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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897671/high-intensity-interval-exercise-promotes-motor-cortex-disinhibition-and-early-motor-skill-consolidation
#1
Ellen L Stavrinos, James P Coxon
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibition shapes motor cortex output, gates synaptic plasticity in the form of long-term potentiation, and plays an important role in motor learning. Remarkably, recent studies have shown that acute cardiovascular exercise can improve motor memory, but the cortical mechanisms are not completely understood. We investigated whether an acute bout of lower-limb high-intensity interval (HIT) exercise could promote motor memory formation in humans through changes in cortical inhibition within the hand region of the primary motor cortex...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893270/a-link-between-attentional-function-effective-eye-movements-and-driving-ability
#2
Andrew K Mackenzie, Julie M Harris
The misallocation of driver visual attention has been suggested as a major contributing factor to vehicle accidents. One possible reason is that the relatively high cognitive demands of driving limit the ability to efficiently allocate gaze. We present an experiment that explores the relationship between attentional function and visual performance when driving. Drivers performed 2 variations of a multiple-object tracking task targeting aspects of cognition including sustained attention, dual-tasking, covert attention, and visuomotor skill...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847484/an-integrative-framework-of-stress-attention-and-visuomotor-performance
#3
REVIEW
Samuel J Vine, Lee J Moore, Mark R Wilson
The aim of this article is to present an integrative conceptual framework that depicts the effect of acute stress on the performance of visually guided motor skills. We draw upon seminal theories highlighting the importance of subjective interpretations of stress on subsequent performance and outline how models of disrupted attentional control might explain this effect through impairments in visuomotor control. We first synthesize and critically discuss empirical support for theories examining these relationships in isolation...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832611/individual-differences-in-implicit-motor-learning-task-specificity-in-sensorimotor-adaptation-and-sequence-learning
#4
Alit Stark-Inbar, Meher Raza, Jordan A Taylor, Richard B Ivry
In standard taxonomies, motor skills are typically treated as representative of implicit or procedural memory. We examined two emblematic tasks of implicit motor learning, sensorimotor adaptation and sequence learning, asking whether individual differences in learning are correlated between these tasks, as well as how individual differences within each task are related to different performance variables. As a prerequisite, it was essential to establish the reliability of learning measures for each task. Participants were tested twice on a visuomotor adaptation task and on one of two sequence learning tasks, the serial reaction time task or the alternating reaction time task...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816030/surgical-management-of-arrested-hydrocephalus-case-report-literature-review-and-18-month-follow-up
#5
Jennifer Hong, Benjamin G Barrena, S Scott Lollis, David F Bauer
OBJECTIVE: Arrested hydrocephalus is stable ventriculomegaly without evidence of neurologic deterioration or symptoms. Management of arrested hydrocephalus in asymptomatic adults is controversial, with little clinical data. This case highlights the potential for decompensation in adults with arrested hydrocephalus and reviews the literature regarding pathophysiology and management of this clinical entity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 39 year-old gentleman with arrested hydrocephalus incidentally found during work-up for new-onset seizure and managed conservatively for ten years presented with increasing headache, memory loss, gait instability and urinary and fecal incontinence...
December 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790760/acute-exercise-and-motor-memory-consolidation-does-exercise-type-play-a-role
#6
R Thomas, M Flindtgaard, K Skriver, S S Geertsen, L Christiansen, L Korsgaard Johnsen, D V P Busk, E Bojsen-Møller, M J Madsen, C Ritz, M Roig, J Lundbye-Jensen
A single bout of high-intensity exercise can augment off-line gains in skills acquired during motor practice. It is currently unknown if the type of physical exercise influences the effect on motor skill consolidation. This study investigated the effect of three types of high-intensity exercise following visuomotor skill acquisition on the retention of motor memory in 40 young (25.3 ±3.6 years), able-bodied male participants randomly assigned to one of four groups either performing strength training (STR), circuit training (CT), indoor hockey (HOC) or rest (CON)...
October 27, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733596/a-novel-computational-model-to-probe-visual-search-deficits-during-motor-performance
#7
Tarkeshwar Singh, Julius Fridriksson, Christopher Perry, Sarah C Tryon, Angela Ross, Stacy Fritz, Troy M Herter
Successful execution of many motor skills relies on well-organized visual search (voluntary eye movements that actively scan the environment for task-relevant information). Although impairments of visual search that result from brain injuries are linked to diminished motor performance, the neural processes that guide visual search within this context remain largely unknown. The first objective of this study was to examine how visual search in healthy adults and stroke survivors is used to guide hand movements during the Trail Making Test (TMT), a neuropsychological task that is a strong predictor of visuomotor and cognitive deficits...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699480/regional-cerebellar-volumetric-correlates-of-manual-motor-and-cognitive-function
#8
Vincent Koppelmans, Yoo Young Hoogendam, Sarah Hirsiger, Susan Mérillat, Lutz Jäncke, Rachael D Seidler
Cerebellar volume declines with aging. Few studies have investigated age differences in regional cerebellar volume (RCV) and their association with motor and cognitive function. In 213 healthy older adults, we investigated the association of age with motor skills, cognition and RCV. Subsequently, we studied the association of RCV with motor skills and cognition. RCVs were derived from T1-weighted MRI scans using the automated SUIT segmentation method and clustered using principal component analysis (PCA). Motor skill (manual dexterity, tapping speed, bimanual visuomotor coordination, grip force) and cognition (mental rotation, verbal memory, inhibition, mental flexibility) were assessed...
October 3, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615432/memory-consolidation-in-children-with-specific-language-impairment-delayed-gains-and-susceptibility-to-interference-in-implicit-sequence-learning
#9
Lise Desmottes, Christelle Maillart, Thierry Meulemans
In this study, the time course of the procedural learning of a visuomotor sequence skill was followed over a 24-hour and a 1-week time period in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Two aspects of memory consolidation in implicit sequence learning were examined: the evolution of post-training gains in sequence knowledge (Experiment 1) and the susceptibility to interference (Experiment 2). In the first experiment, 18 children with SLI and 17 control children matched for sex, age, and nonverbal intelligence completed a serial reaction-time (SRT) task and were tested 24 hours and 1 week after practicing...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560512/motor-skills-and-exercise-capacity-are-associated-with-objective-measures-of-cognitive-functions-and-academic-performance-in-preadolescent-children
#10
Svend Sparre Geertsen, Richard Thomas, Malte Nejst Larsen, Ida Marie Dahn, Josefine Needham Andersen, Matilde Krause-Jensen, Vibeke Korup, Claus Malta Nielsen, Jacob Wienecke, Christian Ritz, Peter Krustrup, Jesper Lundbye-Jensen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513713/minor-neurological-dysfunction-in-five-year-old-very-preterm-children-is-associated-with-lower-processing-speed
#11
Tinka Kurpershoek, Eva S Potharst-Sirag, Cornelieke S H Aarnoudse-Moens, Aleid G van Wassenaer-Leemhuis
BACKGROUND: Minor neurological dysfunction (MND) is present in one quarter to one third of children born very preterm (VP). The more severe form, complex (c)-MND has been associated with learning disabilities, behavioural and motor problems. OBJECTIVE: To study the association between c-MND and neurocognitive and motor disabilities at age five in VP children without CP. METHODS: Ninety-four children born with gestational age<30weeks and/or a birth weight<1000g were assessed at five years corrected age...
August 8, 2016: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494184/neuronal-mechanisms-of-motor-learning-are-age-dependent
#12
Kelly M M Berghuis, Veerle De Rond, Inge Zijdewind, Giacomo Koch, Menno P Veldman, Tibor Hortobágyi
There is controversy whether age-related neuroanatomical and neurophysiological changes in the central nervous system affect healthy old adults' abilities to acquire and retain motor skills. We examined the effects of age on motor skill acquisition and retention and potential underlying mechanisms by measuring corticospinal and intracortical excitability, using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Healthy young (n = 24, 22 years) and old (n = 22, 71 years) adults practiced a wrist flexion-extention visuomotor task or only watched the templates as an attentional control for 20 minutes...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485132/playing-action-video-games-improves-visuomotor-control
#13
Li Li, Rongrong Chen, Jing Chen
Can playing action video games improve visuomotor control? If so, can these games be used in training people to perform daily visuomotor-control tasks, such as driving? We found that action gamers have better lane-keeping and visuomotor-control skills than do non-action gamers. We then trained non-action gamers with action or nonaction video games. After they played a driving or first-person-shooter video game for 5 or 10 hr, their visuomotor control improved significantly. In contrast, non-action gamers showed no such improvement after they played a nonaction video game...
August 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458748/global-visual-motion-sensitivity-associations-with-parietal-area-and-children-s-mathematical-cognition
#14
Oliver Braddick, Janette Atkinson, Erik Newman, Natacha Akshoomoff, Joshua M Kuperman, Hauke Bartsch, Chi-Hua Chen, Anders M Dale, Terry L Jernigan
Sensitivity to global visual motion has been proposed as a signature of brain development, related to the dorsal rather than ventral cortical stream. Thresholds for global motion have been found to be elevated more than for global static form in many developmental disorders, leading to the idea of "dorsal stream vulnerability." Here we explore the association of global motion thresholds with individual differences in children's brain development, in a group of typically developing 5- to 12-year-olds. Good performance was associated with a relative increase in parietal lobe surface area, most strongly around the intraparietal sulcus and decrease in occipital area...
July 26, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454423/acute-exercise-and-motor-memory-consolidation-the-role-of-exercise-intensity
#15
Richard Thomas, Line K Johnsen, Svend S Geertsen, Lasse Christiansen, Christian Ritz, Marc Roig, Jesper Lundbye-Jensen
A single bout of high intensity aerobic exercise (~90% VO2peak) was previously demonstrated to amplify off-line gains in skill level during the consolidation phase of procedural memory. High intensity exercise is not always a viable option for many patient groups or in a rehabilitation setting where low to moderate intensities may be more suitable. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of intensity in mediating the effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on motor skill learning. We investigated the effects of different exercise intensities on the retention (performance score) of a visuomotor accuracy tracking task...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446616/acute-exercise-and-motor-memory-consolidation-the-role-of-exercise-timing
#16
Richard Thomas, Mikkel Malling Beck, Rune Rasmussen Lind, Line Korsgaard Johnsen, Svend Sparre Geertsen, Lasse Christiansen, Christian Ritz, Marc Roig, Jesper Lundbye-Jensen
High intensity aerobic exercise amplifies offline gains in procedural memory acquired during motor practice. This effect seems to be evident when exercise is placed immediately after acquisition, during the first stages of memory consolidation, but the importance of temporal proximity of the exercise bout used to stimulate improvements in procedural memory is unknown. The effects of three different temporal placements of high intensity exercise were investigated following visuomotor skill acquisition on the retention of motor memory in 48 young (24...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434198/moving-to-capture-children-s-attention-developing-a-methodology-for-measuring-visuomotor-attention
#17
Liam J B Hill, Rachel O Coats, Faisal Mushtaq, Justin H G Williams, Lorna S Aucott, Mark Mon-Williams
Attention underpins many activities integral to a child's development. However, methodological limitations currently make large-scale assessment of children's attentional skill impractical, costly and lacking in ecological validity. Consequently we developed a measure of 'Visual Motor Attention' (VMA)-a construct defined as the ability to sustain and adapt visuomotor behaviour in response to task-relevant visual information. In a series of experiments, we evaluated the capability of our method to measure attentional processes and their contributions in guiding visuomotor behaviour...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422795/mismatch-negativity-recording-in-children-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-a-preliminary-study-integrating-neurophysiological-and-neuropsychological-results
#18
Melissa Filippini, Angelo Guerra, Alessandra Negosanti, Sara Santi, Jasenka Sarajlija, Muriel Assunta Musti, Giuseppe Gobbi, Maryse Lassonde, Antonella Pini
Many studies on Duchenne muscular dystrophy children support the hypothesis of a specific neuropsychological phenotype affecting mostly phonological skills. This prospective study aimed to shed light on the role of phonological abilities. Fourteen Duchenne muscular dystrophy children and 7 healthy children underwent mismatch negativity. Moreover, verbal intelligence, visuospatial attention, immediate verbal memory, working memory, grammar, vocabulary, visuomotor skills, reading, text comprehension, writing, and arithmetic were tested in Duchenne muscular dystrophy children...
November 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401676/developmental-trajectories-of-eeg-sleep-slow-wave-activity-as-a-marker-for-motor-skill-development-during-adolescence-a-pilot-study
#19
Caroline Lustenberger, Anne-Laure Mouthon, Noemi Tesler, Salome Kurth, Maya Ringli, Andreas Buchmann, Oskar G Jenni, Reto Huber
Reliable markers for brain maturation are important to identify neural deviations that eventually predict the development of mental illnesses. Recent studies have proposed topographical EEG-derived slow wave activity (SWA) during NREM sleep as a mirror of cortical development. However, studies about the longitudinal stability as well as the relationship with behavioral skills are needed before SWA topography may be considered such a reliable marker. We examined six subjects longitudinally (over 5.1 years) using high-density EEG and a visuomotor learning task...
July 12, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376924/development-of-snarc-and-distance-effects-and-their-relation-to-mathematical-and-visuospatial-abilities
#20
Laura C Gibson, Daphne Maurer
The current experiment measured symbolic SNARC (Spatial-Numeric Association of Response Codes) and distance effects in school-aged children and investigated the relation between these measures and visuospatial skills and mathematics ability. In the experiment, 6-, 7-, and 8-year-olds performed a magnitude-relevant SNARC task, in which they indicated whether a target number was less or greater than 5, as well as standardized tests of visuospatial skills (Developmental Test of Visual Perception-Second Edition, DTVP-2) and mathematics ability (Test of Early Mathematics Ability-Third Edition, TEMA-3)...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
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