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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031235/homeobox-genes-and-tooth-development-understanding-the-biological-pathways-and-applications-in-regenerative-dental-science
#1
REVIEW
Anand Ramanathan, Thekkeparambil Chandrabose Srijaya, Prema Sukumaran, Rosnah Binti Zain, Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim
OBJECTIVES: Homeobox genes are a group of conserved class of transcription factors that function as key regulators during the embryonic developmental processes. They act as master regulator for developmental genes, which involves coordinated actions of various auto and cross-regulatory mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the expression pattern of homeobox genes in relation to the tooth development and various signaling pathways or molecules contributing to the specific actions of these genes in the regulation of odontogenesis...
October 4, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031211/cyanidin-3-o-glucoside-inhibits-the-uvb-induced-ros-cox-2-pathway-in-hacat-cells
#2
Yong He, Yunfeng Hu, Xinwei Jiang, Tianfeng Chen, Yuetang Ma, Shi Wu, Jianxia Sun, Rui Jiao, Xiaoling Li, Liehua Deng, Weibin Bai
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight, especially UVB (290-320nm), is one of the most important environmental factors that destroys the integrity of the skin and causes epidermal cell apoptosis, potentially even leading to skin cancer. UVB irradiation can cause skin damage by stimulating inflammatory and apoptotic pathways. Anthocyanins are flavonoids that are common in many vegetable foods, and have also demonstrated chemopreventive effects. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, as a typical anthocyanin, exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031207/microrna-25-inhibits-high-glucose-induced-apoptosis-in-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells-via-pten-akt-pathway
#3
Huicong Li, Xiaoguang Zhu, Junwei Zhang, Jun Shi
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has become the major cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It has been demonstrated that apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells induced by hyperglycemia contributes to the pathogenesis of DN. Recent researches have corroborated the critical roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the apoptosis of various types of cells including renal tubular epithelial cells. However, the eff ; ;ect of miRNAs on the hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells remains unclear...
October 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031144/senegenin-exerts-anti-depression-effect-in-mice-induced-by-chronic-un-predictable-mild-stress-via-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-regulating-nlrp3-signal-pathway
#4
Hongwei Li, Shiyi Lin, Tingting Qin, Hongyan Li, Zhanqiang Ma, Shiping Ma
Depressive disorder is a kind of affective disturbance disease. Emerging evidence has suggested that inflammation may contribute to the pathologic process of depressive disorder. Senegenin (SEN), a major bioactive constituent in Polygala tenuifolia Willd, has much bioactivity including anti-inflammatory and neuroprotection effects. However, the mechanism of its anti-depressant effect in mice remains unknown. This study aimed to explore the anti-depressant effects of SEN on behavioral changes and inflammatory responses in mice induced by chronic un-predictable mild stress (CUMS)...
October 11, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031143/c5a-c5ar-pathway-accelerates-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-downregulating-pgrn-expression
#5
Kun Zhang, Gui-Qing Li, Qian-Hui He, You Li, Ming Tang, Quan-You Zheng, Gui-Lian Xu, Ke-Qin Zhang
Recent reports indicate that the complement C5a/C5aR pathway and progranulin (PGRN) deficiency both contribute to ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced acute kidney injury. However, the underlying relationship between the C5a/C5aR signaling pathway and PGRN expression during acute kidney injury is poorly understood. In this study, we showed that C5aR expression was significantly upregulated after renal IR, and that C5aR deficiency led to a marked increase in PGRN expression and a significant reduction in tubular damage and production of inflammatory cytokines...
October 11, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031142/protective-effects-of-schisandrin-b-on-cigarette-smoke-induced-airway-injury-in-mice-through-nrf2-pathway
#6
Ruichun Jia, Haogang Zhang, Zhiping Yang, Hong Zhao, Fei Liu, Hui Wang, Meijuan Miao, Qiushi Wang, Yanhong Liu
Schisandrin B (SchB), a dibenzocyclooctadiene derivative isolated from Schisandra chinensis, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, the protective effects of SchB on cigarette smoke (CS)-induced lung inflammation remain unclear. This study was to investigate the effects of SchB on CS-induced lung inflammation in mice. The mice were exposed to CS to develop lung inflammation. SchB was given 1h before CS exposure daily for five consecutive days. The levels of inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured in this study...
October 11, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031089/17%C3%AE-estradiol-regulates-the-rna-binding-protein-nova1-which-then-regulates-the-alternative-splicing-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-in-the-aging-female-rat-brain
#7
Cody L Shults, Caitlin B Dingwall, Chun K Kim, Elena Pinceti, Yathindar S Rao, Toni R Pak
Alternative RNA splicing results in the translation of diverse protein products arising from a common nucleotide sequence. These alternative protein products are often functional and can have widely divergent actions from the canonical protein. Studies in humans and other vertebrate animals have demonstrated that alternative splicing events increase with advanced age, sometimes resulting in pathological consequences. Menopause represents a critical transition for women, where the beneficial effects of estrogens are no longer evident; therefore, factors underlying increased pathological conditions in women are confounded by the dual factors of aging and declining estrogens...
September 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029310/fragrance-allergens-linalool-and-limonene-allylic-hydroperoxides-in-skin-allergy-mechanisms-of-action-focusing-on-transcription-factor-nrf2
#8
Chloé Raffalli, Elodie Clouet, Salen Kuresepi, Marie-Hélène Damiens, Jean-Pierre Lepoittevin, Marc Pallardy, Pierre-Jacques Ferret, Elena Giménez-Arnau, Saadia Kerdine-Römer
Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is regarded as the most frequent expression of immunotoxicity in humans. Many odorant terpenes commonly used in fragrance compositions are considered as weak skin sensitizers, whereas some of their autoxidation products, allylic hydroperoxides, are classified as strong sensitizers according to the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA). However, the mechanism of their effects on the immune system remains unclear. Since dendritic cells play a key role in ACD, we studied their activation by the frequently used linalool (LINA) and limonene (LIMO), and their respective sensitizing allylic hydroperoxides (LINA-OOH, LIMO-OOH)...
September 29, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029246/the-epidermal-growth-factor-network-role-in-oocyte-growth-maturation-and-developmental-competence
#9
Dulama Richani, Robert B Gilchrist
BACKGROUND: The LH surge induces great physiological changes within the preovulatory follicle, which culminate in the ovulation of a mature oocyte that is capable of supporting embryo and foetal development. However, unlike mural granulosa cells, the oocyte and its surrounding cumulus cells are not directly responsive to LH, indicating that the LH signal is mediated by secondary factors produced by the granulosa cells. The mechanisms by which the oocyte senses the ovulatory LH signal and hence prepares for ovulation has been a subject of considerable controversy for the past four decades...
September 20, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029245/host-transcription-profile-in-nasal-epithelium-and-whole-blood-of-hospitalised-children-under-two-years-of-age-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#10
Lien Anh Ha Do, Johann Pellet, H Rogier van Doorn, Anh Tuan Tran, Bach Hue Nguyen, Thi Thu Loan Tran, Quynh Huong Tran, Quoc Bao Vo, Nguyen Anh Tran Dac, Hong Nhien Trinh, Thi Thanh Hai Nguyen, Bao Tinh Le Binh, Huu Mai Khanh Nguyen, Minh Tien Nguyen, Quang Tung Thai, Thanh Vu Vo, Ngoc Quang Minh Ngo, Thi Kim Huyen Dang, Ngoc Huong Cao, Thu Van Tran, Lu Viet Ho, Bertrand De Meulder, Charles Auffray, Jorrit-Jan Hofstra, Jeremy Farrar, Juliet E Bryant, Menno de Jong, Martin L Hibberd
Most insights into the cascade of immune events following acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection have been obtained from animal experiments or in vitro models. Here we investigated host gene expression profiles in nasopharyngeal swabs (NP) and whole blood samples during natural RSV and rhinovirus (hRV) infection (acute versus early recovery phase) in 83 hospitalised patients <2 years old with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). RSV infection induced strong and persistent innate immune responses including interferon signaling and pathways related to chemokine/cytokine signaling in both compartments...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029225/glucocorticoid-signaling-in-health-and-disease-insights-from-tissue-specific-gr-knockout-mice
#11
Shannon Whirledge, Donald B DeFranco
Glucocorticoids are adrenally produced hormones critically involved in development, general physiology, and control of inflammation. Since their discovery, glucocorticoids have been widely utilized to treat a variety of inflammatory conditions. However, high doses or prolonged use leads to a number of side-effects throughout the body, which preclude their clinical utility. The primary actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a transcription factor that regulates many complex signaling pathways...
October 5, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029162/aberrant-global-and-jagged-mediated-notch-signaling-disrupts-segregation-between-wt1-expressing-and-steroidogenic-tissues-in-zebrafish
#12
Chih-Wei Chou, Jamie Lin, Yun-Jin Jiang, Yi-Wen Liu
Though the zebrafish interrenal tissue has been used as a model for steroidogenesis and genesis of the adrenal gland, its specification and morphogenesis is still largely unclear. In this study, we explored how the WT1-expressing cells are segregated from the SF-1-expressing steroidogenic cells in the zebrafish model. The interrenal tissue precursors expressing ff1b, the equivalent of mammalian SF-1, are derived from wt1-expressing pronephric primordia in the zebrafish embryo. Through histochemistry and in situ hybridization, we demonstrated that the size of functionally-differentiated interrenal tissue was significantly increased upon a global inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway, which was accompanied by a disrupted segregation between the wt1- and ff1b-expressing cells...
September 29, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029116/upregulation-of-irs1-enhances-igf1-response-in-y537s-and-d538g-esr1-mutant-breast-cancer-cells
#13
Zheqi Li, Kevin M Levine, Amir Bahreini, Peilu Wang, David Chu, Ben Ho Park, Steffi Oesterreich, Adrian V Lee
Increased evidence suggests that somatic mutations in the ligand binding domain of estrogen receptor (ERα/ESR1) are critical mediators of endocrine-resistant breast cancer progression. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) is an essential regulator of breast development and tumorigenesis, and also has a role in endocrine resistance. A recent study showed enhanced crosstalk between IGF1 and ERα in ESR1 mutant cells, but detailed mechanisms are incompletely understood. Using genome-edited MCF-7 and T47D cell lines harboring Y537S and D538G ESR1 mutations, we characterized altered IGF1 signaling...
September 27, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029017/region-specific-suppression-of-hypothalamic-responses-to-insulin-to-adapt-to-elevated-maternal-insulin-secretion-during-pregnancy
#14
S R Ladyman, D R Grattan
As part of the adaptation of maternal glucose regulation during pregnancy to ensure glucose provision to the fetus, maternal insulin concentrations become elevated. However, increased central actions of insulin, such as suppression of appetite, would be maladaptive during pregnancy. We hypothesized that central nervous system targets of insulin become less responsive during pregnancy to prevent overstimulation by the increased circulating insulin concentrations. To test this hypothesis, we have measured insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt (pAkt) in specific hypothalamic nuclei as an index of hypothalamic insulin responsiveness...
September 29, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029010/call-for-action-invasive-fungal-infections-associated-with-ibrutinib-and-other-small-molecule-kinase-inhibitors-targeting-immune-signaling-pathways
#15
Georgios Chamilos, Michail S Lionakis, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
Opportunistic infections caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii, Cryptococcus neoformans, and ubiquitous airborne filamentous fungi have been recently reported in patients with hematological cancers historically considered at low risk for invasive fungal infections (IFIs), after receipt of the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib. The spectrum and severity of IFIs often observed in these patients implies the presence of a complex immunodeficiency that may not be solely attributed to mere inhibition of Bruton tyrosine kinase...
September 27, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028960/ovarian-follicular-theca-cell-recruitment-differentiation-and-impact-on-fertility-2017-update
#16
JoAnne S Richards, Yi A Ren, Nicholes Candelaria, Jaye E Adams, Aleksandar Rajkovic
The major goal of this review is to summarize recent exciting findings that have been published within the past 10 years that, to our knowledge, have not been presented in detail in previous reviews and that may impact altered follicular development in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and premature ovarian failure (POF) in women. Specifically, we will cover 1) mouse models that have led to discovery of the derivation of two precursor populations of theca cells in the embryonic gonad, 2) the key roles of the oocyte-derived factor GDF9 on the hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway and theca cell functions and 3) the impact of the HH pathway on both the specification of theca endocrine cells and theca fibroblast and smooth muscle cells in developing follicles...
October 5, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028909/the-systematic-analysis-of-ultraconserved-genomic-regions-in-the-budding-yeast
#17
Zhi-Kai Yang, Feng Gao
Motivation: In the evolution of species, a kind of special sequences, termed ultraconserved sequences (UCSs), have been inherited without any change, which strongly suggests those sequences should be crucial for the species to survive or adapt to the environment. However, the UCSs are still regarded as mysterious genetic sequences so far. Here, we present a systematic study of ultraconserved genomic regions in the budding yeast based on the publicly available genome sequences, in order to reveal their relationship with the adaptability or fitness advantages of the budding yeast...
September 27, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028873/mirna-in-tumour-metabolism-and-why-could-it-be-the-preferred-pathway-for-energy-reprograming
#18
Aliaa A Alamoudi, Amina Alnoury, Hoda Gad
The current literature on the role of microRNA (miRNA) in tumour metabolism is growing, and a number of studies regularly confirm the impact miRNA can have in energy reprograming in tumours. However, there remains to be a lack of understanding of the larger perspective of the role of miRNA in the metabolism story. In the first part of this review, we provide a comprehensive and up-to-date description of the extensive role of miRNAs in tumour metabolism including glucose, lipid and amino acid metabolism. However, in the second part, we aim to provide a description of the multidimensional role miRNA can be playing in tumour metabolism...
September 23, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028836/affected-pathways-and-transcriptional-regulators-in-gene-expression-response-to-an-ultra-marathon-trail-global-and-independent-activity-approaches
#19
Maria Maqueda, Emma Roca, Daniel Brotons, Jose Manuel Soria, Alexandre Perera
Gene expression (GE) analyses on blood samples from marathon and half-marathon runners have reported significant impacts on the immune and inflammatory systems. An ultra-marathon trail (UMT) represents a greater effort due to its more testing conditions. For the first time, we report the genome-wide GE profiling in a group of 16 runners participating in an 82 km UMT competition. We quantified their differential GE profile before and after the race using HuGene2.0st microarrays (Affymetrix Inc., California, US)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028820/a-c-terminal-motif-contributes-to-the-plasma-membrane-localization-of-arabidopsis-stp-transporters
#20
Kohji Yamada, Yuriko Osakabe, Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki
Membrane trafficking is highly organized to maintain cellular homeostasis in any organisms. Membrane-embedded transporters are targeted to various organelles to execute appropriate partition and allocation of their substrates, such as ions or sugars. To ensure the fidelity of targeting and sorting, membrane proteins including transporters have sorting signals that specify the subcellular destination and the trafficking pathway by which the destination is to be reached. Here, we have identified a novel sorting signal (called the tri-aromatic motif) which contains three aromatic residues, two tryptophans and one histidine, for the plasma membrane localization of sugar transporters in the STP family in Arabidopsis...
2017: PloS One
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