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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482682/longitudinal-development-of-cognitive-visuomotor-and-adaptive-behavior-skills-in-hiv-uninfected-children-aged-3-5-years-of-age-exposed-pre-and-perinatally-to-anti-retroviral-medications
#1
Mary Lou Smith, Klajdi Puka, Ramandeep Sehra, Stanley E Read, Ari Bitnun
Little is known about the neurodevelopmental outcomes of children older than 3 years of age born to HIV infected mother but who are HIV-uninfected (HEU), and who have been exposed in utero and early in life to HIV and to antiretroviral medications (ARVs). We conducted a longitudinal study of cognitive, visuomotor and adaptive function of HEU children, who were assessed at two ages, 3.5 and 5.5 years. Sixty-four children (33 female) were assessed. In comparison with population norms for their age, at 3.5 years of age they had scores significantly below age expectations on aspects of adaptive behavior, but at age 5...
May 8, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473761/acute-exercise-improves-motor-memory-consolidation-in-preadolescent-children
#2
Jesper Lundbye-Jensen, Kasper Skriver, Jens B Nielsen, Marc Roig
Objective: The ability to acquire new motor skills is essential both during childhood and later in life. Recent studies have demonstrated that an acute bout of exercise can improve motor memory consolidation in adults. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether acute exercise protocols following motor skill practice in a school setting can also improve long-term retention of motor memory in preadolescent children. Methods: Seventy-seven pre-adolescent children (age 10.5 ± 0.75 (SD)) participated in the study...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431286/age-related-changes-in-corticospinal-excitability-and-intracortical-inhibition-after-upper-extremity-motor-learning-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Kelly M M Berghuis, John G Semmler, George M Opie, Aylin K Post, Tibor Hortobágyi
It is unclear how old age affects the neuronal mechanisms of motor learning. We reviewed the neuronal mechanisms of how healthy old and young adults acquire motor skills as assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Quantitative meta-analyses of 11 studies, involving ballistic and visuomotor tasks performed by upper extremity muscles in 132 healthy old and 128 young adults, revealed that the motor practice-induced increase in corticospinal excitability (CSE) is task-dependent but not age-dependent, with an increase in CSE in both age groups after visuomotor but not ballistic training...
March 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386435/flexible-motor-adjustment-of-pecking-with-an-artificially-extended-bill-in-crows-but-not-in-pigeons
#4
Hiroshi Matsui, Ei-Ichi Izawa
The dextrous foraging skills of primates, including humans, are underpinned by flexible vision-guided control of the arms/hands and even tools as body-part extensions. This capacity involves a visuomotor conversion process that transfers the locations of the hands/arms and a target in retinal coordinates into body coordinates to generate a reaching/grasping movement and to correct online. Similar capacities have evolved in birds, such as tool use in corvids and finches, which represents the flexible motor control of extended body parts...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367119/computerized-dual-task-testing-of-gait-and-visuospatial-cognitive-functions-test-retest-reliability-and-validity
#5
Tony J Szturm, Vedant S Sakhalkar, Anuprita Kanitkar, Mayur Nankar
The common occurrence of age decline in mobility and cognition does cause a decrease in the level of physical activity and an increased falls risk. Consequently, dual -task (DT) assessment that simultaneously addresses both mobility skills and cognitive functions are important because, continued difficulties and fall injuries will have a sizable impact in this population. The first objective of the present study was to assess test-retest reliability of a computerized DT treadmill walking protocol and concurrent outcome measures of gait and visuospatial executive function in a group of healthy older adults...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360874/online-control-of-prehension-predicts-performance-on-a-standardized-motor-assessment-test-in-8-to-12-year-old-children
#6
Caroline C V Blanchard, Hannah L McGlashan, Blandine French, Rachel J Sperring, Bianca Petrocochino, Nicholas P Holmes
Goal-directed hand movements are guided by sensory information and may be adjusted 'online,' during the movement. If the target of a movement unexpectedly changes position, trajectory corrections can be initiated in as little as 100 ms in adults. This rapid visual online control is impaired in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and potentially in other neurodevelopmental conditions. We investigated the visual control of hand movements in children in a 'center-out' double-step reaching and grasping task, and examined how parameters of this visuomotor control co-vary with performance on standardized motor tests often used with typically and atypically developing children...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338389/somatosensory-electrical-stimulation-does-not-augment-motor-skill-acquisition-and-intermanual-transfer-in-healthy-young-adults-a-pilot-study
#7
János Négyesi, Menno P Veldman, Kelly M M Berghuis, Marie Javet, József Tihanyi, Tibor Hortobágyi
Sensory input can modify motor function and magnify interlimb transfer. We examined the effects of low-intensity somatosensory electrical stimulation (SES) on motor practice-induced (MP) skill acquisition and intermanual transfer. Participants practiced a visuomotor skill for 25 minutes and received SES to the practice or the transfer arm. Responses to single- and double pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were measured in both extensor carpi radialis. SES did not further increase skill acquisition (RMP: 30...
March 24, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324948/association-between-visuomotor-adaptation-and-mathematics-skills
#8
M N Anwar, R Rehman, U Hassan
Learning a new motor skill involves multiple cognitive aspects such as attention, planning, prioritizing, execution, and error correction. In current study, we examined whether the students opted for pure mathematics at their undergraduate level have enhanced motor skills as compared to those pursuing biological sciences at the same level of education. A total of twenty subjects participated in a visuomotor adaptation task. The results showed that the overall movement related errors in subjects with mathematics background were lower than the biosciences students (p = 0...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296469/praxis-skills-and-executive-function-in-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#9
Chrystelle Remigereau, Arnaud Roy, Orianne Costini, Sébastien Barbarot, Marie Bru, Didier Le Gall
This study aimed at examining motor and ideomotor praxis skills in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The impact of executive dysfunction, frequently described in children with NF1, on the expression of praxis impairments was also studied. Eighteen children with NF1 were included and matched with 20 control children for age (7-14 years), sex, laterality, and parental education level. Both groups of children underwent an assessment based on cognitive models of apraxia including visuomotor tasks, executive tests, and everyday life questionnaires...
March 15, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284106/have-i-grooved-to-this-before-discriminating-practised-and-observed-actions-in-a-novel-context
#10
Dilini K Sumanapala, Laurel A Fish, Alex L Jones, Emily S Cross
Learning a new motor skill typically requires converting actions observed from a third-person perspective into fluid motor commands executed from a first-person perspective. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that during motor learning, the ability to discriminate between actions that have been observed and actions that have been executed is associated with learning aptitude, as assessed by a general measure of physical performance. Using a multi-day dance-training paradigm with a group of dance-naïve participants, we investigated whether actions that had been regularly observed could be discriminated from similar actions that had been physically practised over the course of three days, or a further set of similar actions that remained untrained...
March 8, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275820/explicit-instruction-of-rules-interferes-with-visuomotor-skill-transfer
#11
Kanji Tanaka, Katsumi Watanabe
In the present study, we examined the effects of explicit knowledge, obtained through instruction or spontaneous detection, on the transfer of visuomotor sequence learning. In the learning session, participants learned a visuomotor sequence, via trial and error. In the transfer session, the order of the sequence was reversed from that of the learning session. Before the commencement of the transfer session, some participants received explicit instruction regarding the reversal rule (i.e., Instruction group), while the others did not receive any information and were sorted into either an Aware or Unaware group, as assessed by interview conducted after the transfer session...
March 8, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255843/how-do-the-two-visual-streams-interact-with-each-other
#12
REVIEW
A D Milner
The current consensus divides primate cortical visual processing into two broad networks or "streams" composed of highly interconnected areas (Milner and Goodale 2006, 2008; Goodale 2014). The ventral stream, passing from primary visual cortex (V1) through to inferior parts of the temporal lobe, is considered to mediate the transformation of the contents of the visual signal into the mental furniture that guides memory, recognition and conscious perception. In contrast the dorsal stream, passing from V1 through to various areas in the posterior parietal lobe, is generally considered to mediate the visual guidance of action, primarily in real time...
May 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196647/the-dorsal-visual-stream-revisited-stable-circuits-or-dynamic-pathways
#13
REVIEW
Claudio Galletti, Patrizia Fattori
In both macaque and human brain, information regarding visual motion flows from the extrastriate area V6 along two different paths: a dorsolateral one towards areas MT/V5, MST, V3A, and a dorsomedial one towards the visuomotor areas of the superior parietal lobule (V6A, MIP, VIP). The dorsolateral visual stream is involved in many aspects of visual motion analysis, including the recognition of object motion and self motion. The dorsomedial stream uses visual motion information to continuously monitor the spatial location of objects while we are looking and/or moving around, to allow skilled reaching for and grasping of the objects in structured, dynamically changing environments...
January 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192818/-benefits-of-measures-to-promote-development-in-language-mathematics-and-singing-in-kindergardeners-analysis-of-data-collected-at-school-entrance-examination-in-the-county-of-biberach
#14
Ulrike Hart, Manfred Wildner, Daniela Krämer, Alexander Crispin
To evaluate the benefits of implementing measures to promote skills in the areas of language, mathematics and singing in kindergardeners by statistical analysis of data collected during the school entrance examination (ESU) of 4-5-year-old children from the county of Biberach. Study 1 employs multivariate regression analysis to analyse - in chronological order - the ESU data on 4 cohorts (2011-2014; n=7 148) of children of the Biberach county. Study 2 qualitatively compares identical data representative of the entire state of Baden-Württemberg (N=3×80 000) with the Biberach results...
February 13, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189001/functional-outcome-at-school-age-of-children-born-with-gastroschisis
#15
Chiara C M M Lap, Sandra W Bolhuis, Koenraad N J A Van Braeckel, Sijmen A Reijneveld, Gwendolyn T R Manten, Arend F Bos, Jan B F Hulscher
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine motor, cognitive and behavioural outcomes of school aged children born with gastroschisis compared to matched controls. STUDY DESIGN: We compared outcomes of 16 children born with gastroschisis treated at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands, between 1999 and 2006 with 32 controls matched for gender, gestational age, birth weight, and corrected for small for gestational age (SGA) and parental socioeconomic status (SES)...
March 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182742/interactive-effects-of-visuomotor-perturbation-and-an-afternoon-nap-on-performance-and-the-flow-experience
#16
Kosuke Kaida, Yoshihiro Itaguchi, Sunao Iwaki
The present study was designed (1) to clarify the relationship between the flow experience and improvements in visuomotor skills, (2) to examine the effects of rotating the axis of a computer mouse on visuomotor skills, and (3) to investigate the effects of sleep for improving visuomotor skills. Participants (N = 18) responded to Perturbation and nap (PER+Nap), No-perturbation and nap (NoPER+Nap) and Perturbation and rest (PER+Rest) conditions. In the PER+Nap condition, participants conducted a visuomotor tracking task using a computer mouse, which was accompanied by perturbation caused by rotating the axis of their mouse...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181219/developmental-relations-among-motor-and-cognitive-processes-and-mathematics-skills
#17
Helyn Kim, Chelsea A K Duran, Claire E Cameron, David Grissmer
This study explored transactional associations among visuomotor integration, attention, fine motor coordination, and mathematics skills in a diverse sample of one hundred thirty-five 5-year-olds (kindergarteners) and one hundred nineteen 6-year-olds (first graders) in the United States who were followed over the course of 2 school years. Associations were dynamic, with more reciprocal transactions occurring in kindergarten than in the later grades. Specifically, visuomotor integration and mathematics exhibited ongoing reciprocity in kindergarten and first grade, attention contributed to mathematics in kindergarten and first grade, mathematics contributed to attention across the kindergarten year only, and fine motor coordination contributed to mathematics indirectly, through visuomotor integration, across kindergarten and first grade...
February 9, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153687/error-related-negativity-in-the-skilled-brain-of-pianists-reveals-motor-simulation
#18
Alice Mado Proverbio, Matteo Cozzi, Andrea Orlandi, Manuel Carminati
Evidences have been provided of a crucial role of multimodal audio-visuomotor processing in subserving the musical ability. In this paper we investigated whether musical audiovisual stimulation might trigger the activation of motor information in the brain of professional pianists, due to the presence of permanent gestures/sound associations. At this aim EEG was recorded in 24 pianists and naive participants engaged in the detection of rare targets while watching hundreds of video clips showing a pair of hands in the act of playing, along with a compatible or incompatible piano soundtrack...
March 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072633/visual-motion-processing-subserves-faster-visuomotor-reaction-in-badminton-players
#19
Thorben Hülsdünker, Heiko K Strüder, Andreas Mierau
INTRODUCTION: Athletes participating in ball or racquet sports have to respond to visual stimuli under critical time pressure. Previous studies used visual contrast stimuli to determine visual perception and visuomotor reaction in athletes and non-athletes however, especially ball and racquet sports are characterized by motion rather than contrast visual cues. Since visual contrast and motion signals are processed in different cortical regions, this study aimed to determine differences in perception and processing of visual motion between athletes and non-athletes...
January 9, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920096/structural-pathways-supporting-swift-acquisition-of-new-visuomotor-skills
#20
Ari E Kahn, Marcelo G Mattar, Jean M Vettel, Nicholas F Wymbs, Scott T Grafton, Danielle S Bassett
Human skill learning requires fine-scale coordination of distributed networks of brain regions linked by white matter tracts to allow for effective information transmission. Yet how individual differences in these anatomical pathways may impact individual differences in learning remains far from understood. Here, we test the hypothesis that individual differences in structural organization of networks supporting task performance predict individual differences in the rate at which humans learn a visuomotor skill...
January 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
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