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CT urography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345995/description-and-comparison-of-excretory-urography-performed-during-radiography-and-computed-tomography-for-evaluation-of-the-urinary-system-in-healthy-new-zealand-white-rabbits-oryctolagus-cuniculus
#1
Laura Vilalta, Raul Altuzarra, Yvonne Espada, Elisabet Dominguez, Rosa Novellas, Jaime Martorell
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the usefulness of excretory urography performed during radiography (REU) and CT (CTEU) in healthy rabbits, determine timings of urogram phases, and compare sensitivities of REU and CTEU for detection of these phases. ANIMALS 13 New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). PROCEDURES Rabbits were screened for signs of systemic and urinary tract disease. An REU examination of each was performed, followed ≥ 5 days later by a CTEU examination. Contrast images from each modality were evaluated for quality of opacification and intervals between initiation of contrast medium administration and detection of various urogram phases...
April 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301210/update-of-dual-energy-ct-applications-in-the-genitourinary-tract
#2
Ravi K Kaza, Lakshmi Ananthakrishnan, Avinash Kambadakone, Joel F Platt
OBJECTIVE: Dual-energy CT (DECT) is being increasingly used for abdominal imaging because it provides incremental benefit of material characterization without significant increase in radiation dose. This article provides an overview of current DECT techniques and use of DECT in urinary tract imaging for assessment of renal masses and urinary calculi characterization and in CT urography. CONCLUSION: Incorporation of DECT into clinical practice and use of its material characterization capabilities in urinary tract imaging enable characterization of urinary calculi and incidental renal lesions and can reduce radiation dose by allowing generation of virtual unenhanced images...
March 16, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297293/dose-reduction-in-ct-urography-and-vasculature-phantom-studies-using-model-based-iterative-reconstruction
#3
Leland Page, Wei Wei, Vikas Kundra, X John Rong
To evaluate the feasibility of radiation dose reduction using model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) for evaluating the ureters and vasculature in a phantom, a tissue-equivalent CT dose phantom was scanned using a 64-channel CT scanner. Tubes of varying diameters filled with different dilutions of a contrast agent, simulating ureters or vessels, were inserted into the center of the phantom. Each combination was scanned using an existing renal protocol at 140 kVp or 120 kVp, yielding a display volumetric CT dose index (CTDIvol) of 24 mGy...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221142/-diagnosis-and-radiological-follow-up-of-urinary-lithiasis
#4
María Pilar Luque Gálvez, Rafael Salvador Izquierdo
Urolithiasis is a common disease with increasing prevalence worldwide and a lifetimeestimated recurrence risk of over 50%. Imaging techniques play a critical role in the initial diagnosis, follow-up and urological management of urinary tract stone disease. The are many useful tools for diagnosing urolithiasis, including conventional plain radiography, intravenous urography, ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. All these techniques have their own individual roles to play and also their limitations...
January 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216928/spontaneous-forniceal-rupture-can-it-be-treated-conservatively
#5
Ahmed Gaber Al-Mujalhem, Mohammed Sayed Ahmed Aziz, Mohammed Farag Sultan, Ahmed Mohammed Al-Maghraby, Mohammed Abdelmonem Al-Shazly
CONTEXT: Spontaneous forniceal rupture is one of the possible complications of urolithiasis. The mechanism of forniceal rupture is not well explained in the literature. Most of the cases presented with sudden onset of acute renal colic and diagnosed by noncontrast CT (NCCT). Until now there is no solid consensus about the ideal management of such a condition. AIM: To study indications and validity of conservative management of spontaneous caliceal rupture. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This is an observational prospective study...
January 2017: Urology Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213826/diagnostic-yield-of-ct-urography-in-the-evaluation-of-hematuria-in-young-patients-in-a-military-population
#6
Laura R Mace, Terrel L Galloway, Andrew Ma, Richard S Montgomery, Ryan C Rockhill, William W Reynolds, Robert M Marks
PURPOSE: To assess the diagnostic yield of a computed tomography urography (CTU) study in patients less than 50 years of age, who have a history of military service, and who are at increased risk of urological cancers secondary to harmful practices and work-related exposures. METHODS: 137 Consecutive patients who underwent CTU between 2012 and 2013 for new onset of hematuria were included. Initial review of the clinical interpretations of the CTU studies grouped the studies into negative and positive exams for any urological findings...
February 17, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167691/robotic-partial-nephrectomy-for-duplex-kidney-with-ectopic-ureter-draining-in-the-vagina-in-an-adult-patient-with-urinary-incontinence
#7
Humza Mahmood, Marios Hadjipavlou, Raj Das, Chris Anderson
A duplex kidney system with an ectopic ureter draining into the vagina is a congenital malformation that typically presents as refractory urinary incontinence. Diagnosis is often difficult to establish and delayed due to a low incidence. We present the case of a patient aged 26 years with a life-long history of persistent urinary incontinence. Initial presentation was at childhood; however, the diagnosis went undetermined for 22 years. CT urography revealed a duplex kidney with an atrophic upper pole associated with an ectopic ureter that drained into the vaginal vault...
February 6, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126213/upper-and-lower-tract-urothelial-imaging-using-computed-tomography-urography
#8
REVIEW
Siva P Raman, Elliot K Fishman
Computed tomography (CT) urography is the best noninvasive method of evaluating the upper urinary tract for urothelial malignancies. However, the utility of CT urography is heavily contingent on the use of proper image acquisition protocols. This article focuses on the appropriate protocols for optimizing CT urography acquisitions, including contrast administration and the timing of imaging acquisitions, as well as the use of ancillary techniques to increase collecting system distention. In addition, imaging findings are discussed that should raise concern for urothelial carcinoma at each of the 3 segments of the urinary tract: the intrarenal collecting systems, ureters, and bladder...
March 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076022/renal-papillary-and-calyceal-lesions-at-ct-urography-genitourinary-imaging
#9
Satomi Kawamoto, Peter Duggan, Sheila Sheth, Hiroshi Miyamoto, Zubair N Kazi, Elliot K Fishman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958391/diagnostic-dilemmas-in-patients-with-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma
#10
REVIEW
Joyce Baard, Daniel M de Bruin, Patricia J Zondervan, Guido Kamphuis, Jean de la Rosette, M Pilar Laguna
Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is a rare condition and recommendations based on a high level of evidence for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up monitoring are lacking. Current decision-making is often based on evidence from trials investigating urothelial carcinoma of the lower tract. Radical nephroureterectomy has been the standard of care for UTUC but kidney-sparing treatment using endoscopic approaches has been established for a select patient group with low-grade and low-stage disease. Optimal treatment choice requires correct tumour characterization...
December 13, 2016: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929506/dose-reduction-in-ct-urography-and-vasculature-phantom-studies-using-model-based-iterative-reconstruction
#11
Leland Page, Wei Wei, Vikas Kundra, John Rong
To evaluate the feasibility of radiation dose reduction using model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) for evaluating the ureters and vasculature in a phantom, a tissue-equivalent CT dose phantom was scanned using a 64-channel CT scan-ner. Tubes of varying diameters filled with different dilutions of a contrast agent, simulating ureters or vessels, were inserted into the center of the phantom. Each combination was scanned using an existing renal protocol at 140 kVp or 120 kVp, yielding a display volumetric CT dose index (CTDIvol) of 24 mGy...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903253/developing-a-preoperative-predictive-model-for-ureteral-length-for-ureteral-stent-insertion
#12
Takashi Kawahara, Kentaro Sakamaki, Hiroki Ito, Shinnosuke Kuroda, Hideyuki Terao, Kazuhide Makiyama, Hiroji Uemura, Masahiro Yao, Hiroshi Miyamoto, Junichi Matsuzaki
BACKGROUND: Ureteral stenting has been a fundamental part of various urological procedures. Selecting a ureteral stent of optimal length is important for decreasing the incidence of stent migration and complications. The aim of the present study was to develop and internally validate a model for predicting the ureteral length for ureteral stent insertion. METHODS: This study included a total of 127 patients whose ureters had previously been assessed by both intravenous urography (IVU) and CT scan...
November 30, 2016: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900976/multiple-visceral-venous-thromboses-associated-with-oral-contraceptive-use
#13
Kamel El-Reshaid, Shaikha Al-Bader, Hatem Sallam
Peripheral venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a known complication of oral contraceptive drugs (OCs), yet its association with visceral VTE is rarely reported. We describe a 21-year-old female patient who presented with sudden left loin pain. Plain computed tomography (CT) urography did not show kidney lesion but was suspicious of left renal vein thrombosis. Contrast study confirmed the diagnosis and also disclosed thrombosis of the splenic and left ovarian veins. The patient did not have a family history or laboratory evidence of hypercoagulable disorder...
November 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888303/dual-energy-ct-workflow-multi-institutional-consensus-on-standardization-of-abdominopelvic-mdct-protocols
#14
Bhavik N Patel, Lauren Alexander, Brian Allen, Lincoln Berland, Amir Borhani, Achille Mileto, Courtney Moreno, Desiree Morgan, Dushyant Sahani, William Shuman, Eric Tamm, Mitchell Tublin, Benjamin Yeh, Daniele Marin
PURPOSE: To standardize workflow for dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) involving common abdominopelvic exam protocols. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 9 institutions (4 rsDECT, 1 dsDECT, 4 both) with 32 participants [average # years (range) in practice and DECT experience, 12.3 (1-35) and 4.6 (1-14), respectively] filled out a single survey (n = 9). A five-point agreement scale (0, 1, 2, 3, 4-contra-, not, mildly, moderately, strongly indicated, respectively) and utilization scale (0-not performing and shouldn't; 1-performing but not clinically useful; 2-performing but not sure if clinically useful; 3-not performing it but would like to; 4-performing and clinically useful) were used...
November 25, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811161/seventy-six-year-old-woman-with-an-unusual-anatomy-of-the-left-ureter
#15
George A Demetriou, Sohan Perera, Constantine Halkias, Shwan Ahmed
We present a case of a 76-year-old woman, who attended with features suggestive of renal colic; however on imaging, she was found to have a right pelvic kidney and a left-sided uretero-sciatic hernia (USH), identified on CT urography (CT urogram). She was managed conservatively as she had a normal renal function and reported no symptoms in follow-up appointments. USH are rare hernias, where the ureter herniates through the sciatic foramen. Patients might present with sepsis in which case they require emergency stenting either anterograde or retrograde or with pain in which a less urgent approach can be followed and plan for surgery...
November 3, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790518/adult-idiopathic-renal-vein-thrombosis-mimicking-acute-pyelonephritis
#16
Arpan Choudhary, Prasenjit Majee, Rupesh Gupta, Supriyo Basu, Ranjit Kumar Das
Renal Vein Thrombosis (RVT) is a rarely encountered condition. It occurs due to a hypercoagulable state in the body, caused by nephrotic syndrome and membranous nephropathy in the adults. Mode of presentation is variable. In chronic form, it may remain silent for a long time and presenting later with symptoms of pedal oedema, varicocele, proteinuria. In acute state, it manifests as flank pain, nausea or haematuria. We present a case of 25-year-old male, with left sided flank pain, haematuria and nausea for 4 days...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725867/low-kilovoltage-peak-kvp-with-an-adaptive-statistical-iterative-reconstruction-algorithm-in-computed-tomography-urography-evaluation-of-image-quality-and-radiation-dose
#17
Zhiguo Zhou, Haixi Chen, Wei Wei, Shanghui Zhou, Jingbo Xu, Xifu Wang, Qingguo Wang, Guixiang Zhang, Zhuoli Zhang, Linfeng Zheng
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the image quality and radiation dose in computed tomography urography (CTU) images acquired with a low kilovoltage peak (kVp) in combination with an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) algorithm. METHODS: A total of 45 subjects (18 women, 27 men) who underwent CTU with kV assist software for automatic selection of the optimal kVp were included and divided into two groups (A and B) based on the kVp and image reconstruction algorithm: group A consisted of patients who underwent CTU with a 80 or 100 kVp and whose images were reconstructed with the 50% ASiR algorithm (n=32); group B consisted of patients who underwent CTU with a 120 kVp and whose images were reconstructed with the filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm (n=13)...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683747/detection-of-obstructive-uropathy-and-assessment-of-differential-renal-function-using-two-functional-magnetic-resonance-urography-tools-a-comparison-with-diuretic-renal-scintigraphy-in-infants-and-children
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Philipp Genseke, Julian M M Rogasch, Ingo G Steffen, Grit Neumann, Ivayla Apostolova, Juri Ruf, Anke Rißmann, Dagobert Wiemann, Uwe-Bernd Liehr, Martin Schostak, Holger Amthauer, Christian Furth
AIM: After detection of obstructive uropathy (OU), the indication for or against surgery is primarily based on the differential renal function (DRF). This is to compare functional magnetic resonance urography (fMRU) with dynamic renal scintigraphy (DRS) to assess OU and DRF in infants and children. PATIENTS, METHODS: Retrospective analysis in 30 patients (female: 16; male: 14; median age: 5.5 years [0.2-16.5]), divided into subgroup A (age: 0-2 years; n = 16) and B (> 2-17 years; n = 14)...
February 14, 2017: Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630903/communicating-open-renal-hydatid-cyst-managed-successfully-with-renal-sparing-approach
#19
Priyank Yadav, Alpana, Vijay Sharma, Devarshi Srivastava, Hiralal
Renal hydatid disease accounts for 2% of all cases of hydatid cysts. With the majority of isolated renal hydatid disease patients being asymptomatic, hydatid cysts grow slowly for several years. They may be associated with pressure symptoms or flank pain, depending on their size and location. Hydatiduria occurs in less than one-fifth of the patients. In the absence of hydatiduria, diagnosis is usually radiological. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment which is usually renal sparing surgery as most cysts are non-communicating...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614885/imaging-of-flank-pain-readdressing-state-of-the-art
#20
Priyanka Jha, Brian Bentley, Spencer Behr, Judy Yee, Ronald Zagoria
Pain resulting from renal and ureteral stones is a common cause for patients presenting in the acute setting. Since the late 1990s, computed tomography (CT) has been the initial imaging method of choice to evaluate patients with suspected ureteral stones; however, concerns regarding both radiation dose and cost-effectiveness have prompted investigations into a different imaging algorithm. Studies utilizing ultrasound have provided evidence indicating that it may be a more appropriate first step, with selective use of CT in selected cases, in the diagnostic work-up...
September 10, 2016: Emergency Radiology
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