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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240893/risk-and-reputation-obstetricians-cesareans-and-consent
#1
Jacqueline H Wolf
When physicians performed cesarean sections in the nineteenth century, they customarily sought agreement from all present before proceeding. In contrast, after the introduction of electronic fetal monitoring in the late 1960s, obstetricians obtained permission for a cesarean by offering a choice that ensured consent-give birth by cesarean or give birth vaginally to a damaged or dead baby. This article argues that the manner in which physicians obtained consent for cesareans in the nineteenth century was one factor that kept the cesarean rate low, while the manner in which physicians obtained consent in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries was one factor driving up the cesarean rate...
December 12, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240511/meeting-the-nutritional-needs-of-premature-babies-their-future-is-in-our-hands
#2
Arieh Riskin
The goals of early nutrition in preterm infants are to provide all the necessary vital nutrients, achieve extra-uterine growth rates similar to fetuses of the same gestational age, and support functional neurodevelopmental outcomes that are comparable to those of infants born at term. It is vital to provide nutrition that will maximally support brain growth and development, but over-feeding with accelerated growth, fat accumulation and long-term metabolic consequences should also be avoided. Because the morbidity associated with prematurity increases nutritional and energetic demands, the basic approach is of providing early intensive nutrition...
December 2, 2017: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240510/equipment-needs-for-premature-babies-in-special-care-or-intensive-care
#3
Aysha Mendes
Neonates who require additional care, be it in a special care baby unit, neonatal intensive care unit or just on the labour ward, may need specific equipment to allow the team to care for them accurately and safely. This article outlines some of the specific types of equipment which may be needed.
December 2, 2017: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240507/neonatal-jaundice-aetiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#4
Subhabrata Mitra, Janet Rennie
A significant proportion of term and preterm infants develop neonatal jaundice. Jaundice in an otherwise healthy term infant is the most common reason for readmission to hospital. Jaundice is caused by an increase in serum bilirubin levels, largely as a result of breakdown of red blood cells. Bilirubin is conveyed in the blood as 'unconjugated' bilirubin, largely bound to albumin. The liver converts bilirubin into a conjugated form which is excreted in the bile. Very high levels of unconjugated bilirubin are neurotoxic...
December 2, 2017: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240334/do-in-vitro-fertilization-treatments-result-in-healthy-babies
#5
Noora Kaartinen, Helena Tinkanen
In Finland, the proportion of children born as a result of in vitro fertilization treatments is annually approximately 3.3%, and the percentage proportion of the population is growing. Their general somatic health status and cognitive development do not differ from spontaneously fertilized children. In vitro fertilization treatments are, however, associated with a slightly elevated risk of preterm delivery, low birth weight and structural abnormalities. The risk of childhood cancer does not appear to be increased in IVF children...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239828/evaluate-the-diagnosis-of-neonatal-sepsis-by-measuring-ils-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Hassan Boskabadi, Maryam Zakerihamidi
Neonatal sepsis is a dangerous and common disease among infants which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Interleukins may be helpful for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. Therefore, this study is conducted to investigate the role of interleukins in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. In this study, databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, ISI and Google Scholar were searched up to 2016. Keywords were: Sepsis, neonatal, interleukins, prediction and diagnosis. Study inclusion criteria were: Articles about the relationship between the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis and interleukins; studies on babies; English and Persian articles and enough information from test results...
October 20, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239284/maternal-obesity-and-excessive-maternal-weight-gain-during-pregnancy-effects-on-outcomes-after-neonatal-cardiac-surgical-procedures
#7
Rocky Tsang, Pamela Hilvers, Philip J Lupo, Ronald Bronicki, Dean McKenzie, Paul A Checchia
Introduction Maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk for adverse perinatal outcomes. Obesity is also associated with a chronic inflammatory state and metabolic derangements that affect the newborn. The additional use of cardiopulmonary bypass during the neonatal period could impact the systemic inflammatory response in the immediate postoperative period that manifests as cardiac depression and multi-organ dysfunction. This study aimed to determine the association of maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy with the immediate postoperative morbidity of neonatal patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass...
December 14, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238705/can-zika-account-for-the-missing-babies
#8
Flávio Codeço Coelho, Margaret Armstrong, Valeria Saraceni, Cristina Lemos
The Zika virus (ZIKV) spread rapidly in Brazil in 2015 and 2016. Rio de Janeiro was among the Brazilian cities which were hit the hardest, with more that a hundred thousand confirmed cases up to the end of 2016. Given the severity of the neurological damage caused by ZIKV on fetuses, we wondered whether it would also cause an increase in the number of miscarriages, especially very early ones. As early miscarriages are unlikely to be recorded as a health event, this effect-if it occurred-would only show up as a reduction in the number of live births...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238581/a-spicy-status-synthetic-cannabinoid-spice-use-and-new-onset-refractory-status-epilepticus-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Marc-Alain Babi, Christopher P Robinson, Carolina B Maciel
Synthetic cannabinoids refer to a wide variety of chemicals engineered to bind cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) and mimic the effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocanabinol. The potential for severe toxicity and limited in vivo data make synthetic cannabinoid intake an important public health and safety concern. Neurologic toxidromes associated with their use include mental status changes, panic attacks, memory distortions, acute psychosis (e.g. paranoia, delusional thoughts), disorganized behavior, and suicidal and homicidal thoughts...
2017: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237439/supporting-men-through-their-transition-to-fatherhood-with-messages-delivered-to-their-smartphones-a-feasibility-study-of-sms4dads
#10
Richard Fletcher, Francis Kay-Lambkin, Chris May, Christopher Oldmeadow, John Attia, Lucy Leigh
BACKGROUND: The transition to parenthood can be a challenging time, in which both mothers and fathers experience increased risk of distress and depression. Mothers are more likely than fathers to engage with services and have their mental health monitored and attended to during the perinatal period. The present study aimed to explore whether smartphone technology could be used to address fathers' needs across their transition to fatherhood. METHODS: A corpus of messages, including linked information and mood tracking software, was designed to support and enhance paternal relationships with their babies, their partners and themselves across the perinatal period...
December 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237429/using-theory-based-messages-to-motivate-u-s-pregnant-women-to-prevent-cytomegalovirus-infection-results-from-formative-research
#11
Denise M Levis, Christina L Hillard, Simani M Price, Erika Reed-Gross, Erika Bonilla, Minal Amin, Jennifer D Stowell, Rebekah Clark, Delaney Johnson, Karen Mask, Cynthia Carpentieri, Michael J Cannon
BACKGROUND: An estimated 1 in 150 infants is born each year with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV); nearly 1 in 750 suffers permanent disabilities. Congenital CMV is the result of a pregnant woman becoming infected with CMV. Educating pregnant women about CMV is currently the best approach to prevention. Limited research is available on how to effectively communicate with women about CMV. We conducted formative research on fear appeals theory-based messages about CMV and prevention with U...
December 14, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237410/trend-of-caesarean-deliveries-in-egypt-and-its-associated-factors-evidence-from-national-surveys-2005-2014
#12
Rami H Al Rifai
BACKGROUND: The continued rise in caesarean section (c-section) deliveries raises a major public health concern worldwide. This study assessed the trend of c-section deliveries and examined factors associated with a rise in c-section deliveries among the Egyptian mothers, from 2005 to 2014, by place of delivery. METHODS: This study utilized the 2005, 2008, and 2014 Egypt Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS). The EDHS reported on the mode of delivery for the last birth occurred within five years preceding each survey including place of delivery and sociodemographic information for a total sample of over 29,000 mothers in the three surveys...
December 13, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237138/characteristics-associated-with-induction-of-labor-and-delivery-route-among-primiparous-women-with-term-deliveries-in-the-listening-to-mothers-iii-study
#13
Meliha Salahuddin, Christina Davidson, David L Lakey, Divya A Patel
BACKGROUND: Induction of labor (IOL) is increasingly common in the United States, yet characteristics associated with IOL among primiparous women delivering at term are not well understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from the Listening to Mothers III study, a survey of women aged 18-45 with singleton deliveries in U.S. hospitals in 2011-2012, were utilized. Weighted logistic regression models examined predictors of IOL among 924 primiparous women with term deliveries...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237011/back-to-bed-from-hospital-to-home-obstetrics-in-the-city-of-chicago
#14
Wendy Kline
This article analyzes the role of doctors and activists in Chicago who successfully redefined the practice and politics of childbirth both locally and ultimately nationwide. It begins with the story of Joseph DeLee's Chicago Maternity Center, responsible for supervising over 100,000 home births between 1932 and 1972. Most of the mothers cared for by the Center were nonwhite, poor, and had little or no access to prenatal care, yet their babies had a far higher survival rate than the nationwide average. Thousands of medical students from all over the Midwest experienced their first deliveries not in hospitals, but in these homes...
December 11, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236133/pesticide-analysis-by-pulsed-flow-modulation-gcxgc-ms-with-cold-ei-an-alternative-to-gc-ms-ms
#15
Uri Keshet, Paulina Goldshlag, Aviv Amirav
We explored the use of pulsed flow modulation (PFM) two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography (GCxGC) mass spectrometry with supersonic molecular beams (SMB) (also named Cold electron ionization (EI)) for achieving universal pesticide analysis in agricultural products. The use of GCxGC serves as an alternative to MS-MS in the needed reduction of matrix interference while enabling full-scan MS operation for universal pesticide analysis with reduced number of false negatives. Matrix interference is further reduced with Cold EI in view of the enhancement of the molecular ions...
December 13, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235668/a-diaper-bank-and-home-visiting-partnership-initial-exploration-of-research-and-policy-questions
#16
Lois S Sadler, Eileen M Condon, Shirley Z Deng, Monica Roosa Ordway, Crista Marchesseault, Andrea Miller, Janet Stolfi Alfano, Alison M Weir
OBJECTIVES: The cost of diapering an infant can place a significant financial strain on families living in poverty. Partnerships between diaper banks and home visiting programs for young families may offer an innovative solution to expanding the reach and impact of diaper banks in low-income communities. The purpose of this pilot study was to uncover preliminary information about the functions of diaper distribution through home visiting programs, and to inform future research and policy questions regarding diaper distribution to families in need...
December 13, 2017: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234502/nuchal-cord-and-its-implications
#17
REVIEW
Morarji Peesay
Nuchal cord occurs when the umbilical cord becomes wrapped around the fetal neck 360 degrees. Nuchal cords occur in about 10-29% of fetuses and the incidence increases with advancing gestation age. Most are not associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality, but a few studies have shown that nuchal cord can affect the outcome of delivery with possible long-term effects on the infants. Nuchal cords are more likely to cause problems when the cord is tightly wrapped around the neck, with effects of a tight nuchal cord conceptually similar to strangulation...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234496/persistent-diarrhoea-in-a-5-month-old-baby-carrying-vibrio-cholerae-nono1-nono139-producing-haitian-cholera-toxin
#18
P Kumar, S Karmakar, R Prasad, R Chopra, S Khandelwal, S Gupta, A C Dhariwal, P Yadav, P K Yadava
Cholera toxin (CT) is the principal virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae for fatal cholera diarrhoea. Serogroups O1 and O139 harbour CT and are known to be epidemic strains. The remaining serogroups (nonO1/nonO139) are non-toxigenic and may be associated with mild disease. O1 serogroup emerged with a variant of CT known as Haitian cholera toxin (HCT). The HCT strains are hypervirulent and have been associated with severe cholera outbreaks in India, Western Africa and Haiti. Here, we report the presence of HCT (ctxB7) in a nonO1/nonO139 isolate causing persistent diarrhoea...
January 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233167/interventions-for-domestic-violence-among-pregnant-women-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review-protocol
#19
Diksha Sapkota, Kathleen Baird, Amornrat Saito, Debra Anderson
BACKGROUND: Violence during pregnancy is a global problem, associated with serious health risks for both the mother and baby. Evaluation of interventions targeted for reducing or controlling domestic violence (DV) is still in its infancy, and the majority of findings are primarily from high-income countries (HICs). Therefore, there is an urgent need for generating evidence of DV interventions among pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines will be employed to structure the review...
December 12, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233074/-you-have-to-take-action-changing-knowledge-and-attitudes-towards-newborn-care-practices-during-crisis-in-south-sudan
#20
Samira Sami, Kate Kerber, Barbara Tomczyk, Ribka Amsalu, Debra Jackson, Elaine Scudder, Alexander Dimiti, Janet Meyers, Kemish Kenneth, Solomon Kenyi, Caitlin E Kennedy, Kweku Ackom, Luke C Mullany
Highest rates of neonatal mortality occur in countries that have recently experienced conflict. International Medical Corps implemented a package of newborn interventions in June 2016, based on the Newborn health in humanitarian settings: field guide, targeting community- and facility-based health workers in displaced person camps in South Sudan. We describe health workers' knowledge and attitudes toward newborn health interventions, before and after receiving clinical training and supplies, and recommend dissemination strategies for improved uptake of newborn guidelines during crises...
December 13, 2017: Reproductive Health Matters
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