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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913854/the-role-of-macromolecules-in-the-formation-of-kidney-stones
#1
REVIEW
Jeffrey D Rimer, Ann M Kolbach-Mandel, Michael D Ward, Jeffrey A Wesson
The formation of crystal aggregates, one of the critical processes in kidney stone pathogenesis, involves interactions between crystals (predominantly calcium oxalate monohydrate, COM) and urinary constituents (e.g., proteins), which serve as an adhesive "glue" between crystals in stones. To develop a better understanding of the protein-crystal interactions that lead to crystal aggregation, we have measured the effect of model proteins on bulk COM crystal properties as well as their adsorption on crystal surfaces using three synthetic polyanions: poly(aspartic acid) (polyD), poly(glutamic acid) (polyE), and poly(acrylic acid) (polyAA)...
December 2, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913587/suppressing-n-acetyl-l-aspartate-naa-synthesis-prevents-loss-of-neurons-in-a-murine-model-of-canavan-leukodystrophy
#2
Jiho Sohn, Peter Bannerman, Fuzheng Guo, Travis Burns, Laird Miers, Christopher Croteau, Naveen K Singhal, Jennifer A McDonough, David Pleasure
Canavan disease is a leukodystrophy caused by aspartoacylase (ASPA) deficiency. The lack of functional ASPA, an enzyme enriched in oligodendroglia that cleaves N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA) to acetate and L-aspartic acid, elevates brain NAA and causes "spongiform" vacuolation of superficial brain white matter and neighboring gray matter. In children with Canavan disease, neuroimaging shows early-onset dysmyelination and progressive brain atrophy. Neuron loss has been documented at autopsy in some cases. Prior studies have shown that mice homozygous for the Aspa nonsense mutation Nur7 also develop brain vacuolation...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911475/carboplatin-complexed-and-crgd-conjugated-unimolecular-nanoparticles-for-targeted-ovarian-cancer-therapy
#3
Yuyuan Wang, Liwei Wang, Guojun Chen, Shaoqin Gong
Platinum-based chemotherapy has been widely used to treat cancers including ovarian cancer; however, it suffers from dose-limiting toxicity. Judiciously designed drug nanocarriers can enhance the anticancer efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy while reducing its systemic toxicity. Herein the authors report a stable and water-soluble unimolecular nanoparticle constructed from a hydrophilic multi-arm star block copolymer poly(amidoamine)-b-poly(aspartic acid)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PAMAM-PAsp-PEG) conjugated with both cRGD (cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Cys) peptide and cyanine5 (Cy5) fluorescent dye as a platinum-based drug nanocarrier for targeted ovarian cancer therapy...
December 1, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910775/hepatoprotective-effects-and-mechanisms-of-action-of-triterpenoids-from-lingzhi-or-reishi-medicinal-mushroom-ganoderma-lucidum-agaricomycetes-on-%C3%AE-amanitin-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#4
Huihui Wu, Shanshan Tang, Zhaoqin Huang, Qian Zhou, Ping Zhang, Zuohong Chen
Most fatal mushroom poisonings are caused by species of the genus Amanita; the amatoxins are responsible for acute liver failure and death in humans. Ganoderma lucidum is a well-known traditional medicinal mushroom that has been shown to have obvious hepatoprotective effects. This study evaluated the hepatoprotective effects of triterpenoids from G. lucidum on liver injury induced by a-amanitin (α-AMA) in mice and the mechanisms of action of these triterpenoids, including radical scavenging and antiapoptosis activities...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909717/restorative-effects-of-hydroxysafflor-yellow%C3%A2-a-on-hepatic-function-in-an-experimental-regression-model-of-hepatic-fibrosis-induced-by-carbon-tetrachloride
#5
Yanuo Li, Yan Shi, Yan Sun, Luying Liu, Xianyong Bai, Dong Wang, Hongxing Li
Hepatic fibrosis is a reversible pathological process, in which fibrotic tissue is excessively deposited in the liver during the repair process that follows hepatic injury. Early prevention or treatment of hepatic fibrosis has great significance on the treatment of chronic hepatic diseases. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is a water-soluble monomer extracted from safflower, which serves numerous pharmacological roles. However, it remains to be elucidated how HSYA regulates hepatic fibrogenesis. The aim of the present study was to reveal the possible mechanisms underlying the effects of HSYA on the prevention and treatment of hepatic fibrosis...
November 24, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908733/sequences-in-linker-1-domain-of-the-multidrug-resistance-associated-protein-mrp1-or-abcc1-bind-to-tubulin-and-their-binding-is-modulated-by-phosphorylation
#6
Raghuram Ambadipudi, Elias Georges
The multidrug resistant associated protein 1 (or MRP1, ABCC1) encodes two cytoplasmic linker domains (L0 and L1) composed of highly charged sequences with multiple protein kinase A/C phosphorylation sites. In this report we made use of the scanning peptide approach to identify MRP1 linker L1 (L1(MRP1)) interacting proteins. Scanning heptapeptides covering L1(MRP1) 126 amino acids (Ile(846)- Leu(972)) were synthesized and used in pull-down assays to isolate proteins from cell extracts (human multidrug resistant SCLC cell line; H69/AR)...
November 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908619/correlation-of-dna-repair-gene-polymorphisms-with-clinical-outcome-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-receiving-induction-chemotherapy-followed-by-surgery
#7
Mariacarmela Santarpia, Jose Luis Ramirez, Itziar de Aguirre, Pilar Garrido, Maria Pérez Cano, Cristina Queralt, Jose Luis Gonzalez-Larriba, Amelia Insa, Mariano Provencio, Dolores Isla, Carlos Camps, Remei Blanco, Teresa Moran, Rafael Rosell
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) and ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 (RRM1) polymorphisms influenced clinical outcome in patients with stage IIIA-B non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with neoadjuvant gemcitabine/cisplatin/docetaxel followed by surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 109 patients with stage IIIA and IIIB NSCLC were prospectively genotyped to examine a potential association between XPD 312 (aspartic acid [Asp]/asparagine [Asn]), XPD 751 (lysine [Lys]/glutamine [Gln]), and RRM1 (-37 C/A) polymorphisms with response and survival...
November 9, 2016: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908241/molecular-cloning-biochemical-characterization-and-antitumor-properties-of-a-novel-l-asparaginase-from-synechococcus-elongatus-pcc6803
#8
R Kebeish, A El-Sayed, H Fahmy, A Abdel-Ghany
L-asparaginase (EC 3.5.1.1), which catalyzes the deamidation of L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid and ammonia, has been widely used as a key therapeutic tool in the treatment of tumors. The current commercially available L-asparaginases, produced from bacteria, have signs of toxicity and hypersensitivity reactions during the course of tumor therapy. Therefore, searching for L-asparaginases with unique biochemical properties and fewer adverse effects was the objective of this work. In this study, cyanobacterial strain Synechococcus elongatus PCC6803 was found as a novel source of L-asparaginase...
October 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907839/influence-of-picolinic-acid-on-seizure-susceptibility-in-mice
#9
Anna Cioczek-Czuczwar, Piotr Czuczwar, Waldemar Andrzej Turski, Jolanta Parada-Turska
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of drug resistance in epilepsy remains unknown. Picolinic acid (PIC) is an endogenous metabolite of the kynurenine pathway and a chelating agent added to dietary supplements. Both inhibitory and excitatory properties of PIC were reported. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of exogenously applied PIC upon the electroconvulsive threshold and the activity of chemical convulsants in eight models of epilepsy in mice. METHODS: All experiments were performed on adult male Swiss albino mice...
October 12, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907125/identification-of-a-highly-conserved-hypothetical-protein-ton_0340-as-a-probable-manganese-dependent-phosphatase
#10
Young-Sik Sohn, Seong-Gyu Lee, Kwang-Hoon Lee, Bonsu Ku, Ho-Chul Shin, Sun-Shin Cha, Yeon-Gil Kim, Hyun Sook Lee, Sung-Gyun Kang, Byung-Ha Oh
A hypothetical protein TON_0340 of a Thermococcus species is a protein conserved in a variety of organisms including human. Herein, we present four different crystal structures of TON_0340, leading to the identification of an active-site cavity harboring a metal-binding site composed of six invariant aspartate and glutamate residues that coordinate one to three metal ions. Biochemical and mutational analyses involving many phosphorous compounds show that TON_0340 is a Mn2+-dependent phosphatase. Mg2+ binds to TON_0340 less tightly and activates the phosphatase activity less efficiently than Mn2+...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903963/cdh1-regulates-e2f1-degradation-in-response-to-differentiation-signals-in-keratinocytes
#11
Randeep K Singh, Lina Dagnino
The E2F1 transcription factor plays key roles in skin homeostasis. In the epidermis, E2F1 expression is essential for normal proliferation of undifferentiated keratinocytes, regeneration after injury and DNA repair following UV radiation-induced photodamage. Abnormal E2F1 expression promotes nonmelanoma skin carcinoma. In addition, E2F1 must be downregulated for proper keratinocyte differentiation, but the relevant mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. We show that differentiation signals induce a series of post-translational modifications in E2F1 that are jointly required for its downregulation...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903463/her2-transmembrane-mutations-v659-g660-that-stabilize-homo-and-hetero-dimerization-are-rare-oncogenic-drivers-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-that-respond-to-afatinib
#12
Sai-Hong Ignatius Ou, Alexa B Schrock, Eduard V Bocharov, Samuel J Klempner, Carolina Kawamura Haddad, Gary Steinecker, Melissa Johnson, Barbara J Gitlitz, Jon Chung, Paulo V Campregher, Jeffrey S Ross, Philip J Stephens, Vincent A Miller, James H Suh, Siraj M Ali, Vamsidhar Velcheti
INTRODUCTION: HER2 transmembrane domain (TMD) mutations (HER2(V659E), HER2(G660D)) have previously been identified in lung adenocarcinomas, but their frequency and clinical significance is unknown. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 8,551 consecutive lung adenocarcinomas using hybrid-capture based comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) at the request of the individual treating physicians for the purpose of making therapy decisions. RESULTS: We identified 15 cases (0...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903424/inhibition-of-key-digestive-enzymes-related-to-hyperlipidemia-and-protection-of-liver-kidney-functions-by-cystoseira-crinita-sulphated-polysaccharide-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#13
Amel Ben Gara, Rihab Ben Abdallah Kolsi, Rim Chaaben, Nadia Hammami, Majed Kammoun, Francesco Paolo Patti, Abdelfattah El Feki, Lotfi Fki, Hafedh Belghith, Karima Belghith
The objective of this current study was to investigate the possible hyperlipidemic and antioxidative effects of Cystoseira crinita sulfated polysaccharide (CCSP) in rats fed with a high-fat diet, exhibited an inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase in vitro. In vivo administration of this extract to HFD-rats lowered body weight and potentially inhibited key enzymes of lipid metabolism and absorption as lipase activity in both plasma and small intestine, which led to a notable decrease of blood LDL- cholesterol (LDL-Ch) and triglycerides (TG) levels, and an increase in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-Ch) levels in HFD-rats...
November 27, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902861/thioaldehydes-from-aldehyde-hydrogen-sulfide-interaction-under-organocatalysis
#14
Joseph S Francisco, Manoj Kumar
Thioaldehydes are an important class of sulfur compounds involved in atmospheric, synthetic organic and biological chemistry. Traditionally, they are believed to be formed by the nucleophilic attack of bisulfide anion on the carbonyl compounds. Herein we suggest a novel mechanism that does not require the formation of bisulfide anion, but rather involves an interaction between hydrogen sulfide and an aldehyde. Though the uncatalyzed or the water-catalyzed reactions involve high barriers, the formic acid-catalyzed reactions involve moderate barriers that should be accessible in planetary atmospheres...
November 30, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902237/krasilnikoviella-muralis-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-new-member-of-the-family-promicromonosporaceae-isolated-from-the-takamatsuzuka-tumulus-stone-chamber-interior-and-reclassification-of-promicromonospora-flava-as-krasilnikoviella-flava-comb-nov
#15
Miyuki Nishijima, Nozomi Tazato, Yutaka Handa, Nao Umekawa, Rika Kigawa, Chie Sano, Junta Sugiyama
A Gram-stain positive, facultative anaerobic actinomycete, designated strain T6220-5-2bT, was isolated from a sample taken from a mouldy spot on the surface of a mural painting (the white tiger, Byakko) inside the stone chamber of Takamatsuzuka Tumulus in Asuka village, Nara Prefecture, Japan. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of the isolate, it was closely related to the genus Promicromonospora, but formed of a novel lineage within the family Promicromonosporaceae. The closest related species to strain T6220-5-2bT was the known species Promicromonospora flava, which displayed a 99...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901474/cerebellar-neurochemical-and-histopathological-changes-in-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-induced-by-intrastriatal-injection-of-rotenone
#16
Yasser A Khadrawy, Iman M Mourad, Haitham S Mohammed, Neveen A Noor, Heba S Aboul Ezz
The aim of the present work was to investigate the neurochemical changes induced in the cerebellum of rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Rats were divided into two groups; control and rat model of PD induced by the intrastriatal injection of rotenone. As compared to control, a significant increase in the excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters; glutamate and aspartate together with a significant decrease in the inhibitory amino acids, GABA, glycine and taurine were observed in the cerebellum of rat model of PD...
November 30, 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898951/intrauterine-growth-restricted-piglets-have-similar-gastric-emptying-rates-but-lower-rectal-temperatures-and-altered-blood-values-when-compared-with-normal-weight-piglets-at-birth
#17
C Amdi, M V Klarlund, J Hales, T Thymann, C F Hansen
Intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) piglets have lower survival rates and are more likely to have empty stomachs 24 h after birth than normal piglets. Although hypoglycemia may result from low colostrum intake per se, it is not known if slow gastric emptying may be an additional risk factor for poor immunization and glucose absorption in IUGR piglets. It is estimated that IUGR piglets consume less colostrum per kilogram BW than normal-weight piglets within the first 24 h, which could be due to a slower gastric emptying rate and a compromised energy metabolism...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895477/noninvasive-monitoring-of-early-antiangiogenic-therapy-response-in-human-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-xenograft-model-using-mri-with-rgd-conjugated-ultrasmall-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles
#18
Yanfen Cui, Caiyuan Zhang, Ran Luo, Huanhuan Liu, Zhongyang Zhang, Tianyong Xu, Yong Zhang, Dengbin Wang
PURPOSE: Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-based nanoprobes allow specific imaging of integrin αvβ3, a protein overexpressed during angiogenesis. Therefore, this study applied a novel RGD-coupled, polyacrylic acid (PAA)-coated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) (referred to as RGD-PAA-USPIO) in order to detect tumor angiogenesis and assess the early response to antiangiogenic treatment in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) xenograft model by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894844/the-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-activity-in-cultured-primary-astrocytes-is-strongly-accelerated-by-the-protein-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-tyrphostin-23
#19
Michaela C Hohnholt, Eva-Maria Blumrich, Helle S Waagepetersen, Ralf Dringen
Tyrphostin 23 (T23) is a well-known inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases and has been considered as potential anti-cancer drug. T23 was recently reported to acutely stimulate the glycolytic flux in primary cultured astrocytes. To investigate whether T23 also affects the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, we incubated primary rat astrocyte cultures with [U-(13)C]glucose in the absence or the presence of 100 μM T23 for 2 h and analyzed the (13)C metabolite pattern. These incubation conditions did not compromise cell viability and confirmed that the presence of T23 doubled glycolytic lactate production...
November 25, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893675/a-multicenter-randomized-double-blind-trial-comparing-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-tudca-and-udca-in-chinese-patients-with-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#20
Hong Ma, Minde Zeng, Ying Han, Huiping Yan, Hong Tang, Jifang Sheng, Heping Hu, Liufang Cheng, Qing Xie, Youfu Zhu, Guofeng Chen, Zhiliang Gao, Wen Xie, Jiyao Wang, Shanming Wu, Guiqiang Wang, Xiaohui Miao, Xiaoqing Fu, Liping Duan, Jie Xu, Lai Wei, Guangfeng Shi, Chengwei Chen, Minhu Chen, Qin Ning, Chen Yao, Jidong Jia
AIM: Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is a taurine conjugated form of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) with higher hydrophility. To further evaluate the efficacy and safety of TUDCA for primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), we performed this study on Chinese patients. METHODS: 199 PBC patients were randomly assigned to either 250 mg TUDCA plus UDCA placebo or 250 mg UDCA plus TUDCA placebo, 3 times per day for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was defined as percentage of patients achieving serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) reduction of more than 25% from baseline...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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