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hydrogen production

Jesus Prieto-Lloret, Vladimir A Snetkov, Yasin Shaifta, Inmaculada Docio, Michelle J Connolly, Charles E Mackay, Greg A Knock, Jeremy Pt Ward, Philip I Aaronson
Application of H2S ('sulfide') elicits a complex contraction in rat pulmonary arteries (PA) comprising a small transient contraction (phase 1; Ph1) followed by relaxation and then a second, larger, and more sustained contraction (phase 2; Ph2). We investigated the mechanisms causing this response using isometric myography in rat second order PA, with Na2S as a sulfide donor. Both phases of contraction to 1000μM Na2S were attenuated by the pan-PKC inhibitor Gö6983 (3μM) and by 50μM ryanodine; the Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine (1μM) was without effect...
December 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Matthew R Mills, Charles L Barnes, Wesley H Bernskoetter
Pincer ligated coordination complexes bearing bifunctional sites have been at the center of recent developments in reversible hydrogenation catalysis, especially in cases utilizing base metals. The influence of bifunctional ligands on low valent cobalt complexes is detailed here using comparisons between the PNP-pincer ligands MeN[CH2CH2(PR2)]2 and HN[CH2CH2(PR2)]2 (R = iPr, Cy). Comparative catalytic studies of CO2 hydrogenation show that cobalt(I) precatalysts bearing the tertiary amine ligand dramatically outperform those bearing the secondary amine pincer ligand...
January 19, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Renji Bian, Ruizhi Lin, Guilin Wang, Gang Lu, Weiqiang Zhi, Shanglin Xiang, Tingwei Wang, Paul S Clegg, Dongyu Cai, Wei Huang
MXene is an emerging class of 2D materials exfoliated from ternary carbide and nitride ceramics. The exfoliation process, which is an acid etching approach, functionalizes the MXene surface with -OH, -O and -F groups. These functional groups offer significant opportunities for tuning the colloidal properties of the MXene nanoblocks; importantly, this tunability points the way towards a facile route for assembling these nanoblocks into 3D architectures that are in demand for many applications. This route, presented for the first time here, uses water/oil interfaces for assembling Ti3C2-MXene in 3D architectures...
January 19, 2018: Nanoscale
Genxiang Wang, Junxiang Chen, Yan Li, Jingchun Jia, Pingwei Cai, Zhenhai Wen
An unprecedented asymmetric-electrolyte electrolyzer is proposed using an acidic cathode for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and an alkaline anode for the urea oxidation reaction (UOR), which significantly decreases the electrical energy required for electrolytic hydrogen production.
January 19, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
M Zawadzki, M Ranković, J Kočišek, J Fedor
We report partial cross sections for the dissociative electron attachment to pyruvic acid. A rich fragmentation dynamics is observed. Electronic structure calculations facilitate the identification of complex rearrangement reactions that occur during the dissociation. Furthermore, a number of fragment anions produced at electron energies close to 0 eV are observed, that cannot originate from single electron-molecule collisions. We ascribe their production to secondary reactions of the transient anions with neutral molecules...
January 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yu Sun, Zhiliang Tian, Ning Liu, Linxue Zhang, Zhaopeng Gao, Xiaojiao Sun, Miao Yu, Jichao Wu, Fan Yang, Yajun Zhao, Huan Ren, He Chen, Dechao Zhao, Yan Wang, Shiyun Dong, Changqing Xu, Fanghao Lu, Weihua Zhang
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is involved in diverse physiological functions, such as anti-hypertension, anti-proliferation, regulating ATP synthesis, and reactive oxygen species production. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a NAD + -dependent deacetylase that regulates mitochondrial energy metabolism. The role of H2S in energy metabolism in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) may be related to regulate SIRT3 expression; however, this role remains to be elucidated. We hypothesized that exogenous H2S could switch cardiac energy metabolic substrate preference by lysine acetylation through promoting the expression of SIRT3 in cardiac tissue of db/db mice...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Lele Lu, Xinxin Xu, Jiaming Yan, Fa-Nian Shi, Yuqiu Huo
A nitrogen doped carbon matrix supported Cu2O composite material (Cu/Cu2O@NC) was fabricated successfully with a coordination polymer as precursor through calcination. In this composite material, Cu2O particles with a size of about 6-10 nm were dispersed evenly in the nitrogen doped carbon matrix. After calcination, some coordinated nitrogen atoms were doped in the lattice of Cu2O and replace oxygen atoms, thus generating a large number of oxygen vacancies. In Cu/Cu2O@NC, the existence of oxygen vacancies has been confirmed by electron spin resonance (ESR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)...
January 19, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Jun Xu, Liang Wu, Yiming Zhang, Huijie Gu, Zhongyue Huang, Kaifeng Zhou, Xiaofan Yin
The present study tested the potential effect of OSU53, a novel AMPK activator, against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced spinal cord neuron damages. Treatment with OSU53 attenuated H2O2-induced death and apoptosis of primary murine spinal cord neurons. OSU53 activated AMPK signaling, which is required for its actions in spinal cord neurons. The AMPK inhibitor Compound C or AMPKα1 siRNA almost abolished OSU53-mediated neuroprotection against H2O2. On the other hand, sustained-activation of AMPK by introducing the constitutive-active AMPKα1 mimicked OSU53's actions, and protected spinal cord neurons from oxidative stress...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
Kelly G Bryant, Young Chan Chae, Rogelio L Martinez, John C Gordon, Khaled M Elokely, Andrew V Kossenkov, Steven Grant, Wayne E Childers, Magid Abou-Gharbia, Dario C Altieri
Reprogramming of mitochondrial functions sustains tumor growth and may provide therapeutic opportunities. Here, we targeted the protein folding environment in mitochondria by coupling a purine-based inhibitor of the molecular chaperone Heat Shock Protein-90 (Hsp90), PU-H71 to the mitochondrial-targeting moiety, triphenylphosphonium (TPP). Binding of PU-H71-TPP to ADP-Hsp90, Hsp90 co-chaperone complex or mitochondrial Hsp90 homolog, TRAP1 involved hydrogen bonds, π-π stacking, cation-π contacts and hydrophobic interactions with the surrounding amino acids in the active site...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
Lu Wang, Hai Xiao, Tao Cheng, Youyong Li, William A Goddard
We report here the reaction mechanism for explicit aqueous solvent quantum mechanics (QM) studies determining the energetics and reaction barriers for the photocata-lytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) on CH3NH3PbI3 surface. We find that both the lead (Pb) atoms and the surface organic molecules play essential roles, leading to a two-step Pb-activated amine-assisted (PbAAA) reaction mechanism involving an inter-mediate lead hydride state. Both H of H2 product are extracted from surface organic molecules, while two protons from the solution migrate along water chains via the Grotthuss mechanism to replace the H in organic molecule...
January 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Sanjoy K Deb, Lewis A Gough, S Andy Sparks, Lars R McNaughton
Acute moderate hypoxic exposure can substantially impair exercise performance, which occurs with a concurrent exacerbated rise in hydrogen cation (H+) production. The purpose of this study was therefore, to alleviate this acidic stress through sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation and determine the corresponding effects on severe-intensity intermittent exercise performance. Eleven recreationally active individuals participated in this randomised, double-blind, crossover study performed under acute normobaric hypoxic conditions (FiO2% = 14...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Xin Yu, Wei Li, Jian Huang, Zhonghua Li, Jiawen Liu, PingAn Hu
Superstructured mesocrystalline Ta2O5 nanosheets were successfully prepared from mesocrystalline (NH4)2Ta2O3F6 nanorods by the annealing method for the first time. The as-prepared mesocrystalline Ta2O5 nanosheets in this work showed remarkable visible light absorption, mainly due to the formation of oxygen vacancy defects in the mesocrystalline Ta2O5 nanosheets, which was also confirmed by XPS spectra, Raman spectra and EPR spectra. Besides, the mesocrystalline Ta2O5 nanosheets showed a highly enhanced photocatalytic activity of 11 268...
January 18, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Feng Zhang, Shuai Lu, Jianlin He, Huanhuan Jin, Feixia Wang, Li Wu, Jiangjuan Shao, Anping Chen, Shizhong Zheng
Rationale: Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are liver-specific pericytes regulating vascular remodeling during hepatic fibrosis. Here, we investigated how ligustrazine affects HSC pericyte functions. Methods: Rat HSC-T6 and human HSC-LX2 cells were cultured, and multiple molecular experiments including real-time PCR, Western blot, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and co-immunoprecipitation were used to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Molecular simulation and site-directed mutagenesis were performed to uncover the target molecule of ligustrazine...
2018: Theranostics
Ying Huang, Xiaodong Liu, Zheng Cui, Daniel Wiegmann, Giuliana Niro, Christian Ducho, Yuan Song, Zhaoyong Yang, Steven G Van Lanen
Capuramycins are antimycobacterial antibiotics that consist of a modified nucleoside named uridine-5'-carboxamide (CarU). Previous biochemical studies have revealed that CarU is derived from UMP, which is first converted to uridine-5'-aldehyde in a reaction catalyzed by the dioxygenase CapA and subsequently to 5'-C-glycyluridine (GlyU), an unusual β-hydroxy-α-amino acid, in a reaction catalyzed by the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent transaldolase CapH. The remaining steps that are necessary to furnish CarU include decarboxylation, O atom insertion, and oxidation...
January 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yuichiro Kezuka, Tetsuo Ishida, Yasuo Yoshida, Takamasa Nonaka
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays important roles in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Oral pathogens typically produce H2S from L-cysteine in addition to pyruvate and NH4+ However, fn1055 from Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. nucleatum ATCC 25586 encodes a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the production of H2S and L-serine from L-cysteine and H2O, an unusual cysteine (hydroxyl) lyase reaction (β-replacement reaction). To reveal the reaction mechanism, the crystal structure of substrate-free Fn1055 was determined...
January 17, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Chundi Yu, Zeping Shao, Jinhui Zhang, Bing Liu, Lingjie Kong, Yan Zhang, Shuo Wang
Creatinine was found to not only act as a precursor of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) formation but also inhibit PhIP formation in a creatinine/phenylalanine model system. The dual mechanistic effects of creatinine on PhIP formation were then investigated in a model system. Adducts of creatinine-PhIP were detected by quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and were found to be a likely explanation for the substantial decrease in the yield of PhIP when excess creatinine was supplied...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Izabela Dobrzyńska, Agnieszka Gęgotek, Ewelina Gajko, Elżbieta Skrzydlewska, Zbigniew A Figaszewski
Human skin provides the body's first line of defense against physical and environmental assaults. This study sought to determine how rutin affects the membrane electrical properties, sialic acid content, and lipid peroxidation levels of fibroblast membranes after disruption by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Changes in cell function may affect the basal electrical surface properties of cell membranes, and changes can be detected by electrokinetic measurements. The charge density of the fibroblast membrane surface was measured as a function of pH...
January 12, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Frederik Rask Dalby, Michael Jørgen Hansen, Anders Feilberg
Reduced sulfur compounds emitted from livestock production cause odor nuisance for local residents. The microbial processes responsible for this are not well described in swine manure and a method for monitoring the biological processes is necessary to develop strategic abatement technologies. In this study, Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry and isotope labelled sulfate was combined and applied to elucidate the sulfur processes in swine manure with high time resolution. We successfully monitored reduction of isotope 33S labelled sulfate into corresponding 33S hydrogen sulfide and that some of the 33S hydrogen sulfide was further methylated into 33S methanethiol...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Victoria I Bunik, Martin D Brand
Mitochondrial 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes oxidize 2-oxoglutarate, pyruvate, branched-chain 2-oxoacids and 2-oxoadipate to the corresponding acyl-CoAs and reduce NAD+ to NADH. The isolated enzyme complexes generate superoxide anion radical or hydrogen peroxide in defined reactions by leaking electrons to oxygen. Studies using isolated mitochondria in media mimicking cytosol suggest that the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes contribute little to the production of superoxide or hydrogen peroxide relative to other mitochondrial sites at physiological steady-states...
June 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
Lingying Luo, Yun Bai, Guanghong Zhou
3-Amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1) is a group 2B carcinogen characterized by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and great efforts have been taken to reduce Trp-P-1 mutagenicity to humans. In this study, the effect of a reduction of Trp-P-1 on intestinal absorption as a promising strategy was investigated. The data showed that when 20 mM Trp-P-1 cotransported with 10 mM of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), xanthan gum, or carrageenan, the absorption rate of Trp-P-1 was reduced by 31...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Food Science
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