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hydrogen production

Chu K Yao, Asaf Rotbart, Jian Z Ou, Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh, Jane G Muir, Peter R Gibson
Excessive hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) production from gut microbial metabolism may have clinically important relevance in the pathogenesis of gut disorders, including ulcerative colitis. However, little is known regarding factors that alter its production. Using a newly-designed in vitro gas-profiling technology, the study aimed to verify real-time H2 S measurement reproducibility and thereafter, assess its production following exposure to dietary factors and 5-aminosalicylate acid (5-ASA). Measurements of H2 S, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and methane measurements were compared between gas-profiling systems...
March 21, 2018: Gut Microbes
Songling Ma, Sungbo Hwang, Sehan Lee, William Acree, Kyoung Tai No
To describe the physically realistic solvation free energy surface of a molecule in a solvent, a generalized version of the solvation free energy density (G-SFED) calculation method has been developed. In the G-SFED model, the contribution from the hydrogen bond (HB) between a solute and a solvent to the solvation free energy was calculated as the product of the acidity of the donor and the basicity of the acceptor of an HB pair. The acidity and basicity parameters of a solute were derived using the summation of acidities and basicities of the respective acidic and basic functional groups of the solute, and that of the solvent was experimentally determined...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Linlin Yang, Jun Zhao, Xinling Yu, Ruilong Zhang, Guangmei Han, Renyong Liu, Zhengjie Liu, Tingting Zhao, Ming-Yong Han, Zhongping Zhang
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a key signaling molecule in the cytoprotection, vascular mediation and neurotransmission of living organisms. In-depth understanding of its production, trafficking, and transformation in cells is very important in the way H2S mediates cellular signal transductions and organism functions; it also motivates the development of H2S probes and imaging technologies. A fundamental challenge, however, is how to engineer probes with sensitivity and cellular penetrability that allow detection of spontaneous production of H2S in the entire cell space and live animals...
March 21, 2018: Analyst
Mark F McCarty, James H O'Keefe, James J DiNicolantonio
Background: Glutathione is a key scavenging antioxidant that opposes the proinflammatory signaling of hydrogen peroxide. Boosting cellular glutathione levels may have broad utility in the prevention and treatment of disorders driven by oxidative stress. Supplemental N-acetylcysteine has been employed for this purpose. Could supplemental glycine likewise promote glutathione synthesis? Methods: We conducted a review of the pertinent literature using PubMed. Results: Tissue glycine levels are lower than the glutathione synthase Michaelis constant (Km ) for glycine...
2018: Ochsner Journal
Pratishtha Gupta, Rupa Rani, Avantika Chandra, Vipin Kumar
Contamination of agricultural soil with heavy metals has become a serious concern worldwide. In the present study, Cr6+ resistant plant growth promoting Pseudomonas sp. (strain CPSB21) was isolated from the tannery effluent contaminated agricultural soils and evaluated for the plant growth promoting activities, oxidative stress tolerance, and Cr6+ bioremediation. Assessment of different plant growth promotion traits, such as phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid production, siderophores, ammonia and hydrogen cyanide production, revealed that the strain CPSB21 served as an efficient plant growth promoter under laboratory conditions...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zheng Lu, Ramakrishnan Sethu, James A Imlay
It has been unclear whether superoxide and/or hydrogen peroxide play important roles in the phenomenon of obligate anaerobiosis. This question was explored using Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron , a major fermentative bacterium in the human gastrointestinal tract. Aeration inactivated two enzyme families-[4Fe-4S] dehydratases and nonredox mononuclear iron enzymes-whose homologs, in contrast, remain active in aerobic Escherichia coli Inactivation-rate measurements of one such enzyme, B. thetaiotaomicron fumarase, showed that it is no more intrinsically sensitive to oxidants than is an E...
March 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rui-Zhi Zhang, Ren-Hao Yin, Yong-Hao Luo
For the safe disposal of MSW, a four-step gasification-combustion conversion process is proposed in this work, consisting of material gasification, ash melting, syngas conversion and combustion. Based on the control method of dioxin in gasification process which has been studied previously, experiments of tar chlorination process under oxidative atmospheres were carried out in a homogeneous flow reaction system, using benzene as the tar model compound, to find a way for the inhibition of CCl formation during the syngas combustion process...
March 17, 2018: Waste Management
Ahmed Farghaly, Sophie Le Roux, Pascal Peu, Patrick Dabert, Ahmed Tawfik
The aim of this study is to highlight the robustness and potentials of the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) configuration on keeping the microbial richness and diversity after starvation period of 7 days. The module at steady state operating conditions provided an average volumetric hydrogen production (VHP) of 0.2±0.08 and 0.423±0.5 l/d in the 1st and last compartment (C4). The VHP was gradually decreased from 0.2 to 0.003 l/d and from 0.423 to 0.1 l/d in compartments (C1 and C4) respectively during feed less period...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Technology
Guoxian Gu, Jiaxiang Lu, Ouran Yu, Jialin Wen, Qin Yin, Xumu Zhang
An iridium/f-amphol catalytic system for the enantioselective hydrogenation of α-substituted β-ketoesters via dynamic kinetic resolution is reported. The desired anti products were obtained in high yields (up to 98%) with good diastereoselectivity (up to 96:4 diastereometic ratio (dr)) and excellent enantioselectivity (up to >99% enantiomeric excess (ee)). A catalytic model is proposed to explain the stereoselectivity.
March 20, 2018: Organic Letters
Yanbin Li, Qin Zhang, Li Deng, Zhanwen Liu, Hui Jiang, Fang Wang
A new hydrogen-producing bacterium was isolated from the intestine of wild carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) of the Tarim River Basin. The isolate was identified as Klebsiella sp. based on 16S rDNA gene sequencing and examination of physiological and biochemical characteristics. The isolated strain, Klebsiella sp. WL1316, could effectively produce a high yield of hydrogen by using cotton stalk hydrolysate as substrate. The optimum fermentation conditions for hydrogen production were determined as follows: an initial sugar concentration of 40 g/L, a fermentation temperature of 37 °C and an initial pH value of 8...
March 19, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Hyun Jik Kim, Young Hun Seo, Sujin An, Ara Jo, Ick Chan Kwon, Sehoon Kim
Rationale: Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) provides an important mechanism for resisting infectious pathogens within the respiratory tract, and accordingly, the in situ analysis of H2 O2 generation in real time provides a valuable tool for assessing immune response. Methods: In this study, we applied a chemiluminescent nanoparticle-based real-time imaging approach to noninvasive evaluation of the Duox2-mediated H2 O2 generation after viral infection, and assessed its usefulness for analytical purposes in mouse nasal mucosa...
2018: Theranostics
Ruly Terán Hilares, Douglas Viana Kamoei, Muhammad Ajaz Ahmed, Silvio Silvério da Silva, Jong-In Han, Júlio César Dos Santos
Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) was adopted to assist alkaline-hydrogen peroxide pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB). In the following condition: 0.29 M of NaOH, 0.78% (v/v) of H2 O2 , 9.95 min of process time and 3 bar of inlet pressure, 95.4% of digestibility of cellulosic fraction was achieved. To take the best use of the pretreated biomass, the overall process was intensified by way of employing a packed bed flow-through column reactor and thus enabling to handle a high solid loading of 20%, thereby leading to cellulose and hemicellulose conversions to 74...
May 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Andrea Luca Tasca, Monica Puccini, Ashleigh Fletcher
The herbicide terbuthylazine (TBA) has displaced atrazine in most of EU countries, becoming one of the most regularly used pesticides and, therefore, frequently detected in natural waters. The affinity of TBA for soil organic matter suggests prolonged contamination; degradation leads to the release of the metabolite desethylterbuthylazine (DET), which has higher water solubility and binds more weakly to organic matter compared to the parent compound, resulting in higher associated risk for contamination of groundwater resources...
March 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Anna Pieniazek, Lukasz Gwozdzinski, Zbigniew Zbrog, Krzysztof Gwozdzinski
OBJECTIVE: In chronic hemodialyzed (CH) patients the balance between production of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defense system is disturbed and shifted towards oxidative conditions. The properties of albumin in CH patients were studied before hemodialysis (HD) and post-HD. METHODS: Two oxidants were applied, organic t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) and inorganic hydroperoxide (H2O2), for oxidation of albumin molecules. By comparison, albumin from healthy donors was also modified by both oxidants...
2018: PloS One
C Ross, N D Fogarty, R Ritson-Williams, V J Paul
Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is involved in the regulation of numerous reproductive and morphogenic processes across an array of taxa. Extracellular H2 O2 can be widespread in oceanic waters, and elevated sea surface temperatures can cause increased levels of intracellular H2 O2 within cnidarian tissue, but it remains unclear how this compound affects early life-history processes in corals, such as fertilization, metamorphosis, and settlement. To evaluate the effects of H2 O2 on multiple stages of recruitment, experiments were conducted using Caribbean corals with various reproductive modes, including the brooders Porites astreoides and Favia fragum and the broadcast-spawning species Acropora palmata and Orbicella franksi...
December 2017: Biological Bulletin
Meysam Makaremi, Sean Grixti, Keith T Butler, Geoffrey A Ozin, Chandra Veer Singh
Since hydrogen fuel involves the highest energy density among all fuels, production of this gas through the solar water splitting approach has been suggested as a green remedy for greenhouse environmental issues due to extensive consumption of fossil fuels. Low-dimensional materials possessing a large surface-to-volume ratio can be a promising candidate to be used for the photocatalytic approach. Here, we used extensive first-principles calculations to investigate the application of newly fabricated members of two-dimensional carbon nitrides including tg-C3 N4 , hg-C3 N4 , C2 N, and C3 N for water splitting...
March 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ryan J Mailloux, Adrian Young, Marisa O'Brien, Robert Morris Gill
It has been reported that mitochondria can contain up to 12 enzymatic sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). A majority of these sites include flavin-dependent respiratory complexes and dehydrogenases that produce a mixture of superoxide (O2●- ) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Accurate quantification of the ROS-producing potential of individual sites in isolated mitochondria can be challenging due to the presence of antioxidant defense systems and side reactions that also form O2●- /H2O2. Use of nonspecific inhibitors that can disrupt mitochondrial bioenergetics can also compromise measurements by altering ROS release from other sites of production...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Qian Liang, Sainan Cui, Song Xu, Chao Yao, Mark J MacLachlan, Zhongyu Li
A novel triptycene-based covalent polymer (TCP) with a high surface area was constructed through the Suzuki coupling reaction. A very high photocatalytic H2 production rate of 50 670 μmol h-1 g-1 and superior photostability were achieved due to the intimate synergistic interactions between the TCP and Cd0.5Zn0.5S.
March 19, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Shaohui Sun, Ruishu Yang, Xin Wang, Shaokang Yan
An attractive approach for the production of transportation fuels from renewable biomass resources is to convert oxygenates into alkanes. In this paper, C5 -C20 alkanes formed via the hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation of the oligomers of furfuryl alcohol(FA) can be used as gasoline, diesel and jet fuel fraction. The first step of the process is the oligomers of FA convert into hydrogenated products over Raney Ni catalyst in a batch reactor. The second step of the process converts hydrogenated products to alkanes via hydrodeoxygenation over different bi-functional catalysts include hydrogenation and acidic deoxidization active sites...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Kamila Kočí, Ivana Troppová, Martin Reli, Lenka Matějová, Miroslava Edelmannová, Helena Drobná, Lada Dubnová, Anna Rokicińska, Piotr Kuśtrowski, Libor Čapek
Neodymium enriched TiO2 anatase-brookite powders were prepared by unconventional method via using pressurized hot fluids for TiO2 crystallization and purification. The photocatalysts were tested in the CH3 OH photocatalytic decomposition and they were characterized with respect to the textural (nitrogen adsorption), structural (XRD, XPS, and Raman spectroscopies), chemical (XRF), and optical (DR UV-Vis spectroscopy) and photoelectrochemical measurement. All prepared materials were nanocrystalline, had biphasic (anatase- brookite) structure and relatively large specific surface area (125 m2 ...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
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