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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404228/separating-visuospatial-from-visuomotor-coordination-in-skill-estimation-in-learning-disabled-children-the-eta-mu-model
#1
Carlo Aleci, Marzia Piccoli, Valentina Melotti, Elena Melis, Lorenzo Canavese
Purpose A model aimed at detecting the proportion of visuoperceptive and visuomotor coordination impairment in children with ascertained or suspected learning disability is described. The final purpose is to provide customized rehabilitation programs. Methods In this pilot study, four children (8-9 years) were administered a set of standardized tests to evaluate their ability to perform visuoperceptive and visuomotor tasks. Depending on the individual outcomes, two indexes have been computed from the resulting z-scores: η (Eta) that quantifies the visuoperceptive impairment, and μ (Mu) that expresses the alteration in visuomotor coordination...
December 1, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403348/training-for-micrographia-alters-neural-connectivity-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Evelien Nackaerts, Jochen Michely, Elke Heremans, Stephan P Swinnen, Bouwien C M Smits-Engelsman, Wim Vandenberghe, Christian Grefkes, Alice Nieuwboer
Despite recent advances in clarifying the neural networks underlying rehabilitation in Parkinson's disease (PD), the impact of prolonged motor learning interventions on brain connectivity in people with PD is currently unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare cortical network changes after 6 weeks of visually cued handwriting training (= experimental) with a placebo intervention to address micrographia, a common problem in PD. Twenty seven early Parkinson's patients on dopaminergic medication performed a pre-writing task in both the presence and absence of visual cues during behavioral tests and during fMRI...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376661/characterizing-cognitive-and-visuomotor-control-in-children-with-sensory-processing-dysfunction-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#3
Anne Brandes-Aitken, Joaquin A Anguera, Camarin E Rolle, Shivani S Desai, Carly Demopoulos, Sasha N Skinner, Adam Gazzaley, Elysa J Marco
OBJECTIVE: Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and sensory processing dysfunction (SPD) are reported to show difficulties involving cognitive and visuomotor control. We sought to determine whether performance on computerized, behavioral measures of cognitive control aimed at assessing selective attention, as well as visuomotor abilities differentiated children with ASD (n = 14), SPD (n = 14) and typically developing controls (TDC; n = 28). METHOD: Cognitive control differences were measured by assessing selective attention-based abilities both with and without distracting stimuli, and visuomotor differences were measured by characterizing visuomotor tracking and tracing skills...
January 29, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364891/move-faster-think-later-women-who-play-action-video-games-have-quicker-visually-guided-responses-with-later-onset-visuomotor-related-brain-activity
#4
Diana J Gorbet, Lauren E Sergio
A history of action video game (AVG) playing is associated with improvements in several visuospatial and attention-related skills and these improvements may be transferable to unrelated tasks. These facts make video games a potential medium for skill-training and rehabilitation. However, examinations of the neural correlates underlying these observations are almost non-existent in the visuomotor system. Further, the vast majority of studies on the effects of a history of AVG play have been done using almost exclusively male participants...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304417/spectral-and-temporal-electroencephalography-measures-reveal-distinct-neural-networks-for-the-acquisition-consolidation-and-interlimb-transfer-of-motor-skills-in-healthy-young-adults
#5
M P Veldman, N M Maurits, M A M Nijland, N E Wolters, J C Mizelle, T Hortobágyi
OBJECTIVE: Plasticity of the central nervous system likely underlies motor learning. It is however unclear, whether plasticity in cortical motor networks is motor learning stage-, activity-, or connectivity-dependent. METHODS: From electroencephalography (EEG) data, we quantified effective connectivity by the phase slope index (PSI), neuronal activity by event-related desynchronization, and sensorimotor integration by N30 during the stages of visuomotor skill acquisition, consolidation, and interlimb transfer...
December 20, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282617/crus-i-in-the-rodent-cerebellum-its-homology-to-crus-i-and-ii-in-the-primate-cerebellum-and-its-anatomical-uniqueness-among-neighboring-lobules
#6
REVIEW
Izumi Sugihara
In the human cerebellum, the crus I and crus II lobules (or the ansiform lobule), which are implicated in cognitive and visuomotor functions, are significantly expanded compared to other anterior and posterior lobules, which are involved mainly in somatosensorimotor function. In applying rodent models, it is essential to identify the lobules that are homologous to human crus I and crus II. Observation of the lobular structure in human, macaque, marmoset, rat, and mouse has indicated that human crus I and II are homologous to crus I in rodents (referred to as "ansiform area, AA")...
December 27, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213051/a-robot-aided-visuo-motor-training-that-improves-proprioception-and-spatial-accuracy-of-untrained-movement
#7
Naveen Elangovan, Leonardo Cappello, Lorenzo Masia, Joshua Aman, Jürgen Konczak
Proprioceptive function can become enhanced during motor learning. Yet, we have incomplete knowledge to what extent proprioceptive function is trainable and how a training that enhances proprioception may influence performance in untrained motor skills. To address this knowledge gap, healthy young adults (N = 14) trained in a visuomotor task that required learners to make increasingly accurate wrist movements. Using a robotic exoskeleton coupled with a virtual visual environment, participants tilted a virtual table through continuous wrist flexion/extension movements with the goal to position a rolling ball on table into a target...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187320/progressive-practice-promotes-motor-learning-and-repeated-transient-increases-in-corticospinal-excitability-across-multiple-days
#8
L Christiansen, M J Madsen, E Bojsen-Møller, R Thomas, J B Nielsen, J Lundbye-Jensen
BACKGROUND: A session of motor skill learning is accompanied by transient increases in corticospinal excitability(CSE), which are thought to reflect acute changes in neuronal connectivity associated with improvements in sensorimotor performance. Factors influencing changes in excitability and motor skill with continued practice remain however to be elucidated. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Here we investigate the hypothesis that progressive motor practice during consecutive days can induce repeated transient increases in corticospinal excitability and promote motor skill learning...
November 13, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167637/variations-in-static-force-control-and-motor-unit-behavior-with-error-amplification-feedback-in-the-elderly
#9
Yi-Ching Chen, Linda L Lin, Yen-Ting Lin, Chia-Ling Hu, Ing-Shiou Hwang
Error amplification (EA) feedback is a promising approach to advance visuomotor skill. As error detection and visuomotor processing at short time scales decline with age, this study examined whether older adults could benefit from EA feedback that included higher-frequency information to guide a force-tracking task. Fourteen young and 14 older adults performed low-level static isometric force-tracking with visual guidance of typical visual feedback and EA feedback containing augmented high-frequency errors...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129160/visual-but-not-motor-processes-predict-simple-visuomotor-reaction-time-of-badminton-players
#10
Thorben Hülsdünker, Heiko K Strüder, Andreas Mierau
The athlete's brain exhibits significant functional adaptations that facilitate visuomotor reaction performance. However, it is currently unclear if the same neurophysiological processes that differentiate athletes from non-athletes also determine performance within a homogeneous group of athletes. This information can provide valuable help for athletes and coaches aiming to optimize existing training regimes. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the neurophysiological correlates of visuomotor reaction performance in a group of skilled athletes...
November 12, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031458/quiet-eye-training-improves-accuracy-in-basketball-field-goal-shooting
#11
Joan N Vickers, Ben Vandervies, Christie Kohut, Brendan Ryley
University students (N = 240) were randomly assigned to a quiet eye training (QET) or technical training (TT) group, and their shooting accuracy (%) determined during a pre-, post-, and transfer test in basketball field shooting. Both groups first received lectures on visuomotor processing and the quiet eye (QE), followed by a laboratory in which participants in the QET group were taught how to adopt the QE characteristics of elite free-throw shooters, which stresses optimal gaze control and focus relative to a single target location, while the TT participants were taught elite biomechanics which stresses optimal control of the shooting stance, arms, and hands...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018949/the-corticospinal-responses-of-metronome-paced-but-not-self-paced-strength-training-are-similar-to-motor-skill-training
#12
Michael Leung, Timo Rantalainen, Wei-Peng Teo, Dawson Kidgell
PURPOSE: The corticospinal responses to skill training may be different to strength training, depending on how the strength training is performed. It was hypothesised that the corticospinal responses would not be different following skill training and metronome-paced strength training (MPST), but would differ when compared with self-paced strength training (SPST). METHODS: Corticospinal excitability, short-interval intra-cortical inhibition (SICI) and strength and tracking error were measured at baseline and 2 and 4 weeks...
December 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964503/is-procedural-memory-enhanced-in-tourette-syndrome-evidence-from-a-sequence-learning-task
#13
Ádám Takács, Andrea Kóbor, Júlia Chezan, Noémi Éltető, Zsanett Tárnok, Dezso Nemeth, Michael T Ullman, Karolina Janacsek
Procedural memory, which is rooted in the basal ganglia, underlies the learning and processing of numerous automatized motor and cognitive skills, including in language. Not surprisingly, disorders with basal ganglia abnormalities have been found to show impairments of procedural memory. However, brain abnormalities could also lead to atypically enhanced function. Tourette syndrome (TS) is a candidate for enhanced procedural memory, given previous findings of enhanced TS processing of grammar, which likely depends on procedural memory...
September 9, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951167/still-holding-after-all-these-years-an-action-perception-dissociation-in-patient-df
#14
Tzvi Ganel, Melvyn A Goodale
Patient DF, who has bilateral damage in the ventral visual stream, is perhaps the best known individual with visual form agnosia in the world, and has been the focus of scores of research papers over the past twenty-five years. The remarkable dissociation she exhibits between a profound deficit in perceptual report and a preserved ability to generate relatively normal visuomotor behaviour was early on a cornerstone in Goodale and Milner's (1992) two visual systems hypothesis. In recent years, however, there has been a greater emphasis on the damage that is evident in the posterior regions of her parietal cortex in both hemispheres...
September 23, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840275/the-effects-of-a-two-step-transfer-on-a-visuomotor-adaptation-task
#15
Christopher A Aiken, Zhujun Pan, Arend W A Van Gemmert
The literature has shown robust effects of transfer-of-learning to the contralateral side and more recently transfer-of-learning effects to a new effector type on the ipsilateral side. Few studies have investigated the effects of transfer-of-learning when skills transfer to both a new effector type and the contralateral side (two-step transfer). The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of two-step transfer and to examine which aspects of the movement transfer and which aspects do not...
November 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814040/training-wrist-extensor-function-and-detecting-unwanted-movement-strategies-in-an-emg-controlled-visuomotor-task
#16
Mingxing Lyu, Charles Lambelet, Daniel Woolley, Xue Zhang, Weihai Chen, Xilun Ding, Roger Gassert, Nicole Wenderoth
Stroke patients often suffer from severe upper limb paresis. Rehabilitation treatment typically targets motor impairments as early as possible, however, muscular contractions, particularly in the wrist and fingers, are often too weak to produce overt movements, making the initial phase of rehabilitation training difficult. Here we propose a new training tool whereby electromyographic (EMG) activity is measured in the wrist extensors and serves as a proxy of voluntary corticomotor drive. We used the Myo armband to develop a proportional EMG controller which allowed volunteers to perform a simple visuomotor task by modulating wrist extensor activity...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750975/the-effects-of-inter-trial-interval-on-implicit-learning-of-sequential-visual-isometric-pinch-task
#17
Fahimeh Hashemirad, Paul B Fitzgerald, Maryam Zoghi, Masoumeh Hashemirad, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Sequential visual isometric pinch task (SVIPT) has been recently used as a visuomotor sequence task in clinical research. The influence of varying intervals between sequenced trials on the acquisition of implicit sequence learning is not yet determined for SVIPT. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inter-trial interval (ITI) on implicit motor sequence learning using SVIPT. A total of 32 healthy participants with mean age 31.3 ± 4.5 years participated in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four ITI groups; (1, 2, 3 and 4 s)...
July 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748333/evaluation-of-motor-skills-in-children-with-rubinstein-taybi-syndrome
#18
Jean René Cazalets, Emma Bestaven, Emilie Doat, Marie Pierre Baudier, Cécile Gallot, Anouck Amestoy, Manuel Bouvard, Etienne Guillaud, Isabelle Guillain, Emelyne Grech, Julien Van-Gils, Patricia Fergelot, Sonia Fraisse, Emmanuelle Taupiac, Benoit Arveiler, Didier Lacombe
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a rare genetic disease that associates intellectual disability with somatic characteristics. We have conducted a study of the overall motor abilities of RTS participants. Static postural performance as well as gait parameters were somewhat decreased, although not significantly compared to typically developing (TD) participants. In contrast, the motor skills requiring a high level of visuomotor coordination were considerably degraded in RTS participants compared to TD participants...
November 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739892/evolutionary-neuroscience-of-cumulative-culture
#19
Dietrich Stout, Erin E Hecht
Culture suffuses all aspects of human life. It shapes our minds and bodies and has provided a cumulative inheritance of knowledge, skills, institutions, and artifacts that allows us to truly stand on the shoulders of giants. No other species approaches the extent, diversity, and complexity of human culture, but we remain unsure how this came to be. The very uniqueness of human culture is both a puzzle and a problem. It is puzzling as to why more species have not adopted this manifestly beneficial strategy and problematic because the comparative methods of evolutionary biology are ill suited to explain unique events...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659458/impaired-visuomotor-generalization-by-inconsistent-attentional-contexts
#20
Tony S L Wang, Joo-Hyun Song
In daily life, people are constantly presented with situations in which they have to learn and acquire new motor skills in complex environments, where attention is often distracted by other events. Being able to generalize and perform the acquired motor action in different environments is a crucial part of visuomotor learning. The current study examined whether attentional distraction impairs generalization of visuomotor adaptation or whether consistent distraction can operate as an internal cue to facilitate generalization...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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