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CT urography

Zhiguo Zhou, Haixi Chen, Wei Wei, Shanghui Zhou, Jingbo Xu, Xifu Wang, Qingguo Wang, Guixiang Zhang, Zhuoli Zhang, Linfeng Zheng
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the image quality and radiation dose in computed tomography urography (CTU) images acquired with a low kilovoltage peak (kVp) in combination with an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) algorithm. METHODS: A total of 45 subjects (18 women, 27 men) who underwent CTU with kV assist software for automatic selection of the optimal kVp were included and divided into two groups (A and B) based on the kVp and image reconstruction algorithm: group A consisted of patients who underwent CTU with a 80 or 100 kVp and whose images were reconstructed with the 50% ASiR algorithm (n=32); group B consisted of patients who underwent CTU with a 120 kVp and whose images were reconstructed with the filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm (n=13)...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Philipp Genseke, Julian M M Rogasch, Ingo G Steffen, Grit Neumann, Ivayla Apostolova, Juri Ruf, Anke Rißmann, Dagobert Wiemann, Uwe-Bernd Liehr, Martin Schostak, Holger Amthauer, Christian Furth
AIM: After detection of obstructive uropathy (OU), the indication for or against surgery is primarily based on the differential renal function (DRF). This is to compare functional magnetic resonance urography (fMRU) with dynamic renal scintigraphy (DRS) to assess OU and DRF in infants and children. PATIENTS, METHODS: Retrospective analysis in 30 patients (female: 16; male: 14; median age: 5.5 years [0.2-16.5]), divided into subgroup A (age: 0-2 years; n = 16) and B (> 2-17 years; n = 14)...
August 29, 2016: Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear Medicine
Priyank Yadav, Alpana, Vijay Sharma, Devarshi Srivastava, Hiralal
Renal hydatid disease accounts for 2% of all cases of hydatid cysts. With the majority of isolated renal hydatid disease patients being asymptomatic, hydatid cysts grow slowly for several years. They may be associated with pressure symptoms or flank pain, depending on their size and location. Hydatiduria occurs in less than one-fifth of the patients. In the absence of hydatiduria, diagnosis is usually radiological. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment which is usually renal sparing surgery as most cysts are non-communicating...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Priyanka Jha, Brian Bentley, Spencer Behr, Judy Yee, Ronald Zagoria
Pain resulting from renal and ureteral stones is a common cause for patients presenting in the acute setting. Since the late 1990s, computed tomography (CT) has been the initial imaging method of choice to evaluate patients with suspected ureteral stones; however, concerns regarding both radiation dose and cost-effectiveness have prompted investigations into a different imaging algorithm. Studies utilizing ultrasound have provided evidence indicating that it may be a more appropriate first step, with selective use of CT in selected cases, in the diagnostic work-up...
September 10, 2016: Emergency Radiology
Andrew D Chung, Nicola Schieda, Alampady Krishna Shanbhogue, Marc Dilauro, Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Evan S Siegelman
OBJECTIVE: MR urography (MRU) can be an alternative to CT urography (CTU) for imaging of the kidneys, urinary bladder, and collecting systems. MRU can be a challenging examination to perform and interpret, which may result in technical and interpretive errors being made. This article highlights the pitfalls associated with MRU and discusses how to recognize and avoid them. CONCLUSION: When performed properly, MRU may provide imaging quality generally comparable to that of CTU, and it enables comprehensive evaluation of the entire urinary tract...
September 9, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Alexandra Grahn, Miden Melle-Hannah, Camilla Malm, Fredrik Jäderling, Eva Radecka, Mats Beckman, Marianne Brehmer
OBJECTIVE: To investigate diagnostic accuracy of multiphase computed tomography urography (MCTU) and visual assessment at ureterorenoscopy (URS) for detection of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients referred to our tertiary care centre were included in a prospective study covering the period 2005 to 2012. The patients underwent initial imaging and URS with focal samples taken. Cytopathological results served as reference standard...
September 9, 2016: BJU International
Mazen Sudah, Amro Masarwah, Sakari Kainulainen, Marja Pitkänen, Hanna Matikka, Vaiva Dabravolskaite, Sirpa Aaltomaa, Ritva Vanninen
OBJECTIVES: To prospectively compare the diagnostic performance and the visualization of the upper urinary tract (UUT) using a comprehensive 3.0T- magnetic resonance urography (MRU) protocol versus triple-phase computed tomography urography (CTU). METHODS: During the study period (January-2014 through December-2015), all consecutive patients in our tertiary university hospital scheduled by a urologist for CTU to exclude UUT malignancy were invited to participate...
2016: PloS One
Stine Bjerrum Runge, Søren Høyer, Louise Winding
We report a case of eosinophilic cystitis in a 7-year-old boy with a history of atopic symptoms, with focus on the radiological findings. He presented with hematuria and dysuria and ultrasonography (US) showed irregular bladder wall thickening resembling a bladder mass. CT urography did not characterize the lesion any further and showed no local or distant spread. Biopsies revealed eosinophilic cystitis, a benign inflammatory condition. We found that US characterized the lesion at least as well as CT and should be the first choice of imaging...
2016: Case Reports in Radiology
O Lavergne, Q Bonnet, A Thomas, D Waltregny
Renal colic (RC) represents nearly 2% of emergency department admissions. RC is defined by the occurrence of back pain which may radiate towards the abdomen and external genitals. In adults, the obstruction is caused by a urinary stone in 80% of cases. The 20 % of non-stone related RCs are due either to an intrinsic obstruction (pyeloureteral junction stenosis, ureteral tumor, ...) or an extrinsic compression (pelvic tumor, lymphadenopathy ...). In over 90% of cases, an RC does not require hospitalization and is treated with medication...
May 2016: Revue Médicale de Liège
Cary Siegel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Urology
Ryan Yu, Gabriella Gohla, Ehsan A Haider
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Saurabh S Patil, Vaibhav R Shah, Vivek A Choudhary
Retroperitoneal lipomatosis is a rare but distinct clinicopathological entity characterized by non encapsulated lipoma development in the retroperitoneum. Presenting complaints in the early stages are vague, and patients with retroperitoneal lipomatosis are often misdiagnosed because considerable abnormality is not detected by abdomino-pelvic sonography. However, because of the progressive nature of this lesion, most patients eventually present with varying degrees of urinary outflow obstruction and end stage renal disease, or bladder malignancies in few cases...
April 2016: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
M C Arya, Lalit Kumar, Ruchi Mittal, Rajeev Kumar, Mayank Baid
Herein, we present a case report of post-TURP (transurethral resection of prostate) recurrent severe hematuria due to right internal iliac artery pseudoaneurysm protruding into bladder lumen. A 60-year-old male presented with recurrent massive hematuria following TURP done elsewhere 15 days before. His hemoglobin was 4 gm/dL after 13 units of blood transfusion and repeated clot evacuations. His blood urea, serum creatinine, and coagulation profile studies were normal. Ultrasonography of abdomen showed multiple clots in the bladder...
2016: Case Reports in Urology
Zbyněk Tüdös, Filip Čtvrtlík, Pavel Kratochvíl, Milan Král
Migration of foreign bodies into the renal collecting system is very rare and usually concerns iatrogenically implanted objects. Migration of a foreign body from the gastrointestinal tract to the kidneys is even more rare. We present a case of migration of a wooden toothpick from the duodenum into the pelvis of the right kidney. The patient was not aware that he swallowed a toothpick; the foreign body resulted in hematuria and flank pain. The toothpick was missed during the initial computed tomography urography...
August 2016: Urology
Honghan Gong, Lei Gao, Xi-Jian Dai, Fuqing Zhou, Ning Zhang, Xianjun Zeng, Jian Jiang, Laichang He
BACKGROUND: Duplex kidney is a common anomaly that is frequently associated with multiple complications. Typical computed tomography urography (CTU) includes four phases (unenhanced, arterial, parenchymal and excretory) and has been suggested to considerably aid in the duplex kidney diagnosi. Unfortunately, regarding duplex kidney with prolonged dilatation, the affected parenchyma and tortuous ureters demonstrate a lack of or delayed excretory opacification. We used prolonged-delay CTU, which consists of another prolonged-delay phase (1- to 72-h delay; mean delay: 24 h) to opacify the duplicated ureters and affected parenchyma...
2016: BMC Urology
Selahattin Çalışkan
A blind-ending bifid ureter is an anatomic variant of ureteral duplications. There are three forms of blind-ending bifid ureter, classified depending on their location. A proximal blind-ending bifid ureter is the most common subtype of this congenital anomaly. Most patients are asymptomatic and only show symptoms after the complication has occurred. These complications include stone formation, vesicoureteric reflux, and ureteral tumor. Intravenous urography is usually used to diagnose bifid ureter; voiding cystourethrography, photofluoroscopy, cineroentgenography, cystoscopy with retrograde pyelography, computed tomography (CT), multidetector CT, and magnetic resonance urographies are other imaging methods used...
2016: Reviews in Urology
Minobu Kamo, Taiki Nozaki, Kyoko Yoshida, Ukihide Tateishi, Keiichi Akita
PURPOSE: Although the course of the ureter is described as a straight descent in the retroperitoneum, kinking of the upper ureter is often seen at imaging. The aim of this study was to investigate kinking of the ureter and its underlying anatomico-clinical significance. METHODS: We evaluated 176 computed tomography (CT) images and classified kinking into three grades: no/mild kinking as Grade 1, moderate as Grade 2, and severe as Grade 3. We defined the "crossing point" (CP) as where the ureter crosses over the gonadal vein and assessed its relation to the kinking...
May 9, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Nandin E Enkhbaatar, Shun Ono, Tamaki Ichikawa, Akio Hoshi, Toshiro Terachi, Go Ogura, Yusuke Kondo, Masae Ikeda, Yutaka Imai
A 58-year-old Japanese female was admitted to our hospital for treatment of ovarian cancer. She had no urinary tract symptoms at the time of presentation. Preoperative CT (Computed Tomography) was performed for surgical planning, and it revealed two left-sided ureters including a short ureter with a blind, cystic ending and a short ureter joined to the main ureter before entering into the bladder. On CT urography, these radiological findings were compatible with a blind-ending bifid ureter. Preoperatively, a double J stent was inserted into the normal left ureter, and then the blind-ending bifid ureter was resected before an ovarian cancer operation...
April 2016: Tokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine
Kenny H Cha, Lubomir Hadjiiski, Ravi K Samala, Heang-Ping Chan, Elaine M Caoili, Richard H Cohan
PURPOSE: The authors are developing a computerized system for bladder segmentation in CT urography (CTU) as a critical component for computer-aided detection of bladder cancer. METHODS: A deep-learning convolutional neural network (DL-CNN) was trained to distinguish between the inside and the outside of the bladder using 160 000 regions of interest (ROI) from CTU images. The trained DL-CNN was used to estimate the likelihood of an ROI being inside the bladder for ROIs centered at each voxel in a CTU case, resulting in a likelihood map...
April 2016: Medical Physics
Ravi K Kaza, Joel F Platt
Dual-energy CT is being increasingly used for abdominal imaging due to its incremental benefit of material characterization without significant increase in radiation dose. Knowledge of the different dual-energy CT acquisition techniques and image processing algorithms is essential to optimize imaging protocols and understand potential limitations while using dual-energy CT renal imaging such as urinary calculi characterization, assessment of renal masses and in CT urography. This review article provides an overview of the current dual-energy CT techniques and use of dual-energy CT in renal imaging...
June 2016: Abdominal Radiology
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