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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918601/effects-of-phoxim-induced-hepatotoxicity-on-sd-rats-and-the-protection-of-vitamin-e
#1
Jing Zhang, Wentao Song, Yuecheng Sun, Anshan Shan
Currently, public pay more attention to the adverse effect of organophosphate pesticides on human and animal health and on the environment in developing nations. Vitamin E may protect the hepatocyte and increase the function of liver. The study was to investigate the effects of phoxim-induced hepatotoxicity on Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and the protection of vitamin E. SD rats received by gavage 180 mg kg(-1) (per body weight) of phoxim, 200 mg kg(-1) (per body weight) of vitamin E, and phoxim + vitamin E...
September 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916137/oxytocin-induces-penile-erection-and-yawning-when-injected-into-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-involvement-of-glutamic-acid-dopamine-and-nitric-oxide
#2
Fabrizio Sanna, Jessica Bratzu, Antonio Argiolas, Maria Rosaria Melis
Oxytocin (5-100ng), but not Arg(8)-vasopressin (100ng), injected unilaterally into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) induces penile erection and yawning in a dose-dependent manner in male rats. The minimal effective dose was 20ng for penile erection and 5ng for yawning. Oxytocin responses were abolished not only by the oxytocin receptor antagonist d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)-vasotocin (1μg), but also by (+) MK-801 (1μg), an excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) subtype, SCH 23390 (1μg), a D1 receptor antagonist, but not haloperidol (1μg), a D2 receptor antagonist, and SMTC (40μg), an inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, injected into the BNST 15min before oxytocin...
September 12, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915314/-1-h-mrs-processing-parameters-affect-metabolite-quantification-the-urgent-need-for-uniform-and-transparent-standardization
#3
Alex A Bhogal, Remmelt R Schür, Lotte C Houtepen, Bart van de Bank, Vincent O Boer, Anouk Marsman, Peter B Barker, Tom W J Scheenen, Jannie P Wijnen, Christiaan H Vinkers, Dennis W J Klomp
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) can be used to quantify in vivo metabolite levels, such as lactate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (Glu). However, there are considerable analysis choices which can alter the accuracy or precision of (1) H-MRS metabolite quantification. It is currently unknown to what extent variations in the analysis pipeline used to quantify (1) H-MRS data affect outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the quantification of identical (1) H-MRS scans across independent and experienced research groups would yield comparable results...
September 15, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913780/anxiolytic-like-effects-of-%C3%AE-asarone-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-pain
#4
Jiao Tian, Zhen Tian, Shu-Li Qin, Pu-Yu Zhao, Xun Jiang, Zhen Tian
α-asarone (ASR) is a major bioactive compound isolated from the rhizome of Acorus tatarinowii Schott and it has extensive biological effects. Clinically, anxiety disorder is a common comorbidity of chronic pain. However, limited information is available regarding the effects of ASR on chronic pain-related anxiety. This study aims to evaluate the anxiolytic effects of ASR in chronic pain mice. Chronic inflammatory pain was induced by hind-paw injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Behavioral tests, western-blot analysis and whole-cell patch recordings were performed to evaluate the subsequent events...
September 15, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912687/alterations-in-properties-of-glutamatergic-transmission-in-the-temporal-cortex-and-hippocampus-following-pilocarpine-induced-acute-seizures-in-wistar-rats
#5
Dmitry V Amakhin, Sergey L Malkin, Julia L Ergina, Kirill A Kryukov, Ekaterina A Veniaminova, Olga E Zubareva, Aleksey V Zaitsev
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of focal epilepsy in humans, and is often developed after an initial precipitating brain injury. This form of epilepsy is frequently resistant to pharmacological treatment; therefore, the prevention of TLE is the prospective approach to TLE therapy. The lithium-pilocarpine model in rats replicates some of the main features of TLE in human, including the pathogenic mechanisms of cell damage and epileptogenesis after a primary brain injury. In the present study, we investigated changes in the properties of glutamatergic transmission during the first 3 days after pilocarpine-induced acute seizures in Wistar rats (PILO-rats)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911655/therapeutic-effects-of-d-aspartate-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Sanaz Afraei, Antimo D'Aniello, Reza Sedaghat, Parvin Ekhtiari, Gholamreza Azizi, Nakisa Tabrizian, Laura Magliozzi, Zahra Aghazadeh, Abbas Mirshafiey
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of multiple sclerosis. EAE is mainly mediated by adaptive and innate immune responses that leads to an inflammatory demyelization and axonal damage. The aim of the present research was to examine the therapeutic efficacy of D-aspartic acid (D-Asp) on a mouse EAE model. EAE induction was performed in female C57BL/6 mice by myelin 40 oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (35-55) in a complete Freund's adjuvant emulsion, and D-Asp was used to test its efficiency in the reduction of EAE...
July 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911652/microbiological-histological-and-biochemical-evidence-for-the-adverse-effects-of-food-azo-dyes-on-rats
#7
Khaled Elbanna, Osama Mohamed Sarhan, Manal Khider, Mohamed Elmogy, Hussein Hasan Abulreesh, Mohamed Rabie Shaaban
In this study, 120 lactic acid bacterial strains from different fermented dairy products as well as 10 bacterial intestinal isolates were evaluated for in vitro and in vivo degradation of various food azo dyes. Of these isolates, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains 13 and 100 and the intestinal isolates Ent2 and Eco5 exhibited 96-98% degradation of the tested food azo dyes within 5-6 hours. High performance liquid chromatography mass spectra of sunset yellow (E110) and carmoisine (E122) anaerobic degradation products by the intestinal isolates showed that they were structurally related to toxic aromatic amines...
July 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911117/structure-based-domain-assignment-in-leishmania-infantum-endog-characterization-of-a-ph-dependent-regulatory-switch-and-a-c-terminal-extension-that-largely-dictates-dna-substrate-preferences
#8
Cristina Oliva, Pedro A Sánchez-Murcia, Eva Rico, Ana Bravo, Margarita Menéndez, Federico Gago, Antonio Jiménez-Ruiz
Mitochondrial endonuclease G from Leishmania infantum (LiEndoG) participates in the degradation of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) during parasite cell death and is catalytically inactive at a pH of 8.0 or above. The presence, in the primary sequence, of an acidic amino acid-rich insertion exclusive to trypanosomatids and its spatial position in a homology-built model of LiEndoG led us to postulate that this peptide stretch might act as a pH sensor for self-inhibition. We found that a LiEndoG variant lacking residues 145-180 is indeed far more active than its wild-type counterpart at pH values >7...
September 6, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910980/neuroprotective-effect-of-deferoxamine-on-n-methyl-d-aspartate-induced-excitotoxicity-in-rgc-5-cells
#9
Ying Tian, Ye He, Weitao Song, Endong Zhang, Xiaobo Xia
Many N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists have been used to treat neurodegenerative diseases induced by glutamate excitotoxicity in clinics. However, the universality of the glutamic acid neurotransmitter system makes the glutamic acid receptor blockers inefficient and unsafe. Thus, regulating the downstream signaling pathway in the excitotoxicity of glutamic acid may be a more effective and safer way to antagonize the glutamic acid receptor. In this study, we investigated the effect of deferoxamine (DFO), an iron chelator, on the NMDA-induced excitotoxicity...
September 1, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910661/describing-the-holistic-toxicokinetics-of-hepatotoxic-chinese-herbal-medicines-by-a-novel-integrated-strategy-dioscorea-bulbifera-rhizome-as-a-case-study
#10
Ling-Li Wang, Dong-Sheng Zhao, Wei Shi, Zhuo-Qing Li, Zi-Tian Wu, Ping Li, Hui-Jun Li
It is vital to monitor the holistic toxicokinetics of toxic Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) for safety. Although an integrated strategy based on the area under the curve (AUC) has been proposed to characterize the pharmacokinetic/toxicokinetic properties of CHMs, improvement is still needed. This study attempted to use 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) as weighting coefficient to investigate holistic toxicokinetics of the major diosbulbins i.e. diosbulbin A (DA), diosbulbin B (DB), and diosbulbin C (DC) after oral administration of Dioscorea bulbifera rhizome (DBR) extract...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905661/genetic-parameters-for-the-prediction-of-abdominal-fat-traits-using-blood-biochemical-parameters-in-broilers
#11
H L Zhang, Z Q Xu, L L Yang, Y X Wang, Y M Li, J Q Dong, X Y Zhang, X Y Jiang, X F Jiang, H Li, D X Zhang, H Zhang
1. Excessive deposition of body fat, especially abdominal fat, is detrimental in chickens and the prevention of excessive fat accumulation is an important problem. The aim of this study was to identify blood biochemical indicators that could be used as criteria to select lean Yellow-feathered chicken lines. 2. Levels of blood biochemical indicators in the fed and fasted states and the abdominal fat traits were measured in 332 Guangxi Yellow chickens. In the fed state, the genetic correlations (rg) of triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels were positive for the abdominal fat traits (0...
September 14, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905104/analysis-of-advanced-glycation-end-products-ages-in-dentine-useful-for-age-estimation
#12
Florian Greis, Alexandra Reckert, Katinka Fischer, Stefanie Ritz-Timme
Ageing of the human organism results in the accumulation of modified molecules. Some of these molecular changes may be used for age estimation, as already shown for aspartic acid racemization (AAR). Another example for an accumulation of damaged molecules is advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We examined, (1) if the correlation between the concentration of AGEs (pentosidine) in root dentine and age is close enough to be used as basis for age estimation, and (2) if the combined analysis of AGEs and AAR in dentine may be a useful approach to rule out or to detect relevant effects of confounding factors in age estimation...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903465/role-of-host-cell-integrins-in-the-microsporidium-encephalitozoon-intestinalis-adherence-and-infection-in-vitro
#13
Cory A Leonard, J Russell Hayman
Microsporidia are obligate intracellular, spore-forming, fungal-related pathogens that employ a unique organelle, the polar tube, to transfer infectious spore contents into host cells to initiate infection. Spore adherence to host cells may provide the proximity required for polar tube/host cell interaction during in vivo infection. In previous in vitro studies, host sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or recombinant microsporidia endospore protein (EnP1) was implicated in the pathogen adherence and infection process; however, complete ablation of spore adherence and infection could not be achieved, suggesting that additional or alternative spore and host cell determinants of adherence and infection may exist...
September 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902622/functional-interaction-between-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-and-ascorbic-acid-during-neuropathic-pain-induced-by-chronic-constriction-injury-of-the-sciatic-nerve
#14
Sepideh Saffarpour, Farinaz Nasirinezhad
BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain is a chronic pain condition, which is resistant to therapy. Ascorbate was released because of the activation of glutaminergic neurons. Due to the important role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain, this study investigated the analgesic efficacy of ascorbic acid (AA) in neuropathic pain condition and the role of NMDA receptors in this effect. METHODS: For this purpose, adult male rats were randomly allocated to experimental groups (n=8 in each group)...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901671/aspartate-tightens-the-anchoring-of-staphylococcal-lipoproteins-to-the-cytoplasmic-membrane
#15
Nimerta Kumari, Friedrich Götz, Minh-Thu Nguyen
In gram-negative bacteria, the ABC transporter LolCDE complex translocates outer membrane-specific lipoproteins (Lpp) from the inner membrane to the outer membrane. Lpp possessing aspartate (Asp) at position +2 are not translocated because it functions as a LolCDE avoidance signal. In gram-positive bacteria, lacking an outer membrane and the Lol system, Lpp are only anchored at the outer leaflet of the cytoplasmic membrane. However, the release of Lpp particularly in pathogenic or commensal species is crucial for immune modulation...
September 13, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900186/improvement-of-the-glycoproteomic-toolbox-with-the-discovery-of-a-unique-c-terminal-cleavage-specificity-of-flavastacin-for-n-glycosylated-asparagine
#16
Alexander Pralow, Marcus Hoffmann, Terry Nguyen-Khuong, Erdmann Rapp, Udo Reichl
To determine all potential N-glycosylation sites of a glycoprotein, one central aspect of every bottom-up N-glycoproteomic strategy is to generate suitable N-glycopeptides that can be detected and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Specific proteases, such as trypsin, bear the potential of generating N-glycopeptides that either carry more than one N-glycosylation site or are too long to be readily analyzed by mass spectrometry- both due to the lack of tryptic cleavage sites near the N-glycosylation site. Here, we present a newly identified cleavage specificity of flavastacin, a protease from Flavobacterium menigosepticum, which - up to now - was only reported to cleave peptide bonds N-terminal to aspartic acid residues...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900022/binding-of-nad-glycohydrolase-to-streptolysin-o-stabilizes-both-toxins-and-promotes-virulence-of-group-a-streptococcus
#17
Jorge J Velarde, Maghnus O'Seaghdha, Buket Baddal, Benedicte Bastiat-Sempe, Michael R Wessels
The globally dominant, invasive M1T1 strain of group A Streptococcus (GAS) harbors polymorphisms in the promoter region of an operon that contains the genes encoding streptolysin O (SLO) and NAD(+)-glycohydrolase (NADase), resulting in high-level expression of these toxins. While both toxins have been shown experimentally to contribute to pathogenesis, many GAS isolates lack detectable NADase activity. DNA sequencing of such strains has revealed that reduced or absent enzymatic activity can be associated with a variety of point mutations in nga, the gene encoding NADase; a commonly observed polymorphism associated with near-complete abrogation of activity is a substitution of aspartic acid for glycine at position 330 (G330D)...
September 12, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899919/astrocyte-mediated-neuronal-synchronisation-properties-revealed-by-false-gliotransmitter-release
#18
Tiina M Pirttimaki, Robert E Sims, Gregory Saunders, Serena A Antonio, Neela Krushna Codadu, H Rheinallt Parri
Astrocytes spontaneously release glutamate as a gliotransmitter (GT) resulting in the generation of extrasynaptic NMDA-R mediated slow inward currents (SICs) in neighbouring neurons, which can increase local neuronal excitability. However, there is a deficit in our knowledge of the factors that control spontaneous astrocyte GT release, and the extent of its influence. We found that in rat brain slices, increasing the supply of the physiological transmitter glutamate increased the frequency and signalling charge of SICs over an extended period...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899728/maslinic-acid-ameliorates-nmda-receptor-blockade-induced-schizophrenia-like-behaviors-in-mice
#19
Se Jin Jeon, Eunji Kim, Jin Su Lee, Hee Kyong Oh, Jiabao Zhang, Yubeen Kwon, Dae Sik Jang, Jong Hoon Ryu
Schizophrenia is a chronic psychotic disorder characterized by positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms. Primary treatments for schizophrenia relieve the positive symptoms but are less effective against the negative and cognitive symptoms. In the present study, we investigated whether maslinic acid, isolated from Syzygium aromaticum (clove), can ameliorate schizophrenia-like behaviors in mice induced by MK-801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. After maslinic acid treatment in the MK-801 model, we examined the behavioral alteration and signaling pathways in the prefrontal cortex...
September 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899424/clade-homogeneity-and-low-rate-of-delta-virus-despite-hyperendemicity-of-hepatitis-b-virus-in-ethiopia
#20
Yeshambel Belyhun, Uwe Gerd Liebert, Melanie Maier
BACKGROUND: Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) is hyperendemic and heterogeneous in its genetic diversity in Ethiopia, little is known about hepatitis D virus (HDV) circulating genotypes and molecular diversity. METHODS: A total of 321 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positives (125 HIV co-infected, 102 liver disease patients and 94 blood donors) were screened for anti-HDV antibody. The anti-HDV positive sera were subjected to Real time PCR for HDV-RNA confirmation...
September 12, 2017: Virology Journal
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