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visuomotor skills

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814040/training-wrist-extensor-function-and-detecting-unwanted-movement-strategies-in-an-emg-controlled-visuomotor-task
#1
Mingxing Lyu, Charles Lambelet, Daniel Woolley, Xue Zhang, Weihai Chen, Xilun Ding, Roger Gassert, Nicole Wenderoth
Stroke patients often suffer from severe upper limb paresis. Rehabilitation treatment typically targets motor impairments as early as possible, however, muscular contractions, particularly in the wrist and fingers, are often too weak to produce overt movements, making the initial phase of rehabilitation training difficult. Here we propose a new training tool whereby electromyographic (EMG) activity is measured in the wrist extensors and serves as a proxy of voluntary corticomotor drive. We used the Myo armband to develop a proportional EMG controller which allowed volunteers to perform a simple visuomotor task by modulating wrist extensor activity...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750975/the-effects-of-inter-trial-interval-on-implicit-learning-of-sequential-visual-isometric-pinch-task
#2
Fahimeh Hashemirad, Paul B Fitzgerald, Maryam Zoghi, Masoumeh Hashemirad, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Sequential visual isometric pinch task (SVIPT) has been recently used as a visuomotor sequence task in clinical research. The influence of varying intervals between sequenced trials on the acquisition of implicit sequence learning is not yet determined for SVIPT. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inter-trial interval (ITI) on implicit motor sequence learning using SVIPT. A total of 32 healthy participants with mean age 31.3 ± 4.5 years participated in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four ITI groups; (1, 2, 3 and 4 s)...
July 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748333/evaluation-of-motor-skills-in-children-with-rubinstein-taybi-syndrome
#3
Jean René Cazalets, Emma Bestaven, Emilie Doat, Marie Pierre Baudier, Cécile Gallot, Anouck Amestoy, Manuel Bouvard, Etienne Guillaud, Isabelle Guillain, Emelyne Grech, Julien Van-Gils, Patricia Fergelot, Sonia Fraisse, Emmanuelle Taupiac, Benoit Arveiler, Didier Lacombe
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a rare genetic disease that associates intellectual disability with somatic characteristics. We have conducted a study of the overall motor abilities of RTS participants. Static postural performance as well as gait parameters were somewhat decreased, although not significantly compared to typically developing (TD) participants. In contrast, the motor skills requiring a high level of visuomotor coordination were considerably degraded in RTS participants compared to TD participants...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739892/evolutionary-neuroscience-of-cumulative-culture
#4
Dietrich Stout, Erin E Hecht
Culture suffuses all aspects of human life. It shapes our minds and bodies and has provided a cumulative inheritance of knowledge, skills, institutions, and artifacts that allows us to truly stand on the shoulders of giants. No other species approaches the extent, diversity, and complexity of human culture, but we remain unsure how this came to be. The very uniqueness of human culture is both a puzzle and a problem. It is puzzling as to why more species have not adopted this manifestly beneficial strategy and problematic because the comparative methods of evolutionary biology are ill suited to explain unique events...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659458/impaired-visuomotor-generalization-by-inconsistent-attentional-contexts
#5
Tony S L Wang, Joo-Hyun Song
In daily life, people are constantly presented with situations to learn and acquire new motor skills in complex environments, where attention is often distracted by other events. Being able to generalize and perform the acquired motor action in different environments is a crucial part of visuomotor learning. The current study examined whether attentional distraction impairs generalization of visuomotor adaptation or whether consistent distraction can operate as an internal cue to facilitate generalization. Using a dual-task paradigm combining visuomotor rotational adaptation and an attention-demanding secondary task, we showed that switching the attentional context from training (dual-task) to generalization (single-task) reduced the range of transfer of visuomotor adaptation to untrained directions...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655039/speech-motor-sequence-learning-effect-of-parkinson-disease-and-normal-aging-on-dual-task-performance
#6
Jason A Whitfield, Alexander M Goberman
Purpose: Everyday communication is carried out concurrently with other tasks. Therefore, determining how dual tasks interfere with newly learned speech motor skills can offer insight into the cognitive mechanisms underlying speech motor learning in Parkinson disease (PD). The current investigation examines a recently learned speech motor sequence under dual-task conditions. Method: A previously learned sequence of 6 monosyllabic nonwords was examined using a dual-task paradigm...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608768/effects-of-dog-assisted-therapy-on-communication-and-basic-social-skills-of-adults-with-intellectual-disabilities-a-pilot-study
#7
Ivano Scorzato, Leonardo Zaninotto, Michela Romano, Chiara Menardi, Lino Cavedon, Alessandra Pegoraro, Laura Socche, Piera Zanetti, Deborah Coppiello
Thirty-nine adults with severe to profound intellectual disability (ID) were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (n = 21) or a control group (n = 18). Assessment was blinded and included selected items from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), the Behavioral Assessment Battery (BAB), and the Learning Accomplishment Profile (LAP). The experimental group, who attended a dog-assisted treatment intervention over a 20-week period, showed significant improvements in several cognitive domains, including attention to movement (BAB-AM), visuomotor coordination (BAB-VM), exploratory play (BAB-EP), and motor imitation (BAB-CO-MI), as well as in some social skills, as measured by LAP items...
June 2017: Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605630/cognitive-outcome-after-epilepsy-surgery-in-children-a-controlled-longitudinal-study
#8
Valentina Sibilia, Carmen Barba, Tiziana Metitieri, Giovanni Michelini, Flavio Giordano, Lorenzo Genitori, Renzo Guerrini
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the determinants of cognitive outcome two years after surgery for drug-resistant epilepsy in a cohort of 31 children when compared to a control group of 14 surgical candidates who had yet to undergo surgery two years after the first neuropsychological assessment. METHODS: Controlled longitudinal study including three evaluations of IQ (Intelligence Quotient) scores or GDQ (General Developmental Quotient) for each group depending on the patient's age: prior to surgery (T0), one year (T1) and two years (T2) after surgery for the surgical group; baseline (T0) and one year (T1) and 2years (T2) after the first evaluation for the control-group...
June 9, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482682/longitudinal-development-of-cognitive-visuomotor-and-adaptive-behavior-skills-in-hiv-uninfected-children-aged-3-5-years-of-age-exposed-pre-and-perinatally-to-anti-retroviral-medications
#9
Mary Lou Smith, Klajdi Puka, Ramandeep Sehra, Stanley E Read, Ari Bitnun
Little is known about the neurodevelopmental outcomes of children older than 3 years of age born to HIV infected mother but who are HIV-uninfected (HEU), and who have been exposed in utero and early in life to HIV and to antiretroviral medications (ARVs). We conducted a longitudinal study of cognitive, visuomotor and adaptive function of HEU children, who were assessed at two ages, 3.5 and 5.5 years. Sixty-four children (33 female) were assessed. In comparison with population norms for their age, at 3.5 years of age they had scores significantly below age expectations on aspects of adaptive behavior, but at age 5...
May 8, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473761/acute-exercise-improves-motor-memory-consolidation-in-preadolescent-children
#10
Jesper Lundbye-Jensen, Kasper Skriver, Jens B Nielsen, Marc Roig
Objective: The ability to acquire new motor skills is essential both during childhood and later in life. Recent studies have demonstrated that an acute bout of exercise can improve motor memory consolidation in adults. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether acute exercise protocols following motor skill practice in a school setting can also improve long-term retention of motor memory in preadolescent children. Methods: Seventy-seven pre-adolescent children (age 10.5 ± 0.75 (SD)) participated in the study...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431286/age-related-changes-in-corticospinal-excitability-and-intracortical-inhibition-after-upper-extremity-motor-learning-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Kelly M M Berghuis, John G Semmler, George M Opie, Aylin K Post, Tibor Hortobágyi
It is unclear how old age affects the neuronal mechanisms of motor learning. We reviewed the neuronal mechanisms of how healthy old and young adults acquire motor skills as assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Quantitative meta-analyses of 11 studies, involving ballistic and visuomotor tasks performed by upper extremity muscles in 132 healthy old and 128 young adults, revealed that the motor practice-induced increase in corticospinal excitability (CSE) is task-dependent but not age-dependent, with an increase in CSE in both age groups after visuomotor but not ballistic training...
March 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386435/flexible-motor-adjustment-of-pecking-with-an-artificially-extended-bill-in-crows-but-not-in-pigeons
#12
Hiroshi Matsui, Ei-Ichi Izawa
The dextrous foraging skills of primates, including humans, are underpinned by flexible vision-guided control of the arms/hands and even tools as body-part extensions. This capacity involves a visuomotor conversion process that transfers the locations of the hands/arms and a target in retinal coordinates into body coordinates to generate a reaching/grasping movement and to correct online. Similar capacities have evolved in birds, such as tool use in corvids and finches, which represents the flexible motor control of extended body parts...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367119/computerized-dual-task-testing-of-gait-and-visuospatial-cognitive-functions-test-retest-reliability-and-validity
#13
Tony J Szturm, Vedant S Sakhalkar, Anuprita Kanitkar, Mayur Nankar
The common occurrence of age decline in mobility and cognition does cause a decrease in the level of physical activity and an increased falls risk. Consequently, dual -task (DT) assessment that simultaneously addresses both mobility skills and cognitive functions are important because, continued difficulties and fall injuries will have a sizable impact in this population. The first objective of the present study was to assess test-retest reliability of a computerized DT treadmill walking protocol and concurrent outcome measures of gait and visuospatial executive function in a group of healthy older adults...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360874/online-control-of-prehension-predicts-performance-on-a-standardized-motor-assessment-test-in-8-to-12-year-old-children
#14
Caroline C V Blanchard, Hannah L McGlashan, Blandine French, Rachel J Sperring, Bianca Petrocochino, Nicholas P Holmes
Goal-directed hand movements are guided by sensory information and may be adjusted 'online,' during the movement. If the target of a movement unexpectedly changes position, trajectory corrections can be initiated in as little as 100 ms in adults. This rapid visual online control is impaired in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and potentially in other neurodevelopmental conditions. We investigated the visual control of hand movements in children in a 'center-out' double-step reaching and grasping task, and examined how parameters of this visuomotor control co-vary with performance on standardized motor tests often used with typically and atypically developing children...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338389/somatosensory-electrical-stimulation-does-not-augment-motor-skill-acquisition-and-intermanual-transfer-in-healthy-young-adults-a-pilot-study
#15
János Négyesi, Menno P Veldman, Kelly M M Berghuis, Marie Javet, József Tihanyi, Tibor Hortobágyi
Sensory input can modify motor function and magnify interlimb transfer. We examined the effects of low-intensity somatosensory electrical stimulation (SES) on motor practice-induced (MP) skill acquisition and intermanual transfer. Participants practiced a visuomotor skill for 25 minutes and received SES to the practice or the transfer arm. Responses to single- and double pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were measured in both extensor carpi radialis. SES did not further increase skill acquisition (RMP: 30...
March 24, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324948/association-between-visuomotor-adaptation-and-mathematics-skills
#16
M N Anwar, R Rehman, U Hassan
Learning a new motor skill involves multiple cognitive aspects such as attention, planning, prioritizing, execution, and error correction. In current study, we examined whether the students opted for pure mathematics at their undergraduate level have enhanced motor skills as compared to those pursuing biological sciences at the same level of education. A total of twenty subjects participated in a visuomotor adaptation task. The results showed that the overall movement related errors in subjects with mathematics background were lower than the biosciences students (p = 0...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296469/praxis-skills-and-executive-function-in-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#17
Chrystelle Remigereau, Arnaud Roy, Orianne Costini, Sébastien Barbarot, Marie Bru, Didier Le Gall
This study aimed at examining motor and ideomotor praxis skills in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The impact of executive dysfunction, frequently described in children with NF1, on the expression of praxis impairments was also studied. Eighteen children with NF1 were included and matched with 20 control children for age (7-14 years), sex, laterality, and parental education level. Both groups of children underwent an assessment based on cognitive models of apraxia including visuomotor tasks, executive tests, and everyday life questionnaires...
March 15, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284106/have-i-grooved-to-this-before-discriminating-practised-and-observed-actions-in-a-novel-context
#18
Dilini K Sumanapala, Laurel A Fish, Alex L Jones, Emily S Cross
Learning a new motor skill typically requires converting actions observed from a third-person perspective into fluid motor commands executed from a first-person perspective. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that during motor learning, the ability to discriminate between actions that have been observed and actions that have been executed is associated with learning aptitude, as assessed by a general measure of physical performance. Using a multi-day dance-training paradigm with a group of dance-naïve participants, we investigated whether actions that had been regularly observed could be discriminated from similar actions that had been physically practised over the course of three days, or a further set of similar actions that remained untrained...
April 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275820/explicit-instruction-of-rules-interferes-with-visuomotor-skill-transfer
#19
Kanji Tanaka, Katsumi Watanabe
In the present study, we examined the effects of explicit knowledge, obtained through instruction or spontaneous detection, on the transfer of visuomotor sequence learning. In the learning session, participants learned a visuomotor sequence, via trial and error. In the transfer session, the order of the sequence was reversed from that of the learning session. Before the commencement of the transfer session, some participants received explicit instruction regarding the reversal rule (i.e., Instruction group), while the others did not receive any information and were sorted into either an Aware or Unaware group, as assessed by interview conducted after the transfer session...
March 8, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255843/how-do-the-two-visual-streams-interact-with-each-other
#20
REVIEW
A D Milner
The current consensus divides primate cortical visual processing into two broad networks or "streams" composed of highly interconnected areas (Milner and Goodale 2006, 2008; Goodale 2014). The ventral stream, passing from primary visual cortex (V1) through to inferior parts of the temporal lobe, is considered to mediate the transformation of the contents of the visual signal into the mental furniture that guides memory, recognition and conscious perception. In contrast the dorsal stream, passing from V1 through to various areas in the posterior parietal lobe, is generally considered to mediate the visual guidance of action, primarily in real time...
May 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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