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Aspartic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101991/clinically-distinct-phenotypes-of-canavan-disease-correlate-with-residual-aspartoacylase-enzyme-activity
#1
Marisa I Mendes, Desirée Ec Smith, Ana Pop, Pascal Lennertz, Matilde R Fernandez Ojeda, Warsha A Kanhai, Silvy J M van Dooren, Yair Anikster, Ivo Barić, Carolien Boelen, Jaime Campistol, Lonneke de Boer, Ariana Kariminejad, Hulya Kayserili, Agathe Roubertie, Krijn T Verbruggen, Christine Vianey-Saban, Monique Williams, Gajja S Salomons
We describe 14 patients with 12 novel missense mutations in ASPA, the gene causing Canavan disease (CD). We developed a method to study the effect of these 12 variants on the function of aspartoacylase - the hydrolysis of N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid (NAA) to aspartate and acetate. The wild-type ASPA open reading frame (ORF) and the ORFs containing each of the variants were transfected into HEK293 cells. Enzyme activity was determined by incubating cell lysates with NAA and measuring the released aspartic acid by LC-MS/MS...
January 19, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101932/amino-acid-profiling-of-zinc-resistant-prostate-cancer-cell-lines-associations-with-cancer-progression
#2
Monika Kratochvilova, Martina Raudenska, Zbynek Heger, Lukas Richtera, Natalia Cernei, Vojtech Adam, Petr Babula, Marie Novakova, Michal Masarik, Jaromir Gumulec
BACKGROUND: Failure in intracellular zinc accumulation is a key process in prostate carcinogenesis. Nevertheless, epidemiological studies of zinc administration have provided contradicting results. In order to examine the impact of the artificial intracellular increase of zinc(II) ions on prostate cancer metabolism, PNT1A, 22Rv1, and PC-3 prostatic cell lines-depicting different stages of cancer progression-and their zinc-resistant counterparts were used. To determine "benign" and "malignant" metabolic profiles, amino acid patterns, gene expression, and antioxidant capacity of these cell lines were assessed...
January 19, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100693/viral-genome-packaging-terminase-cleaves-dna-using-the-canonical-ruvc-like-two-metal-catalysis-mechanism
#3
Rui-Gang Xu, Huw T Jenkins, Maria Chechik, Elena V Blagova, Anna Lopatina, Evgeny Klimuk, Leonid Minakhin, Konstantin Severinov, Sandra J Greive, Alfred A Antson
Bacteriophages and large dsDNA viruses encode sophisticated machinery to translocate their DNA into a preformed empty capsid. An essential part of this machine, the large terminase protein, processes viral DNA into constituent units utilizing its nuclease activity. Crystal structures of the large terminase nuclease from the thermophilic bacteriophage G20c show that it is most similar to the RuvC family of the RNase H-like endonucleases. Like RuvC proteins, the nuclease requires either Mn(2+), Mg(2+) or Co(2+) ions for activity, but is inactive with Zn(2+) and Ca(2+) High resolution crystal structures of complexes with different metals reveal that in the absence of DNA, only one catalytic metal ion is accommodated in the active site...
January 18, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099989/effects-of-a-dietary-ketone-ester-on-hippocampal-glycolytic-and-tca-cycle-intermediates-and-amino-acids-in-a-3xtgad-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Robert J Pawlosky, Martin F Kemper, Yoshihero Kashiwaya, M Todd King, Mark P Mattson, Richard L Veech
In patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in a triple transgenic (3xTgAD) mouse model of AD low glucose metabolism in the brain precedes loss of memory and cognitive decline. The metabolism of ketones in the brain by-passes glycolysis and therefore may correct several deficiencies that are associated with glucose hypometabolism. A dietary supplement composed of an ester of D-β-hydroxybutyrate and R-1,3 butane diol referred to as ketone ester (KE) was incorporated into a rodent diet and fed to 3xTgAD mice for 8 months...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099880/modifications-of-inhibitory-transmission-onto-pyramidal-neurons-by-postnatal-exposure-to-mk-801-effects-of-enriched-environment
#5
Amir Shojaei, Afsaneh Kamali Anaraki, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Nafiseh Atapour
Early enriched environment (EE) prevents several deficits associated with postnatal MK-801 [N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist] treatment such as cognitive and locomotor deficits. We sought physiological correlates to such changes by looking at inhibitory synaptic inputs onto pyramidal cells in a prefrontal cortex slice preparation. Pharmacologically isolated γ-amino-butyric acid A (GABAA) receptor-mediated currents were measured using whole-cell patch clamp recordings. Wistar rats were raised in standard or EE from birth up to the time of experiments and were injected with saline or MK-801 (1mg/kg) on postnatal days (P) 6-10...
January 15, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098337/characterisation-of-the-enzymatic-properties-of-mpapr1-an-aspartic-protease-secreted-by-the-wine-yeast-metschnikowia-pulcherrima
#6
Louwrens Wiid Theron, Marina Bely, Benoit Divol
BACKGROUND: MpAPr1, encoding an acid protease from the wine yeast Metschnikowia pulcherrima IWBT Y1123, was previously isolated and shown to display potential activity against casein and grape proteins. However, its characterisation remained partial. RESULTS: MpAPr1 was cloned into the pGAPZαA vector and transformed into Komagataella pastoris X33 for heterologous expression. After verification of activity, the enzyme properties were characterised. Protease activity within the concentrated supernatant was retained over a pH range of 3...
January 18, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097679/abnormal-levels-of-seven-amino-neurotransmitters-in-depression-rat-brain-and-determination-by-hplc-fld
#7
Ting Cui, Hong-Mei Qiu, Dan Huang, Qi-Xin Zhou, Xiao-Yan Fu, Hai-Yan Li, Xin-Hui Jiang
The determination of amino acids with the actions-like neurotransmitters or modulators have been increasingly important for diagnose in many neuropsychiatric diseases. A rapid and simple high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) was developed for simultaneous determination of seven amino acids: aspartate (Asp), glutamate (Glu), serine (Ser), glutamine (Gln), glycine (Gly), taurine (Tau) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Homoserine (Hse) was used as an internal standard (IS)...
January 18, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097289/binding-of-cll-subset-4-b-cell-receptor-immunoglobulins-to-viable-human-memory-b-lymphocytes-requires-a-distinctive-igkv-somatic-mutation
#8
Rosa Catera, Yun Liu, Chao Gao, Xiao-Jie Yan, Amanda Magli, Steven L Allen, Jonathan E Kolitz, Kanti R Rai, Charles C Chu, Ten Feizi, Kostas Stamatopoulos, Nicholas Chiorazzi
Amino acid replacement mutations in certain CLL stereotyped B-cell receptor (BCR) immunoglobulins (IGs) at defined positions within antigen-binding sites strongly imply antigen selection. Prime examples of this are CLL subset 4 BCR IGs using IGHV4-34/IGHD5-18/IGHJ6 and IGKV2-30/IGKJ2 rearrangements. Conspicuously and unlike most CLL IGs, subset 4 IGs do not bind apoptotic cells. By testing the (auto)antigenic reactivities of subset 4 IGs toward viable lymphoid-lineage cells and specific autoantigens typically bound by IGHV4-34(+) IGs, we found IGs from both subset 4 and non-subset 4 IGHV4-34-expressing CLL cases bind naïve B cells...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097217/amylose-recognition-and-ring-size-determination-of-amylomaltase
#9
Christian Roth, Nicole Weizenmann, Nicola Bexten, Wolfram Saenger, Wolfgang Zimmermann, Timm Maier, Norbert Sträter
Starch is a major carbon and energy source throughout all kingdoms of life. It consists of two carbohydrate polymers, branched amylopectin and linear amylose, which are sparingly soluble in water. Hence, the enzymatic breakdown by glycoside hydrolases (GHs) is of great biological and societal importance. Amylomaltases (AMs) are GHs specialized in the hydrolysis of α-1,4-linked sugar chains such as amylose. They are able to catalyze an intramolecular transglycosylation of a bound sugar chain yielding polymeric sugar rings, the cycloamyloses (CAs), consisting of 20 to 100 glucose units...
January 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095910/profile-of-bioactive-compounds-in-nymphaea-alba-l-leaves-growing-in-egypt-hepatoprotective-antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-activity
#10
Riham Omar Bakr, Mona Mohamed El-Naa, Soumaya Saad Zaghloul, Mahmoud Mohamed Omar
BACKGROUND: Nymphaea alba L. represents an interesting field of study. Flowers have antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects, rhizomes constituents showed cytotoxic activity against liver cell carcinoma, while several Nymphaea species have been reported for their hepatoprotective effects. Leaves of N. alba have not been studied before. Therefore, in this study, in-depth characterization of the leaf phytoconstituents as well as its antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities have been performed where N...
January 17, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094275/sulfated-cyclocarya-paliurus-polysaccharides-markedly-attenuates-inflammation-and-oxidative-damage-in-lipopolysaccharide-treated-macrophage-cells-and-mice
#11
Zhijun Wang, Jianhua Xie, Yujiao Yang, Fan Zhang, Shengnan Wang, Ting Wu, Mingyue Shen, Mingyong Xie
Natural polysaccharides and their modified derivatives are crucial supplements to the prevention of inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sulfated modification on the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities of Cyclocarya paliurus polysaccharides (CP). A sulfated CP, S-CP1-4 was obtained using chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method. The chemical components and FT-IR spectrum confirmed that sulfated group was synthesized to the polysaccharide chains successfully. S-CP1-4 was found to inhibit nitric oxide production, phagocytic activity and the release of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β in lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophage cells, RAW 264...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093944/healing-efficacy-of-fracture-targeted-gsk3%C3%AE-inhibitor-loaded-micelles-for-improved-fracture-repair
#12
Stewart A Low, Chris V Galliford, Yava L Jones-Hall, Jyoti Roy, Jiyuan Yang, Philip S Low, Jindřich Kopeček
AIM: To evaluate the fracture healing capabilities of a GSK3β inhibitor, 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime, coupled with an aspartic acid octapeptide in a micellar delivery system. MATERIALS & METHODS: The efficacy of the intravenously administered micelles to accelerate healing of femoral fracture in mice was evaluated. Micro-computed tomography analysis was employed to obtain bone density, total volume, relative volume, trabecular thickness and trabecular spacing. RESULTS: Both fracture bone mineral density and volume were significantly higher in the micelle treatment groups when compared with controls...
January 17, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093764/pre-ischemic-mitochondrial-substrate-constraint-by-inhibition-of-malate-aspartate-shuttle-preserves-mitochondrial-function-after-ischemia-reperfusion
#13
Nichlas Riise Jespersen, Takashi Yokota, Nicolaj Brejnholt Støttrup, Andreas Bergdahl, Kim Bolther Paelestik, Jonas Agerlund Povlsen, Flemming Dela, Hans Erik Bøtker
Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. The pre-ischemic administration of aminooxyacetate (AOA), an inhibitor of the malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS), provides cardioprotection against IR injury, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. We hypothesized that a transient inhibition of the MAS during ischemia and early reperfusion could preserve mitochondrial function at later phase of reperfusion in IR-injured heart to the same extent as ischemic preconditioning (IPC), which is a well-validated cardioprotective strategy against IR injury...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093558/glutamatergic-synapses-are-structurally-and-biochemically-complex-because-of-multiple-plasticity-processes-long-term-potentiation-long-term-depression-short-term-potentiation-and-scaling
#14
REVIEW
John Lisman
Synapses are complex because they perform multiple functions, including at least six mechanistically different forms of plasticity. Here, I comment on recent developments regarding these processes. (i) Short-term potentiation (STP), a Hebbian process that requires small amounts of synaptic input, appears to make strong contributions to some forms of working memory. (ii) The rules for long-term potentiation (LTP) induction in CA3 have been clarified: induction does not depend obligatorily on backpropagating sodium spikes but, rather, on dendritic branch-specific N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) spikes...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092808/antinociceptive-effect-of-co-administered-nmda-and-histamine-h4-receptor-antagonists-in-a-rat-model-of-acute-pain
#15
Renata Wolińska, Anna Leśniak, Małgorzata Żochowska, Mariusz Sacharczuk, Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz, Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrożny
BACKGROUND: The histamine H4 receptor (H4R) has attracted a lot of attention in terms of its role in antinociception. The N-Methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor is a well-characterized participant in pain pathways. However, it's influence on H4R signaling is poorly understood. Thus, in the present study we investigated the effect of a selective H4R antagonist JNJ7777120 (25mg/kg) and a NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.1-10μg) on nociceptive thresholds in a rat acute pain model. METHODS: The influence of intrathecally (it), intracerebroventricularly (icv) and intraplantarly (ipl) administered MK-801 co-injected with JNJ7777120 administered intraperitoneally (ip) was determined in the modified Randall-Selitto paw pressure, the tail flick and plantar tests...
October 29, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092598/evaluation-of-venous-blood-gas-levels-blood-chemistry-and-haemocytometric-parameters-in-milk-fed-veal-calves-at-different-periods-of-livestock-cycle
#16
S Giambelluca, E Fiore, A Sadocco, M Gianesella, I Vazzana, T Orefice, M Morgante
An evaluation of blood chemistry profile in relation to specific stages of livestock cycle can help better understand variations in physiological conditions in order to adjust management systems to animal needs. In addition to basal hematological investigation, the acid-base balance and blood gases are essential tools in evaluating metabolism in calves. The relationship between blood gas parameters, diet and growth should be further investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in acid-base status, blood gases, serum chemistry and hematological parameters in veal calves at different periods of livestock cycle...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092019/urb597-and-the-cannabinoid-win55-212-2-reduce-behavioral-and-neurochemical-deficits-induced-by-mptp-in-mice-possible-role-of-redox-modulation-and-nmda-receptors
#17
Angel Escamilla-Ramírez, Esperanza García, Guadalupe Palencia-Hernández, Ana Laura Colín-González, Sonia Galván-Arzate, Isaac Túnez, Julio Sotelo, Abel Santamaría
Several physiological events in the brain are regulated by the endocannabinoid system (ECS). While synthetic cannabinoid receptor (CBr) agonists such as WIN55,212-2 act directly on CBr, agents like URB597, a fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor, induce a more "physiological" activation of CBr by increasing the endogenous levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA). Herein, we compared the pre- and post-treatment efficacy of URB597 and WIN55,212-2 on different endpoints evaluated in the toxic model produced by the mitochondrial toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in mice...
January 14, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090470/acanthosis-nigricans-as-a-clinical-predictor-of-insulin-resistance-in-obese-children
#18
Young Kwon Koh, Jae Hee Lee, Eun Young Kim, Kyung Rye Moon
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the utility of acanthosis nigricans (AN) severity as an index for predicting insulin resistance in obese children. METHODS: The subjects comprised 74 obese pediatric patients who attended the Department of Pediatrics at Chosun University Hospital between January 2013 and March 2016. Waist circumference; body mass index; blood pressure; fasting glucose and fasting insulin levels; lipid profile; aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, glycated hemoglobin, C-peptide, and uric acid levels; and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and quantitative insulin check sensitivity index (QUICKI) scores were compared between subjects with AN and those without AN...
December 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088491/toxicogenetic-study-of-persea-americana-fruit-pulp-oil-and-its-effect-on-genomic-instability
#19
Heloiza Diniz Nicolella, Francisco Rinaldi Neto, Mariana Beltrame Corrêa, Danillo Henrique Lopes, Edilaura Nunes Rondon, Luiz Felipe Ribeiro Dos Santos, Pollyanna Francielli de Oliveira, Jaqueline Lopes Damasceno, Nathália Oliveira Acésio, Izabel Cristina Casanova Turatti, Marcos Gomide Tozatti, Wilson Roberto Cunha, Ricardo Andrade Furtado, Denise Crispim Tavares
Persea americana Mill., commonly known as avocado, is a tree native to Central America that is widely used as a food source and for the treatment of diseases. This plant has various biological properties such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory and total cholesterol-lowering activity. In view of its pharmacological potential, we conducted a toxicogenetic study of the fruit pulp oil of P. americana (PAO) and investigated its influence on genotoxicity induced by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and doxorubicin. V79 cells and Swiss mice were used for the assays...
January 11, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088003/the-effect-of-the-antioxidant-on-the-properties-of-thiolated-poly-aspartic-acid-polymers-in-aqueous-ocular-formulations
#20
Mária Budai-Szűcs, Gabriella Horvát, Benjámin Gyarmati, Barnabás Áron Szilágyi, András Szilágyi, Szilvia Berkó, Rita Ambrus, Piroska Szabó-Révész, Giuseppina Sandri, Maria Cristina Bonferoni, Carla Caramella, Erzsébet Csányi
Thiolated polymers are a promising new group of excipients, but their stability against atmospheric oxidation has not been investigated in detail, and only a few efforts have been made to improve their stability. The oxidation of the thiol groups in solutions of thiolated polymers may result in a decrease of mucoadhesion and unpredictable in situ gelation. The aims of our work were to study the stability of aqueous solutions of thiolated polymers and the effects of stabilizing agents. We investigated thiolated poly(aspartic acid) polymers stabilized with dithiothreitol, glutathione or acetylcysteine...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
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