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Decompressive Contrast ultrasound

M K Arevalo, J C Prieto, N Cost, G Nuss, B J Brown, L A Baker
INTRODUCTION: Symptomatic pediatric ureterocele has diverse manifestations, making evidence-based management impractical. Thus, detailed visualization of ureterocele anatomy prior to first surgical incision is invaluable. Retrograde ureterocelogram (RUC) is a simple, underutilized radiologic technique that can be performed during cystoscopy. This study sought to determine whether RUC changes surgical management by more accurately depicting the complex ureteral and ureterocele anatomy, compared with renal ultrasound (US) and voiding cystourethrography (VCUG)...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Yara Bernaldo de Quirós, Andreas Møllerløkken, Marianne B Havnes, Alf O Brubakk, Oscar González-Díaz, Antonio Fernández
The pathophysiological mechanism of decompression sickness is not fully understood but there is evidence that it can be caused by intravascular and autochthonous bubbles. Doppler ultrasound at a given circulatory location is used to detect and quantify the presence of intravascular gas bubbles as an indicator of decompression stress. In this manuscript we studied the relationship between presence and quantity of gas bubbles by echosonography of the pulmonary artery of anesthetized, air-breathing New Zealand White rabbits that were compressed and decompressed...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Federico Bilotta, Chiara Robba, Antonio Santoro, Roberto Delfini, Giovanni Rosa, Luciano Agati
Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEU) is a non-invasive imaging technique that provides real-time, bedside information on changes in global and segmental organ perfusion. Currently, there is a lack of data concerning changes in the distribution of segmental brain perfusion in acute ischemic stroke treated by decompressive craniectomy. The aim of our case series was to assess the role of CEU after decompressive craniectomy in patients with acute ischemic stroke. CEU was performed in 12 patients at baseline and after any one of the following interventions was performed as dictated by the patient's clinical condition: vasoactive drug administration (in order to achieve cerebral perfusion pressure ≥70 mm Hg and mean arterial pressure <100 mm Hg for management of arterial blood pressure) and mild hyperventilation (carbon dioxide arterial pressure = 30-35 mm Hg)...
November 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
U-Wai Lok, Pai-Chi Li
Graphics processing unit (GPU)-based software beamforming has advantages over hardware-based beamforming of easier programmability and a faster design cycle, since complicated imaging algorithms can be efficiently programmed and modified. However, the need for a high data rate when transferring ultrasound radio-frequency (RF) data from the hardware front end to the software back end limits the real-time performance. Data compression methods can be applied to the hardware front end to mitigate the data transfer issue...
March 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Peter T Wilmshurst
A persistent foramen ovale (PFO) and other types of right-to-left shunts are associated with neurological, cutaneous and cardiovascular decompression illness (DCI). A right-to-left shunt is particularly likely to be implicated in causation when these types of DCI occur after dives that are not provocative. It is believed that venous nitrogen bubbles that form after decompression pass through the shunt to circumvent the lung filter and invade systemic tissues supersaturated with nitrogen (or other inert gas) and as a result there is peripheral amplification of bubble emboli in those tissues...
June 2015: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
J Ling, W Jinrui, C Ligang, C Wen, L Xiaoguang, J Liang
Study design:A clinical study in human spinal cord.Objectives:To evaluate changes in spinal cord blood perfusion in patients with thoracic spinal stenosis using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and to semiquantitatively analyze blood perfusion changes in compressed spinal cord before and after ventral decompression.Setting:Ultrasound department of a university hospital.Methods:Twelve patients with confirmed thoracic spinal stenosis who needed decompression surgery participated. They underwent an intravenous injection of a contrast agent before and after ventral decompression...
January 13, 2015: Spinal Cord
Virginie Papadopoulou, Meng-Xing Tang, Costantino Balestra, Robert J Eckersley, Thodoris D Karapantsios
Bubbles can form in the body during or after decompression from pressure exposures such as those undergone by scuba divers, astronauts, caisson and tunnel workers. Bubble growth and detachment physics then becomes significant in predicting and controlling the probability of these bubbles causing mechanical problems by blocking vessels, displacing tissues, or inducing an inflammatory cascade if they persist for too long in the body before being dissolved. By contrast to decompression induced bubbles whose site of initial formation and exact composition are debated, there are other instances of bubbles in the bloodstream which are well-defined...
April 2014: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
J G Swan, J C Wilbur, K L Moodie, S A Kane, D A Knaus, S D Phillips, T L Beach, A M Fellows, P J Magari, J C Buckey
Using dual-frequency ultrasound (DFU), microbubbles (<10 μm diameter) have been detected in tissue following decompression. It is not known if these microbubbles are the precursors for B-mode ultrasound-detectable venous gas emboli (bmdVGE). The purpose of this study was to determine if microbubbles could be detected intravascularly postdecompression and to investigate the temporal relationship between microbubbles and larger bmdVGE. Anesthetized swine (n = 15) were exposed to 4.0-4.5 ATA for 2 h, followed by decompression to 0...
April 1, 2014: Journal of Applied Physiology
T G Diuzheva, A V Shefer
The role of parapancreatitis in the intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) progression in patients with severe acute pancreatitis with various forms of organs failure was studied. It was analyzed the treatment results of 63 patients with severe acute pancreatitis. The patients were divided into 4 groups: the first group (n=24) had not the signs of organs failure, the second group (n=15) - with symptoms of acute respiratory failure (ARF), the third group (n=11) - with a combination of ARF and acute cardiovascular failure (CVF) and the fourth group (n=13) - with a combination of ARF, CVF and acute renal failure...
2014: Khirurgiia
Marianne B Havnes, Marius Widerøe, Marte Thuen, Sverre H Torp, Alf O Brubakk, Andreas Møllerløkken
In this study, the effect of a simulated dive on rat brain was investigated using several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-methods and immunohistochemistry. Rats were randomly assigned to a dive- or a control group. The dive group was exposed to a simulated air dive to 600 kPa for 45 min. Pulmonary artery was monitored for vascular gas bubbles by ultrasound. MRI was performed 1 h after decompression and at one and 2 weeks after the dive with a different combination of MRI sequences at each time point. Two weeks after decompression, rats were sacrificed and brains were prepared for histology...
June 2013: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Lennart Choo, Jason Conway, Girish Mishra
The role of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in the diagnosis of biliary obstruction is well established, and emerging evidence suggests it may also play a therapeutic role. Differentiating between benign and malignant causes of biliary obstruction can be challenging, but EUS is a crucial tool in the armamentarium of the physician. Evolving technologies such as elastography and contrast enhancement may further supplement the diagnostic abilities of EUS. Therapeutic applications of EUS are evolving rapidly, and EUS-guided cholangiography may aid biliary decompression when endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has failed or is not possible...
December 2012: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Mikael Gennser, Karen M Jurd, S Lesley Blogg
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have indicated that exercise before diving significantly reduces the number of circulating bubbles and the risk of decompression sickness. However, the most effective time delay between exercise and dive is not clear; the present aim was to resolve this. METHODS: In a hyperbaric chamber, 10 men were compressed to 18 m for 100 min, then decompressed as per Royal Navy Table 11. Each subject performed three dives: a control dive and two after exercise performed either 24 h or 2 h before diving...
January 2012: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
S Dennison, M J Moore, A Fahlman, K Moore, S Sharp, C T Harry, J Hoppe, M Niemeyer, B Lentell, R S Wells
Bubbles in supersaturated tissues and blood occur in beaked whales stranded near sonar exercises, and post-mortem in dolphins bycaught at depth and then hauled to the surface. To evaluate live dolphins for bubbles, liver, kidneys, eyes and blubber-muscle interface of live-stranded and capture-release dolphins were scanned with B-mode ultrasound. Gas was identified in kidneys of 21 of 22 live-stranded dolphins and in the hepatic portal vasculature of 2 of 22. Nine then died or were euthanized and bubble presence corroborated by computer tomography and necropsy, 13 were released of which all but two did not re-strand...
April 7, 2012: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Huei-Lung Liang, Wan-Chen Liu, Jer-Shyung Huang, Matt Chiung-Yu Chen, Kwok-Hung Lai, Huey-Ben Pan, Clement-Kuen Chen
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe our technique of transhepatic serial puncture of the portal vein and hepatic vein-inferior vena cava in one needle pass under ultrasound guidance to place a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in patients with a porta hepatis cranial to the usual location. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six patients (five men, one woman) underwent transhepatic TIPS procedures at our institution. The indications for portal decompression were recurrent variceal bleeding in four patients and refractory ascites and hydrothorax in one patient each...
April 2011: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
O A Schmidt, U Stahl, M Brueck
HISTORY AND ADMISSION FINDINGS: In patients with glucose-6-phosphatase dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (favism) jaundice is usually caused by hemolysis due to stress, infection or following the application of drugs. We report on a 74-year-old Italian with known G6PD deficiency complaining of jaundice, weight loss and abdominal pain. Physical examination revealed jaundice of the eyes. Scrotal examination by palpation and ultrasound showed no abnormalities. INVESTIGATIONS: Serum levels of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and alpha-fetoprotein were within normal limits, total bilirubin was extremely elevated, with predominant direct bilirubin...
November 2010: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Fayez Almodhen, Roman Jednak, John-Paul Capolicchio, Waleed Eassa, Alex Brzezinski, Mohamed El-Sherbiny
PURPOSE: We assessed whether renography should be performed routinely following pyeloplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified the records of all patients undergoing pyeloplasty at our hospital between 1989 and 2005. Patients were eligible for the study if they had undergone preoperative ultrasound and renal scan, and postoperative ultrasound and renal scan within 3 months and 1 year postoperatively, respectively. Patients were excluded if they had associated anomalies or high grade reflux...
September 2010: Journal of Urology
Zhanwen Xing, Hengte Ke, Jinrui Wang, Bo Zhao, Xiuli Yue, Zhifei Dai, Jibin Liu
In this study, novel perfluorocarbon-filled microbubbles as ultrasound contrast agent were fabricated using ultrasonication of a surfactant mixture of sorbitan monostearate (Span 60) and polyoxyethylene 40 stearate (PEG40S) in aqueous media. The microbubbles generated from a 1:9 mixture of PEG40S/Span 60 exhibited an average diameter of 2.08+/-1.27 microm. More than 99% of the microbubbles had a mean particle diameter less than 8 microm, indicating that they were appropriately sized for intravenous administration as ultrasound contrast agent...
September 2010: Acta Biomaterialia
David Hildick-Smith, Miles Behan, Peter Haworth, Bushra Rana, Martyn Thomas
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to develop a "standby intracardiac echocardiography" approach to patent foramen ovale (PFO) closures where intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) is only utilized where there are adverse features. BACKGROUND: Percutaneous closure of PFO is usually aided by transesophageal echocardiography or ICE. This may be unnecessary where anatomical features are straightforward. METHODS: Patients were excluded from standby ICE if they had adverse anatomical features on their diagnostic transoesophageal echocardiogram, a device other than Amplatzer (AGA Medical, Plymouth, Minnesota), STARflex (NMT Medical, Boston, Massachusetts), or BioSTAR (NMT Medical) were to be used, or they were in a clinical trial demanding ICE/transesophageal echocardiography...
August 2008: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
Lars L Karlsson, S Lesley Blogg, Peter Lindholm, Mikael Gennser, Tryggve Hemmingsson, Dag Linnarsson
The decompression experienced due to the change in pressure from a space vehicle (1013hPa) to that in a suit for extravehicular activity (EVA) (386hPa) was simulated using a hypobaric chamber. Previous ground-based research has indicated around a 50% occurrence of both venous gas emboli (VGE) and symptoms of decompression illness (DCI) after similar decompressions. In contrast, no DCI symptoms have been reported from past or current space activities. Twenty subjects were studied using Doppler ultrasound to detect any VGE during decompression to 386hPa, where they remained for up to 6h...
October 2009: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Michael C Lee, James T Bui, M-Grace Knuttinen, Ron C Gaba, W Scott Helton, Charles A Owens
Enterolith formation is a rare cause of afferent limb obstruction following Billroth II gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy surgery. A case of ascending cholangitis caused by an enterolith incarcerated in the afferent loop of a 15-year-old Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy was emergently decompressed under direct ultrasound guidance prior to surgery. This is the thirteenth reported case of an enterolith causing afferent loop obstruction. A discussion of our management approach and a review of the relevant literature are presented...
September 2009: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
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