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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932961/transfer-of-adaptation-reveals-shared-mechanism-in-grasping-and-manual-estimation
#1
Evan Cesanek, Fulvio Domini
An influential idea in cognitive neuroscience is that perception and action are highly separable brain functions, implemented in distinct neural systems. In particular, this theory predicts that the functional distinction between grasping, a skilled action, and manual estimation, a type of perceptual report, should be mirrored by a split between their respective control systems. This idea has received support from a variety of dissociations, yet many of these findings have been criticized for failing to pinpoint the source of the dissociation...
June 19, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888932/visuomotor-control-eye-movements-and-steering-a-unified-approach-for-incorporating-feedback-feedforward-and-internal-models
#2
Otto Lappi, Callum Mole
The authors present an approach to the coordination of eye movements and locomotion in naturalistic steering tasks. It is based on recent empirical research, in particular, on driver eye movements, that poses challenges for existing accounts of how we visually steer a course. They first analyze how the ideas of feedback and feedforward processes and internal models are treated in control theoretical steering models within vision science and engineering, which share an underlying architecture but have historically developed in very separate ways...
June 11, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849570/boosting-the-motor-outcome-of-the-untrained-hand-by-action-observation-mirror-visual-feedback-video-therapy-or-both-combined-what-is-more-effective
#3
Florian Bähr, Alexander Ritter, Gundula Seidel, Christian Puta, Holger H W Gabriel, Farsin Hamzei
Action observation (AO) allows access to a network that processes visuomotor and sensorimotor inputs and is believed to be involved in observational learning of motor skills. We conducted three consecutive experiments to examine the boosting effect of AO on the motor outcome of the untrained hand by either mirror visual feedback (MVF), video therapy (VT), or a combination of both. In the first experiment, healthy participants trained either with MVF or without mirror feedback while in the second experiment, participants either trained with VT or observed animal videos...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766612/visuomotor-coordination-and-cortical-connectivity-of-modular-motor-learning
#4
Pablo I Burgos, Juan J Mariman, Scott Makeig, Gonzalo Rivera-Lillo, Pedro E Maldonado
The ability to transfer sensorimotor skill components to new actions and the capacity to use skill components from whole actions are characteristic of the adaptability of the human sensorimotor system. However, behavioral evidence suggests complex limitations for transfer after combined or modular learning of motor adaptations. Also, to date, only behavioral analysis of the consequences of the modular learning has been reported, with little understanding of the sensorimotor mechanisms of control and the interaction between cortical areas...
May 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742030/the-quality-of-visual-information-about-the-lower-extremities-influences-visuomotor-coordination-during-virtual-obstacle-negotiation
#5
Aram Kim, Kari S Kretch, Zixuan Zhou, James M Finley
Successful negotiation of obstacles during walking relies on the integration of visual information about the environment with ongoing locomotor commands. When information about the body and environment are removed through occlusion of the lower visual field, individuals increase downward head pitch angle, reduce foot placement precision, and increase safety margins during crossing. However, whether these effects are mediated by loss of visual information about the lower extremities, the obstacle, or both remains to be seen...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740271/a-preliminary-comparison-of-motor-learning-across-different-non-invasive-brain-stimulation-paradigms-shows-no-consistent-modulations
#6
Virginia Lopez-Alonso, Sook-Lei Liew, Miguel Fernández Del Olmo, Binith Cheeran, Marco Sandrini, Mitsunari Abe, Leonardo G Cohen
Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has been widely explored as a way to safely modulate brain activity and alter human performance for nearly three decades. Research using NIBS has grown exponentially within the last decade with promising results across a variety of clinical and healthy populations. However, recent work has shown high inter-individual variability and a lack of reproducibility of previous results. Here, we conducted a small preliminary study to explore the effects of three of the most commonly used excitatory NIBS paradigms over the primary motor cortex (M1) on motor learning (Sequential Visuomotor Isometric Pinch Force Tracking Task) and secondarily relate changes in motor learning to changes in cortical excitability (MEP amplitude and SICI)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680227/cerebellar-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-interacts-with-bdnf-val66met-in-motor-learning
#7
Rick van der Vliet, Zeb D Jonker, Suzanne C Louwen, Marco Heuvelman, Linda de Vreede, Gerard M Ribbers, Chris I De Zeeuw, Opher Donchin, Ruud W Selles, Jos N van der Geest, Maarten A Frens
BACKGROUND: Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation has been reported to enhance motor associative learning and motor adaptation, holding promise for clinical application in patients with movement disorders. However, behavioral benefits from cerebellar tDCS have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: Identifying determinants of treatment success is necessary. BDNF Val66Met is a candidate determinant, because the polymorphism is associated with motor skill learning and BDNF is thought to mediate tDCS effects...
April 11, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666567/the-neural-correlates-of-grasping-in-left-handers-when-handedness-does-not-matter
#8
Chiara Begliomini, Luisa Sartori, Maria G Di Bono, Sanja Budisavljević, Umberto Castiello
Neurophysiological studies showed that in macaques, grasp-related visuomotor transformations are supported by a circuit involving the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus, the ventral and the dorsal region of the premotor area. In humans, a similar grasp-related circuit has been revealed by means of neuroimaging techniques. However, the majority of "human" studies considered movements performed by right-handers only, leaving open the question of whether the dynamics underlying motor control during grasping is simply reversed in left-handers with respect to right-handers or not...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660652/cross-talk-connections-underlying-dorsal-and-ventral-stream-integration-during-hand-actions
#9
Sanja Budisavljevic, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Umberto Castiello
According to the dual-stream theory, the processing of visual information is divided into a ventral pathway mediating object recognition, and a dorsal pathway supporting visuomotor control. Increasing evidence suggests that these streams are not independent, but where this dorsal-ventral stream integration occurs remains unknown. We explored the candidate white matter pathways linking dorsal and ventral visual streams in 30 right-handed participants performing object-oriented hand movements of varying complexity (reaching, grasping and lifting), using advanced diffusion imaging tractography based on the spherical deconvolution and kinematical analysis...
June 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643070/neurobehavioral-outcomes-11-years-after-neonatal-caffeine-therapy-for-apnea-of-prematurity
#10
Ines M Mürner-Lavanchy, Lex W Doyle, Barbara Schmidt, Robin S Roberts, Elizabeth V Asztalos, Lorrie Costantini, Peter G Davis, Deborah Dewey, Judy D'Ilario, Ruth E Grunau, Diane Moddemann, Harvey Nelson, Arne Ohlsson, Alfonso Solimano, Win Tin, Peter J Anderson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Caffeine is effective in the treatment of apnea of prematurity. Although caffeine therapy has a benefit on gross motor skills in school-aged children, effects on neurobehavioral outcomes are not fully understood. We aimed to investigate effects of neonatal caffeine therapy in very low birth weight (500-1250 g) infants on neurobehavioral outcomes in 11-year-old participants of the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity trial. METHODS: Thirteen academic hospitals in Canada, Australia, Great Britain, and Sweden participated in this part of the 11-year follow-up of the double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial...
May 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530744/links-between-global-and-local-shape-perception-coloured-backgrounds-colour-discrimination-and-non-verbal-iq
#11
Patricia Dore, Ardian Dumani, Geddes Wyatt, Alex J Shepherd
This study explored associations between local and global shape perception on coloured backgrounds, colour discrimination, and non-verbal IQ (NVIQ). Five background colours were chosen for the local and global shape tasks that were tailored for the cone-opponent pathways early in the visual system (cardinal colour directions: L-M, loosely, reddish-greenish; and S-(L + M), or tritan colours, loosely, blueish-yellowish; where L, M and S refer to the long, middle and short wavelength sensitive cones). Participants also completed the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test (FM100) to determine whether performance on the local and global shape tasks correlated with colour discrimination overall, or with performance on the L-M and tritan subsets of the FM100 test...
March 16, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511785/the-ipsilateral-corticospinal-responses-to-cross-education-are-dependent-upon-the-motor-training-intervention
#12
Michael Leung, Timo Rantalainen, Wei-Peng Teo, Dawson Kidgell
This study aimed to identify the ipsilateral corticospinal responses of the contralateral limb following different types of unilateral motor-training. Three groups performing unilateral slow-paced strength training (SPST), non-paced strength training (NPST) or visuomotor skill training (VT) were compared to a control group. It was hypothesised that 4 weeks of unilateral SPST and VT, but not NPST, would increase ipsilateral corticospinal excitability (CSE) and reduce short-interval cortical inhibition (SICI), resulting in greater performance gains of the untrained limb...
May 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404228/separating-visuospatial-from-visuomotor-coordination-in-skill-estimation-in-learning-disabled-children-the-eta-mu-model
#13
Carlo Aleci, Marzia Piccoli, Valentina Melotti, Elena Melis, Lorenzo Canavese
Purpose A model aimed at detecting the proportion of visuoperceptive and visuomotor coordination impairment in children with ascertained or suspected learning disability is described. The final purpose is to provide customized rehabilitation programs. Methods In this pilot study, four children (8-9 years) were administered a set of standardized tests to evaluate their ability to perform visuoperceptive and visuomotor tasks. Depending on the individual outcomes, two indexes have been computed from the resulting z-scores: η (Eta) that quantifies the visuoperceptive impairment, and μ (Mu) that expresses the alteration in visuomotor coordination...
December 1, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403348/training-for-micrographia-alters-neural-connectivity-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Evelien Nackaerts, Jochen Michely, Elke Heremans, Stephan P Swinnen, Bouwien C M Smits-Engelsman, Wim Vandenberghe, Christian Grefkes, Alice Nieuwboer
Despite recent advances in clarifying the neural networks underlying rehabilitation in Parkinson's disease (PD), the impact of prolonged motor learning interventions on brain connectivity in people with PD is currently unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare cortical network changes after 6 weeks of visually cued handwriting training (= experimental) with a placebo intervention to address micrographia, a common problem in PD. Twenty seven early Parkinson's patients on dopaminergic medication performed a pre-writing task in both the presence and absence of visual cues during behavioral tests and during fMRI...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376661/characterizing-cognitive-and-visuomotor-control-in-children-with-sensory-processing-dysfunction-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#15
Anne Brandes-Aitken, Joaquin A Anguera, Camarin E Rolle, Shivani S Desai, Carly Demopoulos, Sasha N Skinner, Adam Gazzaley, Elysa J Marco
OBJECTIVE: Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and sensory processing dysfunction (SPD) are reported to show difficulties involving cognitive and visuomotor control. We sought to determine whether performance on computerized, behavioral measures of cognitive control aimed at assessing selective attention, as well as visuomotor abilities differentiated children with ASD (n = 14), SPD (n = 14) and typically developing controls (TDC; n = 28). METHOD: Cognitive control differences were measured by assessing selective attention-based abilities both with and without distracting stimuli, and visuomotor differences were measured by characterizing visuomotor tracking and tracing skills...
February 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364891/move-faster-think-later-women-who-play-action-video-games-have-quicker-visually-guided-responses-with-later-onset-visuomotor-related-brain-activity
#16
Diana J Gorbet, Lauren E Sergio
A history of action video game (AVG) playing is associated with improvements in several visuospatial and attention-related skills and these improvements may be transferable to unrelated tasks. These facts make video games a potential medium for skill-training and rehabilitation. However, examinations of the neural correlates underlying these observations are almost non-existent in the visuomotor system. Further, the vast majority of studies on the effects of a history of AVG play have been done using almost exclusively male participants...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304417/spectral-and-temporal-electroencephalography-measures-reveal-distinct-neural-networks-for-the-acquisition-consolidation-and-interlimb-transfer-of-motor-skills-in-healthy-young-adults
#17
M P Veldman, N M Maurits, M A M Nijland, N E Wolters, J C Mizelle, T Hortobágyi
OBJECTIVE: Plasticity of the central nervous system likely underlies motor learning. It is however unclear, whether plasticity in cortical motor networks is motor learning stage-, activity-, or connectivity-dependent. METHODS: From electroencephalography (EEG) data, we quantified effective connectivity by the phase slope index (PSI), neuronal activity by event-related desynchronization, and sensorimotor integration by N30 during the stages of visuomotor skill acquisition, consolidation, and interlimb transfer...
December 20, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282617/crus-i-in-the-rodent-cerebellum-its-homology-to-crus-i-and-ii-in-the-primate-cerebellum-and-its-anatomical-uniqueness-among-neighboring-lobules
#18
REVIEW
Izumi Sugihara
In the human cerebellum, the crus I and crus II lobules (or the ansiform lobule), which are implicated in cognitive and visuomotor functions, are significantly expanded compared to other anterior and posterior lobules, which are involved mainly in somatosensorimotor function. In applying rodent models, it is essential to identify the lobules that are homologous to human crus I and crus II. Observation of the lobular structure in human, macaque, marmoset, rat, and mouse has indicated that human crus I and II are homologous to crus I in rodents (referred to as "ansiform area, AA")...
February 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213051/a-robot-aided-visuo-motor-training-that-improves-proprioception-and-spatial-accuracy-of-untrained-movement
#19
Naveen Elangovan, Leonardo Cappello, Lorenzo Masia, Joshua Aman, Jürgen Konczak
Proprioceptive function can become enhanced during motor learning. Yet, we have incomplete knowledge to what extent proprioceptive function is trainable and how a training that enhances proprioception may influence performance in untrained motor skills. To address this knowledge gap, healthy young adults (N = 14) trained in a visuomotor task that required learners to make increasingly accurate wrist movements. Using a robotic exoskeleton coupled with a virtual visual environment, participants tilted a virtual table through continuous wrist flexion/extension movements with the goal to position a rolling ball on table into a target...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187320/progressive-practice-promotes-motor-learning-and-repeated-transient-increases-in-corticospinal-excitability-across-multiple-days
#20
L Christiansen, M J Madsen, E Bojsen-Møller, R Thomas, J B Nielsen, J Lundbye-Jensen
BACKGROUND: A session of motor skill learning is accompanied by transient increases in corticospinal excitability(CSE), which are thought to reflect acute changes in neuronal connectivity associated with improvements in sensorimotor performance. Factors influencing changes in excitability and motor skill with continued practice remain however to be elucidated. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Here we investigate the hypothesis that progressive motor practice during consecutive days can induce repeated transient increases in corticospinal excitability and promote motor skill learning...
March 2018: Brain Stimulation
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