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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915478/targeting-the-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-pathway-in-gastric-cancer-can-omics-improve-outcomes
#1
REVIEW
Phu Tran, Cham Nguyen, Samuel J Klempner
Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway signaling is an established oncogenic signal transduction pathway implicated in multiple malignancies. Therapeutic targeting of PI3K pathway components has improved outcomes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, kidney cancer, breast cancer, and neuroendocrine tumors. Gastric cancers harbor some of the highest rates of oncogenic alterations in PI3K but attempts to translate this genomic observation have met with limited clinical success and novel approaches are needed...
November 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915366/aging-has-the-opposite-effect-on-camp-and-cgmp-circadian-variations-in-rat-leydig-cells
#2
Aleksandar Z Baburski, Srdjan J Sokanovic, Silvana A Andric, Tatjana S Kostic
The Leydig cell physiology displays a circadian rhythm driven by a complex interaction of the reproductive axis hormones and circadian system. The final output of this regulatory process is circadian pattern of steroidogenic genes expression and testosterone production. Aging gradually decreases robustness of rhythmic testosterone secretion without change in pattern of LH secretion. Here, we analyzed effect of aging on circadian variation of cAMP and cGMP signaling in Leydig cells. Results showed opposite effect of aging on cAMP and cGMP daily variation...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915349/roles-of-1-25-oh-2d3-and-vitamin-d-receptor-in-the-pathogenesis-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-by-regulating-the-activation-of-cd4-t-cells-and-the-pkc%C3%AE-erk-signaling-pathway
#3
Xiao-Jie He, Yan Ding, Wei Xiang, Xi-Qiang Dang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The study aims to elucidate the roles of 1,25(OH)2D3 and vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by regulating the activation of CD4+ T cells and the PKCδ/ERK signaling pathway. METHODS: From January 2013 to December 2015, a total of 130 SLE patients, 137 RA patients and 130 healthy controls were selected in this study. Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 and VDR mRNA expression were detected by ELISA and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR)...
December 5, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915346/mir-181a-targets-phlpp2-to-augment-akt-signaling-and-regulate-proliferation-and-apoptosis-in-human-keloid-fibroblasts
#4
Zhen Rang, Zong-Yang Wang, Qiu-Yu Pang, You-Wei Wang, Ge Yang, Fan Cui
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Keloids are fibrous overgrowths induced by cutaneous injury. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as post-transcriptional gene repressors and participants in a diverse array of pathophysiological processes leading to skin disease. The purpose of the current study was to explore the precise functions of miR-181a in human keloid development and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: A miRNA microarray analysis was performed to compare expression profiles between keloid and normal skin tissues...
December 5, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915243/signaling-pathways-of-replication-stress-in-yeast
#5
Benjamin Pardo, Laure Crabbé, Philippe Pasero
Eukaryotic cells activate the S-phase checkpoint in response to a variety of events affecting the progression of replication forks, collectively referred to as replication stress. This signaling pathway is divided in two branches: the DNA damage checkpoint (DDC) and the DNA replication checkpoint (DRC). Both pathways are activated by the sensor kinase Mec1 and converge on the effector kinase Rad53. However, the DDC operates throughout the cell cycle and depends on the checkpoint mediator Rad9 to activate Rad53, whereas the DRC is specific to S phase and is mediated by Mrc1 and other fork components to signal replication impediments...
December 2, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915233/molecular-basis-for-the-autonomous-promotion-of-cell-proliferation-by-angiogenin
#6
Trish T Hoang, Ronald T Raines
Canonical growth factors act indirectly via receptor-mediated signal transduction pathways. Here, we report on an autonomous pathway in which a growth factor is internalized, has its localization regulated by phosphorylation, and ultimately uses intrinsic catalytic activity to effect epigenetic change. Angiogenin (ANG), a secreted vertebrate ribonuclease, is known to promote cell proliferation, leading to neovascularization as well as neuroprotection in mammals. Upon entering cells, ANG encounters the cytosolic ribonuclease inhibitor protein, which binds with femtomolar affinity...
December 2, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915186/role-of-the-purinergic-signaling-in-epilepsy
#7
REVIEW
Marek Cieślak, Andrzej Wojtczak, Michał Komoszyński
Adenine nucleotides and adenosine are signaling molecules that activate purinergic receptors P1 and P2. Activation of A1 adenosine receptors has an anticonvulsant action, whereas activation of A2A receptors might initiate seizures. Therefore, a significant limitation to the use of A1 receptor agonists as drugs in the CNS might be their peripheral side effects. The anti-epileptic activity of adenosine is related to its increased concentration outside the cell. This increase might result from the inhibition of the equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs)...
September 22, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915142/atrazine-triggers-hepatic-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-quails-coturnix-c-coturnix-via-blocking-nrf2-mediated-defense-response
#8
Cong Zhang, Xue-Nan Li, Li-Run Xiang, Lei Qin, Jia Lin, Jin-Long Li
The bioaccumulation and environmental persistence of atrazine (ATZ) poses a severe hazard to animal ecosystem. Quail has strong sensitivity to environmental pollutant, thus it is one of the most important ecological pollution indicator. However, true proof for the effects of ATZ exposure on the liver of quails is lacking. To evaluate the liver injury and the role of Nrf2-mediated defense responses during ATZ exposure, male quails were treated with ATZ (0, 50, 250 and 500mg/kg) by oral gavage for 45 days. Histopathological and ultrastructural changes, oxidative stress indices, apoptosis-related factors and Nrf2 pathway were detected...
December 1, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915086/metabolism-and-neurogenesis
#9
REVIEW
Marlen Knobloch, Sebastian Jessberger
The generation of neurons in the developing and adult mammalian brain by neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) depends on a tight control of NSPC activity and neuronal differentiation that is regulated by a plethora of intrinsic and extrinsic molecular cues. Besides well-studied morphogenic signaling pathways and transcriptional codes that govern the distinct developmental steps from the dividing NSPC to a functional neuron, a critical role of cellular metabolism to determine the functional properties of NSPCs and newborn neurons has been recently identified...
December 1, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915054/curdione-attenuates-thrombin-induced-human-platelet-activation-%C3%AE-1-tubulin-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target
#10
Dongling Zhang, Wenhao Qiao, Yingli Zhao, Hui Fang, Dujuan Xu, Quan Xia
Rhizoma Curcumae, the dry rhizomes derived from Curcuma aromatica Salisb., are a classical Chinese medicinal herb used to activate blood circulation, remove blood stasis and alleviate pain. Our previous study proved that curdione, a sesquiterpene compound isolated from the essential oil of Curcuma aromatica Salisb. can inhibit platelet activation suggesting its significant anticoagulant and antithrombotic effects. However, the underlying mechanism of curdione mediated anti-platelet effect has not been fully elucidated...
November 30, 2016: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915046/dna-damage-related-crosstalk-between-the-nucleus-and-mitochondria
#11
Mohammad Saki, Aishwarya Prakash
The electron transport chain is the primary pathway by which a cell generates energy in the form of ATP. Byproducts of this process produce reactive oxygen species that can cause damage to mitochondrial DNA. If not properly repaired, the accumulation of DNA damage can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction linked to several human disorders including neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Mitochondria are able to combat oxidative DNA damage via repair mechanisms that are analogous to those found in the nucleus. Of the repair pathways currently reported in the mitochondria, the base excision repair pathway is the most comprehensively described...
November 30, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915042/non-coding-rnas-and-berberine-a-new-mechanism-of-its-anti-diabetic-activities
#12
REVIEW
Wenguang Chang
Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disease with high mortality and morbidity. Non-coding RNAs, including small and long non-coding RNAs, are a novel class of functional RNA molecules that regulate multiple biological functions through diverse mechanisms. Studies in the last decade have demonstrated that non-coding RNAs may represent compelling therapeutic targets and play important roles in regulating the course of insulin resistance and T2D. Berberine, a plant-based alkaloid, has shown promise as an anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic agent against T2D...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914997/transcriptomic-profiles-of-striped-snakehead-fish-cells-ssn-1-infected-with-red-spotted-grouper-nervous-necrosis-virus-rgnnv-with-an-emphasis-on-apoptosis-pathway
#13
Wenjie Chen, Lizhu Yi, Shuangshuang Feng, Xiaodan Liu, Muhammad Asim, Yongcan Zhou, Jiangfeng Lan, Sanjie Jiang, Jiagang Tu, Li Lin
Nervous necrosis virus (NNV), the causative agent of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease, has caused mass mortality of cultured marine and freshwater fish worldwide, resulting in enormous economic losses in the aquaculture industry. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of NNV are still poorly understood. In this study, the transcriptomic profiles of striped snakehead fish (Channa striatus) cells (SSN-1) infected with red-spotted grouper NNV (RGNNV) were investigated using deep RNA sequencing technique...
November 30, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914980/cloning-and-characterization-of-adipogenin-and-its-overexpression-enhances-fat-accumulation-of-bovine-myosatellite-cells
#14
Yang Liu, Bijie Jiang, Changzhen Fu, Ruijie Hao
Adipogenin (ADIG) is an adipocyte-specific membrane protein highly expressed in adipose tissues and is increased during the adipocyte differentiation. However, the roles and mechanisms of ADIG on fat accumulation and adipocyte differentiation in ex vivo still largely unknown. In this study, we isolated bovine myosatellite cells based on adhesion characteristics to investigate whether ADIG overexpression could promote trans-differentiation and increase fat accumulation in myosatellite cells. Immunofluorescence labeling was then used for the phenotypic characteristics of myosatellite...
November 30, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914942/is-there-a-role-for-ghrelin-in-central-dopaminergic-systems-focus-on-nigrostriatal-and-mesocorticolimbic-pathways
#15
REVIEW
Alicia Stievenard, Mathieu Méquinion, Zane B Andrews, Alain Destée, Marie-Christine Chartier-Harlin, Odile Viltart, Christel C Vanbesien-Mailliot
The gastro-intestinal peptide ghrelin has been assigned many functions. These include appetite regulation, energy metabolism, glucose homeostasis, intestinal motility, anxiety, memory or neuroprotection. In the last decade, this pleiotropic peptide has been proposed as a therapeutic agent in gastroparesis for diabetes and in cachexia for cancer. Ghrelin and its receptor, which is expressed throughout the brain, play an important role in motivation and reward. Ghrelin finely modulates the mesencephalic dopaminergic signaling and is thus currently studied in pathological conditions including dopamine-related disorders...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914941/therapeutic-role-of-sirtuins-in-neurodegenerative-disease-and-their-modulation-by-polyphenols
#16
REVIEW
Marjan Ajami, Hamidreza Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamed Amani, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Nady Braidy, Rosa Anna Vacca, Atanas Georgiev Atanasov, Andrei Mocan, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
Searching for effective therapeutic agents‏‎ to ‎‏prevent‏ ‏neurodegeneration ‎is a challenging task due ‎to ‎the growing list of neurodegenerative disorders associated with a multitude of inter-related pathways.‎ The induction and inhibition of several different signaling pathways has been shown to slow down and/or attenuate ‎neurodegeneration and decline in cognition and locomotor function. Among these signaling pathways, a new class of enzymes known as sirtuins or silent information regulators of gene transcription has been shown to play important regulatory roles in the ageing process...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914827/inhibition-of-long-non-coding-rna-igf2as-protects-apoptosis-and-neuronal-loss-in-anesthetic-damaged-mouse-neural-stem-cell-derived-neurons
#17
Chengwei Song, Chengjun Song, Kui Chen, Xiangdong Zhang
BACKGROUND: In vitro culture of neural stem cell-derived neurons serves as an excellent model to study anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. In our study, we examined the functional role of long non-coding RNA, IGF2AS, in regulating ketamine-induced neurotoxicity in murine neural stem cells. METHODS: Murine E18.5 brain-derived neural stem cells were cultured in vitro. During neural differentiation stage, ketamine-induced gene expression changes of IGF2 and IGF2AS were recorded by qRT-PCR...
November 30, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914824/nutraceutical-inherent-of-spinacia-oleracea-linn-methanolic-leaf-extract-ameliorates-isoproterenol-induced-myocardial-necrosis-in-male-albino-wistar-rats-via-mitigating-inflammation
#18
Shivaranjani Vutharadhi, Umamaheswari Jolapuram, Lakshmi Devi Kodidhela
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the principal cause of death in both developed and developing countries. The present study was intended to appraise the nutraceutical inherent of HPLC standardized Spinacia oleracea methanolic leaf extract (SoLE) in isoproterenol (ISO) induced male albino Wistar rats via activation of pro-inflammatory signaling pathway that drives myocardial necrosis. Biochemical analysis of ISO injected rats showed significant alterations in the activities of homocysteine, paraoxonase, lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase, C-reactive protein, myeloperoxidase and caspase-3 which were further confirmed by the histopathological examination...
November 30, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914823/rapamycin-inhibits-the-proliferation-of-endothelial-cells-in-hemangioma-by-blocking-the-mtor-fabp4-pathway
#19
Ying Wang, Jiarui Chen, Weiqing Tang, Yanping Zhang, Xiaoyan Li
FABP4 is widely expressed in both normal and pathologic tissues. It promotes cell proliferation, survival and migration of endothelial cells, and therefore, angiogenesis. However, the role of FABP4 in hemangioma or hemangioma endothelial cells (HemECs) has not been explored. In this study, we investigated whether FABP4 directly regulates the proliferation of HemECs. The expression of cell cycle checkpoint genes was analyzed with the microarray data of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDVECs) and infantile hemangioma endothelial cells...
November 30, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914753/store-operated-calcium-entry-from-concept-to-structural-mechanisms
#20
REVIEW
Peter B Stathopulos, Mitsuhiko Ikura
In 1986, J.W. Putney presented a model for capacitative calcium (Ca(2+)) entry conveying that depletion of endoplasmic reticulum stored Ca(2+) levels leads to activation of plasma membrane Ca(2+) channels which mediate influx of Ca(2+) from the extracellular space into cells. Presently, the biomolecules regulating this process, more widely known as store operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) which is vital to myriad signaling pathways in health and disease, are known and the focus of intense structural biology research aiming to illuminate the atomic mechanisms of function...
November 25, 2016: Cell Calcium
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