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visuomotor skills

Tarkeshwar Singh, Julius Fridriksson, Christopher Perry, Sarah C Tryon, Angela Ross, Stacy Fritz, Troy M Herter
Successful execution of many motor skills relies on well-organized visual search (voluntary eye movements that actively scan the environment for task-relevant information). Although impairments of visual search that result from brain injuries are linked to diminished motor performance, the neural processes that guide visual search within this context remain largely unknown. The first objective of this study was to examine how visual search in healthy adults and stroke survivors is used to guide hand movements during the Trail Making Test (TMT), a neuropsychological task that is a strong predictor of visuomotor and cognitive deficits...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Vincent Koppelmans, Yoo Young Hoogendam, Sarah Hirsiger, Susan Mérillat, Lutz Jäncke, Rachael D Seidler
Cerebellar volume declines with aging. Few studies have investigated age differences in regional cerebellar volume (RCV) and their association with motor and cognitive function. In 213 healthy older adults, we investigated the association of age with motor skills, cognition and RCV. Subsequently, we studied the association of RCV with motor skills and cognition. RCVs were derived from T1-weighted MRI scans using the automated SUIT segmentation method and clustered using principal component analysis (PCA). Motor skill (manual dexterity, tapping speed, bimanual visuomotor coordination, grip force) and cognition (mental rotation, verbal memory, inhibition, mental flexibility) were assessed...
October 3, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Lise Desmottes, Christelle Maillart, Thierry Meulemans
In this study, the time course of the procedural learning of a visuomotor sequence skill was followed over a 24-hour and a 1-week time period in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Two aspects of memory consolidation in implicit sequence learning were examined: the evolution of post-training gains in sequence knowledge (Experiment 1) and the susceptibility to interference (Experiment 2). In the first experiment, 18 children with SLI and 17 control children matched for sex, age, and nonverbal intelligence completed a serial reaction-time (SRT) task and were tested 24 hours and 1 week after practicing...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Svend Sparre Geertsen, Richard Thomas, Malte Nejst Larsen, Ida Marie Dahn, Josefine Needham Andersen, Matilde Krause-Jensen, Vibeke Korup, Claus Malta Nielsen, Jacob Wienecke, Christian Ritz, Peter Krustrup, Jesper Lundbye-Jensen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively...
2016: PloS One
Tinka Kurpershoek, Eva S Potharst-Sirag, Cornelieke S H Aarnoudse-Moens, Aleid G van Wassenaer-Leemhuis
BACKGROUND: Minor neurological dysfunction (MND) is present in one quarter to one third of children born very preterm (VP). The more severe form, complex (c)-MND has been associated with learning disabilities, behavioural and motor problems. OBJECTIVE: To study the association between c-MND and neurocognitive and motor disabilities at age five in VP children without CP. METHODS: Ninety-four children born with gestational age<30weeks and/or a birth weight<1000g were assessed at five years corrected age...
August 8, 2016: Early Human Development
Kelly M M Berghuis, Veerle De Rond, Inge Zijdewind, Giacomo Koch, Menno P Veldman, Tibor Hortobágyi
There is controversy whether age-related neuroanatomical and neurophysiological changes in the central nervous system affect healthy old adults' abilities to acquire and retain motor skills. We examined the effects of age on motor skill acquisition and retention and potential underlying mechanisms by measuring corticospinal and intracortical excitability, using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Healthy young (n = 24, 22 years) and old (n = 22, 71 years) adults practiced a wrist flexion-extention visuomotor task or only watched the templates as an attentional control for 20 minutes...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Li Li, Rongrong Chen, Jing Chen
Can playing action video games improve visuomotor control? If so, can these games be used in training people to perform daily visuomotor-control tasks, such as driving? We found that action gamers have better lane-keeping and visuomotor-control skills than do non-action gamers. We then trained non-action gamers with action or nonaction video games. After they played a driving or first-person-shooter video game for 5 or 10 hr, their visuomotor control improved significantly. In contrast, non-action gamers showed no such improvement after they played a nonaction video game...
August 2016: Psychological Science
Oliver Braddick, Janette Atkinson, Erik Newman, Natacha Akshoomoff, Joshua M Kuperman, Hauke Bartsch, Chi-Hua Chen, Anders M Dale, Terry L Jernigan
Sensitivity to global visual motion has been proposed as a signature of brain development, related to the dorsal rather than ventral cortical stream. Thresholds for global motion have been found to be elevated more than for global static form in many developmental disorders, leading to the idea of "dorsal stream vulnerability." Here we explore the association of global motion thresholds with individual differences in children's brain development, in a group of typically developing 5- to 12-year-olds. Good performance was associated with a relative increase in parietal lobe surface area, most strongly around the intraparietal sulcus and decrease in occipital area...
July 26, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Richard Thomas, Line K Johnsen, Svend S Geertsen, Lasse Christiansen, Christian Ritz, Marc Roig, Jesper Lundbye-Jensen
A single bout of high intensity aerobic exercise (~90% VO2peak) was previously demonstrated to amplify off-line gains in skill level during the consolidation phase of procedural memory. High intensity exercise is not always a viable option for many patient groups or in a rehabilitation setting where low to moderate intensities may be more suitable. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of intensity in mediating the effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on motor skill learning. We investigated the effects of different exercise intensities on the retention (performance score) of a visuomotor accuracy tracking task...
2016: PloS One
Richard Thomas, Mikkel Malling Beck, Rune Rasmussen Lind, Line Korsgaard Johnsen, Svend Sparre Geertsen, Lasse Christiansen, Christian Ritz, Marc Roig, Jesper Lundbye-Jensen
High intensity aerobic exercise amplifies offline gains in procedural memory acquired during motor practice. This effect seems to be evident when exercise is placed immediately after acquisition, during the first stages of memory consolidation, but the importance of temporal proximity of the exercise bout used to stimulate improvements in procedural memory is unknown. The effects of three different temporal placements of high intensity exercise were investigated following visuomotor skill acquisition on the retention of motor memory in 48 young (24...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Liam J B Hill, Rachel O Coats, Faisal Mushtaq, Justin H G Williams, Lorna S Aucott, Mark Mon-Williams
Attention underpins many activities integral to a child's development. However, methodological limitations currently make large-scale assessment of children's attentional skill impractical, costly and lacking in ecological validity. Consequently we developed a measure of 'Visual Motor Attention' (VMA)-a construct defined as the ability to sustain and adapt visuomotor behaviour in response to task-relevant visual information. In a series of experiments, we evaluated the capability of our method to measure attentional processes and their contributions in guiding visuomotor behaviour...
2016: PloS One
Melissa Filippini, Angelo Guerra, Alessandra Negosanti, Sara Santi, Jasenka Sarajlija, Muriel Assunta Musti, Giuseppe Gobbi, Maryse Lassonde, Antonella Pini
Many studies on Duchenne muscular dystrophy children support the hypothesis of a specific neuropsychological phenotype affecting mostly phonological skills. This prospective study aimed to shed light on the role of phonological abilities. Fourteen Duchenne muscular dystrophy children and 7 healthy children underwent mismatch negativity. Moreover, verbal intelligence, visuospatial attention, immediate verbal memory, working memory, grammar, vocabulary, visuomotor skills, reading, text comprehension, writing, and arithmetic were tested in Duchenne muscular dystrophy children...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
Caroline Lustenberger, Anne-Laure Mouthon, Noemi Tesler, Salome Kurth, Maya Ringli, Andreas Buchmann, Oskar G Jenni, Reto Huber
Reliable markers for brain maturation are important to identify neural deviations that eventually predict the development of mental illnesses. Recent studies have proposed topographical EEG-derived slow wave activity (SWA) during NREM sleep as a mirror of cortical development. However, studies about the longitudinal stability as well as the relationship with behavioral skills are needed before SWA topography may be considered such a reliable marker. We examined six subjects longitudinally (over 5.1 years) using high-density EEG and a visuomotor learning task...
July 12, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Laura C Gibson, Daphne Maurer
The current experiment measured symbolic SNARC (Spatial-Numeric Association of Response Codes) and distance effects in school-aged children and investigated the relation between these measures and visuospatial skills and mathematics ability. In the experiment, 6-, 7-, and 8-year-olds performed a magnitude-relevant SNARC task, in which they indicated whether a target number was less or greater than 5, as well as standardized tests of visuospatial skills (Developmental Test of Visual Perception-Second Edition, DTVP-2) and mathematics ability (Test of Early Mathematics Ability-Third Edition, TEMA-3)...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Thorben Hülsdünker, Heiko K Strüder, Andreas Mierau
INTRODUCTION: Elite/skilled athletes participating in sports that require the initiation of targeted movements in response to visual cues under critical time pressure typically outperform non-athletes in a visuomotor reaction task. However, the exact physiological mechanisms of this advantage remain unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the neurophysiological processes contributing to superior visuomotor performance in athletes using visually evoked potentials (VEPs). METHODS: Central and peripheral determinants of visuomotor reaction time were investigated in 15 skilled badminton players and 28 age-matched non-athletic controls...
June 20, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Bimal Lakhani, Michael R Borich, Jacob N Jackson, Katie P Wadden, Sue Peters, Anica Villamayor, Alex L MacKay, Irene M Vavasour, Alexander Rauscher, Lara A Boyd
Experience-dependent structural changes are widely evident in gray matter. Using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), the neuroplastic effect of motor training on white matter in the brain has been demonstrated. However, in humans it is not known whether specific features of white matter relate to motor skill acquisition or if these structural changes are associated to functional network connectivity. Myelin can be objectively quantified in vivo and used to index specific experience-dependent change. In the current study, seventeen healthy young adults completed ten sessions of visuomotor skill training (10,000 total movements) using the right arm...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Kristina Krasich, Ben Ramger, Laura Holton, Lingling Wang, Stephen R Mitroff, L Gregory Appelbaum
Sensorimotor abilities are crucial for performance in athletic, military, and other occupational activities, and there is great interest in understanding learning in these skills. Here, behavioral performance was measured over three days as twenty-seven participants practiced multiple sessions on the Nike SPARQ Sensory Station (Nike, Inc., Beaverton, Oregon), a computerized visual and motor assessment battery. Wrist-worn actigraphy was recorded to monitor sleep-wake cycles. Significant learning was observed in tasks with high visuomotor control demands but not in tasks of visual sensitivity...
September 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Young Uk Ryu, Kyu-Ho Lee, Hocheol Lee, Jungsik Park
[Purpose] The purpose of the current study was to examine age-related differences in control of a perception-action coordination skill. We adapted a visuomotor tracking experiment requiring various coordination patterns between a limb's motion and an external signal. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 12 subjects (6 elderly and 6 young) voluntarily participated in the study. The experimental session consisted of 3 trials for 3 different relative phase patterns: 0°, 90°, and 180°, defined by the relationship between the online visual feedback of the joystick motion and the white dot signal...
April 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Kyle K Morgan, Phan Luu, Don M Tucker
Learning is not a unitary phenomenon. Rather, learning progresses through stages, with the stages reflecting different challenges that require the support of specific cognitive processes that reflect the functions of different brain networks. A theory of general learning proposes that learning can be divided into early and late stages controlled by corticolimbic networks located in frontal and posterior brain regions, respectively. Recent human studies using dense-array EEG (dEEG) support these results by showing progressive increases in P3b amplitude (an Event Related Potential with estimated sources in posterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus) as participants acquire a new visuomotor skill...
2016: PloS One
Ying-Hui Yang, Yang Yang, Bao-Guo Chen, Yi-Wei Zhang, Hong-Yan Bi
The cerebellar deficit hypothesis for developmental dyslexia claims that cerebellar dysfunction causes the failures in the acquisition of visuomotor skills and automatic reading and writing skills. In people with dyslexia in the alphabetic languages, the abnormal activation and structure of the right or bilateral cerebellar lobes have been identified. Using a typical implicit motor learning task, however, one neuroimaging study demonstrated the left cerebellar dysfunction in Chinese children with dyslexia. In the present study, using voxel-based morphometry, we found decreased gray matter volume in the left cerebellum in Chinese children with dyslexia relative to age-matched controls...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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