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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786440/surface-ligand-promotion-of-carbon-dioxide-reduction-through-stabilizing-chemisorbed-reactive-intermediates
#1
Zhijiang Wang, Lina Wu, Kun Sun, Ting Chen, Zhaohua Jiang, Tao Cheng, William A Goddard
We have explored functionalizing metal catalysts with surface ligands as an approach to facilitate electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO2 RR). To provide a molecular level understanding of the mechanism by which this enhancement occurs, we combine in situ spectroscopy analysis with an interpretation based on quantum mechanics (QM) calculations. We find that a surface ligand can play a critical role in stabilizing the chemisorbed CO2 , which facilitates CO2 activation and leads to a 0.3 V decrease in the overpotential for carbon monoxide (CO) formation...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786421/enhanced-hydrogen-storage-properties-and-reversibility-of-libh4-confined-in-two-dimensional-ti3c2
#2
Lei Zang, Weiyi Sun, Song Liu, Yike Huang, Huatang Yuan, Zhanliang Tao, Yijing Wang
Lithium borohydride (LiBH4) is of particular interest as one of the most promising candidates for solid-state hydrogen storage. Herein, LiBH4 is confined into a novel 2D layered Ti3C2 MXene through one-step solvent method for the first time to improve its hydrogen storage properties. The initial desorption temperature of LiBH4 is significantly reduced, and the de-/hydrogenation kinetics are remarkably enhanced. It is found that the onset temperature of LiBH4@2Ti3C2 hybrid is reduced to172.6 °C and releases 9...
May 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785669/characterization-of-an-aryl-alcohol-oxidase-from-the-plant-saprophytic-basidiomycete-coprinopsis-cinerea-with-broad-substrate-specificity-against-aromatic-alcohols
#3
Yoshiaki Tamaru, Kiwamu Umezawa, Makoto Yoshida
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to obtain information about the enzymatic properties of aryl-alcohol oxidase from the plant saprophytic basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea (rCcAAO), which is classified into the auxiliary activities family 3 subfamily 2 (AA3_2). RESULTS: The gene encoding AAO from the plant saprophytic basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea (CcAAO) was cloned, and the recombinant CcAAO (rCcAAO) was heterologously expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris...
May 22, 2018: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784829/short-chain-dehydrogenase-reductase-governs-steroidal-specialized-metabolites-structural-diversity-and-toxicity-in-the-genus-solanum
#4
Prashant D Sonawane, Uwe Heinig, Sayantan Panda, Netta Segal Gilboa, Meital Yona, S Pradeep Kumar, Noam Alkan, Tamar Unger, Samuel Bocobza, Margarita Pliner, Sergey Malitsky, Maria Tkachev, Sagit Meir, Ilana Rogachev, Asaph Aharoni
Thousands of specialized, steroidal metabolites are found in a wide spectrum of plants. These include the steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs), produced primarily by most species of the genus Solanum , and metabolites belonging to the steroidal saponins class that are widespread throughout the plant kingdom. SGAs play a protective role in plants and have potent activity in mammals, including antinutritional effects in humans. The presence or absence of the double bond at the C-5,6 position (unsaturated and saturated, respectively) creates vast structural diversity within this metabolite class and determines the degree of SGA toxicity...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784766/green-algal-hydrogenase-activity-is-outcompeted-by-carbon-fixation-before-inactivation-by-oxygen-takes-place
#5
Yuval Milrad, Shira Schweitzer, Yael Feldman, Iftach Yacoby
Photoproduction of hydrogen by green algae is considered a transitory release valve of excess reducing power and a potential carbon-free source of sustainable energy. It is generally accepted that the transitory production of hydrogen is governed by fast inactivation of hydrogenase by oxygen. However, our data suggest that photosynthetic electron loss to competing processes, mainly carbon fixation, stops hydrogen production, supports hydrogen uptake and precedes the inevitable inactivation by oxygen. Here we show that when transitioning from dark anaerobiosis to light, hydrogen production ceases within 2 minutes, regardless of the presence of oxygen...
May 21, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783215/the-changes-of-some-bioregulators-and-gas-transmitters-in-patients-with-hypertonic-disease-under-the-influence-of-physical-loading
#6
Iryna S Dronyk, Ostap H Yavorsky, Olexandr Y Sklyarov
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Nowadays arterial hypertension is supposed to be a pathogenetic factor of numerous cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and 18% cases of the preterm death. Due to the data of the American Heart Association in 77% of patients, who had stroke, the arterial pressure overexceeded 140/90 mm Hg. In Ukraine, according to the epidemiologic study more than 1/3 of the population have increased arterial pressure. One of the extremely important aspects of struggle with CVD is diagnosis and prevention of hypertonic disease...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783045/factors-affecting-gene-expression-and-activity-of-heme-and-manganese-dependent-catalases-in-lactobacillus-casei-strains
#7
Annamaria Ricciardi, Rocco Gerardo Ianniello, Eugenio Parente, Teresa Zotta
Catalases reduce oxidative stress by degrading hydrogen peroxide to molecular oxygen and water. The presence of heme-dependent or manganese-dependent catalases was observed for a long time in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) but, to date, knowledge on the factors affecting gene expression and enzymatic functionality are limited to a very few strains. In this study, the effect of atmosphere of incubation (not aerated static growth vs aerated shaken growth) and supplementation with Fe2+ , hemin, Mn2+ or their combinations on the catalase production of respiration-competent strain Lactobacillus casei N87 was evaluated using a 24 factorial design...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782790/magnetite-triggering-enhanced-diet-a-scavenger-for-the-blockage-of-electron-transfer-in-anaerobic-digestion-of-high-solids-sewage-sludge
#8
Tao Wang, Dong Zhang, Lingling Dai, Bin Dong, Xiaohu Dai
At present, high-solids anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge has drawn great attention due to the superiority of its small land area footprint and low energy consumption. However, a high organic loading rate may cause acids accumulation and ammonia inhibition, thus leading to an inhibited pseudo-steady state in which electron transfer through interspecies hydrogen transfer (IHT) between acetogens and methanogens is blocked. In this study, adding 50 mg/g TS (total solid) magnetite clearly reduced the accumulation of short-chain fatty acids and accelerated methane production by 26...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782672/high-yield-production-of-monolayer-feps-3-quantum-sheets-via-chemical-exfoliation-for-efficient-photocatalytic-hydrogen-evolution
#9
Zhongzhou Cheng, Tofik Ahmed Shifa, Fengmei Wang, Yi Gao, Peng He, Kai Zhang, Chao Jiang, Quanlin Liu, Jun He
2D layered transition metal phosphorus trichalcogenides (MPX3 ) possess higher in-plane stiffness and lower cleavage energies than graphite. This allows them to be exfoliated down to the atomic thickness. However, a rational exfoliation route has to be sought to achieve surface-active and uniform individual layers. Herein, monolayered FePS3 quantum sheets (QSs) are systematically obtained, whose diameters range from 4-8 nm, through exfoliation of the bulk in hydrazine solution. These QSs exhibit a widened bandgap of 2...
May 21, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782658/recent-advances-on-black-phosphorus-for-energy-storage-catalysis-and-sensor-applications
#10
REVIEW
Hanwen Liu, Kui Hu, Dafeng Yan, Ru Chen, Yuqin Zou, Hongbo Liu, Shuangyin Wang
As a new type of 2D semiconductor, black phosphorus (BP) possesses high charge-carrier mobility and theoretical capacity, thickness-dependent bandgap, and anisotropic structure, which has attracted tremendous attention since early 2014. To explore its full application in all aspects, studies based on BP nanostructures are swiftly expanding from the electronic field to energy storage and even biochemistry. The mechanism and application of BP in Li-/Na-ion battery anodes, oxygen evolution reaction/hydrogen evolution reaction catalysis, photocatalytic hydrogen production, and selective sensors are summarized...
May 21, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780548/reversible-dispersion-and-release-of-carbon-nanotubes-via-cooperative-clamping-interactions-with-hydrogen-bonded-nanorings
#11
Raquel Chamorro, Leire de Juan-Fernández, Belén Nieto-Ortega, Maria J Mayoral, Santiago Casado, Luisa Ruiz-González, Emilio M Pérez, David González-Rodríguez
Due to their outstanding electronic and mechanical properties, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are promising nanomaterials for the future generation of optoelectronic devices and composites. However, their scarce solubility limits their application in many technologies that demand solution-processing of high-purity SWCNT samples. Although some non-covalent functionalization approaches have demonstrated their utility in extracting SWCNTs into different media, many of them produce short-lived dispersions or ultimately suffer from contamination by the dispersing agent...
May 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779661/characterization-and-biochemical-assays-of-streptomyces-vanadium-dependent-chloroperoxidases
#12
Shaun M K McKinnie, Zachary D Miles, Bradley S Moore
Vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases (VHPOs) are fascinating enzymes that facilitate electrophilic halogen incorporation into electron-rich substrates, simply requiring vanadate, a halide source, and cosubstrate hydrogen peroxide for activity. Initially characterized in fungi and red algae, VHPOs were long believed to have limited regio-, chemo-, and enantioselectivity in the production of halogenated metabolites. However, the recent discovery of homologues in the biosynthetic gene clusters of the stereoselectively halogenated meroterpenoids from marine-derived Streptomyces bacteria has revised this paradigm...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779558/short-communication-variability-in-fermentation-end-products-and-methanogen-communities-in-different-rumen-sites-of-dairy-cows
#13
ZhiYuan Ma, Rong Wang, Min Wang, XiuMin Zhang, HongXiang Mao, ZhiLiang Tan
The objective of this study was to investigate differences in fermentation and methanogen communities in samples collected from 3 sites in the rumen of dairy cows. The study involved 3 ruminally cannulated nonlactating Chinese Holstein dairy cows fed a diet of 40% forage and 60% concentrate feeds. Four handfuls of whole ruminal contents were collected from the cranial sac, middle of the ventral sac, and caudodorsal blind sac of the rumen of the cows at 0, 2.5, and 6 h after the morning feeding. Concentrations of VFA, ammonia, and dissolved methane and hydrogen were analyzed...
June 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778147/experimental-continuous-sludge-microwave-system-to-enhance-dehydration-ability-and-hydrogen-production-from-anaerobic-digestion-of-sludge
#14
Cuihong Zhou, Xintong Huang, Meng Zeng
Dehydrating large amounts of sludge produced by sewage treatment plants is difficult. Microwave pretreatment can effectively and significantly improve the dewaterability and hydrogen production of sludge subjected to anaerobic digestion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different microwave conditions on hydrogen production from anaerobic digestion and dewaterability of sludge. Based on an analysis of the electric field distribution, a spiral reactor was designed and a continuous microwave system was built to conduct intermittent and continuous experiments under different conditions...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778074/how-does-free-ammonia-based-sludge-pretreatment-improve-methane-production-from-anaerobic-digestion-of-waste-activated-sludge
#15
Dongbo Wang, Bowen Liu, Xuran Liu, Qiuxiang Xu, Qi Yang, Yiwen Liu, Guangming Zeng, Xiaoming Li, Bing-Jie Ni
Previous studies reported that free ammonia (FA) pretreatment could improve methane production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) effectively. However, details of how FA pretreatment improves methane production are poorly understood. This study therefore aims to reveal the underlying mechanisms of FA pretreatment affecting anaerobic digestion of WAS through a series of batch tests using either real sludge or synthetic media as the digestion substrates at different pH values. At pH 8.5 level, with an increase of FA level from 18...
May 10, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777934/specific-stability-indicating-spectrofluorimetric-method-for-determination-of-ledipasvir-in-the-presence-of-its-confirmed-degradation-products-application-in-human-plasma
#16
Ramadan Ali, Adel A Marzouk, Reda A Abdelhameid, Mahmoud A Omar
A rapid and specific spectrofluorimetric method with higher sensitivity was developed for determination of ledipasvir (LDS) in tablets and human plasma. The proposed method relies on hydrogen bonding formations between the hydroxyl groups of polyoxyethylene 50 stearate and LDS, causing significant enhancement of its native fluorescence. The fluorescence intensity was measured at 430 nm after excitation at 340 nm. The fluorescence-concentration plot was rectilinear over the range 1-400 ng mL-1 with detection and quantification limits of 0...
May 16, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777928/binding-studies-of-triclocarban-with-bovine-serum-albumin-insights-from-multi-spectroscopy-and-molecular-modeling-methods
#17
Jiao Guan, Xin Yan, Yajing Zhao, Yinhe Sun, Xin Peng
The antimicrobial triclocarban (TCC) is frequently found in various personal care products (PCPs), and recent studies have demonstrated that it shows a high unintended biological activity on humans and wildlife. To evaluate the toxicity of TCC at the protein level, the effect of TCC on bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated using various spectroscopic methods in combination with molecular modeling. Analysis of fluorescence quenching data of BSA revealed the formation of a ground state BSA-TCC complex with a binding constant of 2...
May 9, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777774/mir-125b-5p-is-involved-in-oxygen-and-glucose-deprivation-injury-in-pc-12-cells-via-cbs-h-2-s-pathway
#18
Yaqi Shen, Zhuqing Shen, Lingyan Guo, Qiuyan Zhang, Zhijun Wang, Lei Miao, Minjun Wang, Jian Wu, Wei Guo, Yizhun Zhu
AIMS: Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be implicated in cerebral hypoxia injury and could serve as a therapeutic target. As the third gasotransmitter, hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) plays a critical role in hypoxia-induced injury in the central nervous system. Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is the main enzyme catalyzing the production of H2 S in brain. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of miR-125b-5p on protecting against oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) injury in PC-12 cells by regulating CBS and H2 S generation...
May 16, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775398/utilization-of-waste-tyres-pyrolysis-oil-vapour-in-the-synthesis-of-zeolite-templated-carbons-ztcs-for-hydrogen-storage-application
#19
Nicholas M Musyoka, Khavharendwe M Rambau, Ncholu Manyala, Jianwei Ren, Henrietta W Langmi, Mkhulu K Mathe
In this study, we investigated the potential for use of waste tyre pyrolysis oil vapour as a carbon precursor in the synthesis of zeolite templated carbons (ZTC). With Zeolite 13X as the template, the ZTCs were synthesised using two methods namely: 1-step process which involved the carbonization of gaseous carbon precursor in the zeolite template (in this case, ethylene and pyrolysis oil vapour) and the 2-step synthesis method involved the impregnation of zeolite pores with furfural alcohol prior to carbonization of the gaseous carbon precursor...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775307/selective-hydrogenations-and-dechlorinations-in-water-mediated-by-anionic-surfactant-stabilized-pd-nanoparticles
#20
Giorgio La Sorella, Laura Sperni, Patrizia Canton, Lisa Coletti, Fabrizio Fabris, Giorgio Strukul, Alessandro Scarso
We report a facile, inexpensive and green method for the preparation of Pd nanoparticles in aqueous medium stabilized by anionic sulfonated surfactants sodium 1-dodecanesulfonate 1a, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate 1b, dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt 1c and poly(ethylene glycol) 4-nonylphenyl-3-sulfopropyl ether potassium salt 1d simply obtained by stirring aqueous solutions of Pd(OAc)2 with the commercial anionic surfactants further treated under hydrogen atmosphere for variable times. The aqueous Pd nanoparticles solutions were tested in the selective hydrogenation reactions of aryl-alcohols, -aldehydes and -ketones leading to complete conversion to the deoxygenated products even in the absence of strong Brønsted acids in the reduction of aromatic aldehydes and ketones, in the controlled semi-hydrogenation of alkynes leading to alkenes and in the efficient hydro-dechlorination of aromatic substrates...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
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