foods. Therefore, a simple, fast and cost-effective method was developed for the indirect determination of acrylamide in processed foods particularly consumed by children. The method is based on ion-pairing of acrylamide with fluorescein (F(2-)) in presence of Ni(II) ions at pH 9.0, and then extraction of the formed ternary complex into micellar phase of poly(ethyleneglycol-mono-p-nonylphenylether) (PONPE 7...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Songyot Pilasant, Wantanee Kulpeng, Pitsaphun Werayingyong, Nattha Tritasavit, Inthira Yamabhai, Yot Teerawattananon, Sangay Wangmo, Sripen Tantivess
BACKGROUND: The Maternal and Child Health Voucher Scheme (MCHVS) was introduced in Myanmar to address the high rate of maternal and infant mortalities. It aimed to increase access to maternal and child health (MCH) services by skilled birth attendants (SBAs) and improve the health of pregnant women and their babies. A study to pilot a voucher scheme was implemented in May 2013 in Yedarshey Township. This paper provides a report on a mid-term review of the programme after 7 months of implementation to determine the outcomes of the programme and its impediments...
October 21, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Jialin Zhang, Wenxing Liu, Weiye Chen, Cuicui Li, Meimei Xie, Zhigao Bu
From 2013 to 2015, peste des petits ruminants (PPR) broke out in more than half of the provinces of China; thus, the application and development of diagnostic methods are very important for the control of PPR. Here, an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) was developed to detect antibodies against PPR. However, during IPMA development, we found that Vero cells were not the appropriate choice because staining results were not easily observed. Therefore, we first established a baby hamster kidney-goat signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (BHK-SLAM) cell line that could stably express goat SLAM for at least 20 generations...
2016: PloS One
Iulia Bădescu, M Anne Katzenberg, David P Watts, Daniel W Sellen
OBJECTIVES: Determining nutritional development in wild primates is difficult through observations because confirming dietary intake is challenging. Physiological measures are needed to determine the relative contributions of maternal milk and other foods at different ages, and time of weaning. We used fecal stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ(13) C, δ(15) N) and fecal nitrogen concentrations (%N) from wild chimpanzees at Ngogo, Uganda, to derive physiological dietary indicators during the transition from total reliance on maternal milk to adult foods after weaning...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Amy J Wint, Diane L Smith, Lisa I Iezzoni
OBJECTIVE: This study describes how women with physical disability experience caregiving for a new infant and how they adapt their home environment and care tasks. METHOD: In 2013, we conducted 2-hr telephone interviews with 22 women with significant physical disability who had delivered babies within the previous 10 yr. The semistructured, open-ended interview protocol addressed wide-ranging pregnancy-related topics. NVivo was used to sort the texts for content analysis...
November 2016: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Márcia Lazaro de Carvalho, Cristiano Siqueira Boccolini, Maria Inês Couto de Oliveira, Maria do Carmo Leal
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding in the first hour after birth is important for the success of breastfeeding and in reducing neonatal mortality. Government policies are being developed in this direction, highlighting the accreditation of hospitals in the Baby-Friendly Hospital (BFH) initiative. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between delivery in a BFH (main exposure), compared to non BFH, and timely initiation of breastfeeding (outcome). METHODS: Data came from the "Birth in Brazil" survey, a nationwide hospital-based study of postpartum women and their newborns, coordinated by the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
Ishfaq A Sheikh, Ejaz Ahmad, Mohammad S Jamal, Mohd Rehan, Mourad Assidi, Iftikhar A Tayubi, Samera F AlBasri, Osama S Bajouh, Rola F Turki, Adel M Abuzenadah, Ghazi A Damanhouri, Mohd A Beg, Mohammed Al-Qahtani
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (PTB), birth at <37 weeks of gestation, is a significant global public health problem. World-wide, about 15 million babies are born preterm each year resulting in more than a million deaths of children. Preterm neonates are more prone to problems and need intensive care hospitalization. Health issues may persist through early adulthood and even be carried on to the next generation. Majority (70 %) of PTBs are spontaneous with about a half without any apparent cause and the other half associated with a number of risk factors...
October 17, 2016: BMC Genomics
Toshiyuki Iwahata, Takeshi Shin, Yukihito Shimomura, Keisuke Suzuki, Tomohiro Kobayashi, Akane Miyata, Yoshitomo Kobori, Shigehiro Soh, Hiroshi Okada
OBJECTIVES: To present a single-center experience with testicular sperm extraction and intracytoplasmic sperm injection for fathering biological children in patients with ejaculatory dysfunction as a result of spinal cord injury. METHODS: Testicular sperm extraction was carried out in 52 male patients with ejaculatory dysfunction as a result of spinal cord injury. We investigated sperm retrieval rates and pregnancy rates from medical records. Data on age, testicular volume, hormonal status (luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone), and time since spinal cord injury were obtained and analyzed to detect potential associations with the presence of spermatogenesis...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
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