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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835930/master-autophagy-regulator-transcription-factor-eb-tfeb-regulates-cigarette-smoke-induced-autophagy-impairment-and-copd-emphysema-pathogenesis
#1
Manish Bodas, Neel Patel, David Silverberg, Kyla Walworth, Neeraj Vij
AIMS: Recent studies have shown that cigarette smoke (CS)-induced oxidative-stress impairs autophagy resulting in aggresome-formation that correlates with the severity of COPD-emphysema. Although, specific step in autophagy-pathway that is impaired is unknown. Hence, in this study we aimed to evaluate the role of master autophagy-regulator and transcription factor-EB (TFEB) in CS-induced COPD-emphysema pathogenesis. RESULTS: We first observed that TFEB-accumulates in the peri-nuclear spaces of the COPD lung tissues of tobacco-smokers and severe-emphysema subjects...
November 11, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743591/preoperative-assessment-of-surgical-risk-creation-of-a-scoring-tool-to-estimate-1-year-mortality-after-emergency-abdominal-surgery-in-the-elderly-patient
#2
Olubode A Olufajo, Gally Reznor, Stuart R Lipsitz, Zara R Cooper, Adil H Haider, Ali Salim, Erika L Rangel
BACKGROUND: The risk of mortality after emergency general surgery (EGS) in elderly patients is prolonged beyond initial hospitalization. Our objective was to develop a preoperative scoring tool to quantify risk of 1-year mortality. METHODS: Three hundred ninety EGS patients aged 70 years or more were analyzed. Risk factors for 1-year mortality were identified using stepwise-forward logistic multivariate regression and weights assigned using natural logarithm of odds ratios...
September 3, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643895/error-correction-and-the-structure-of-inter-trial-fluctuations-in-a-redundant-movement-task
#3
Joby John, Jonathan B Dingwell, Joseph P Cusumano
We study inter-trial movement fluctuations exhibited by human participants during the repeated execution of a virtual shuffleboard task. Focusing on skilled performance, theoretical analysis of a previously-developed general model of inter-trial error correction is used to predict the temporal and geometric structure of variability near a goal equivalent manifold (GEM). The theory also predicts that the goal-level error scales linearly with intrinsic body-level noise via the total body-goal sensitivity, a new derived quantity that illustrates how task performance arises from the interaction of active error correction and passive sensitivity properties along the GEM...
September 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504495/complex-relation-of-hla-drb1-1501-age-at-menarche-and-age-at-multiple-sclerosis-onset
#4
Riley Bove, Alicia S Chua, Zongqi Xia, Lori Chibnik, Philip L De Jager, Tanuja Chitnis
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between 2 markers of early multiple sclerosis (MS) onset, 1 genetic (HLA-DRB1*1501) and 1 experiential (early menarche), in 2 cohorts. METHODS: We included 540 white women with MS or clinically isolated syndrome (N = 156 with genetic data available) and 1,390 white women without MS but with a first-degree relative with MS (Genes and Environment in Multiple Sclerosis [GEMS]). Age at menarche, HLA-DRB1*1501 status, and age at MS onset were analyzed...
August 2016: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27241020/loganin-possesses-neuroprotective-properties-restores-smn-protein-and-activates-protein-synthesis-positive-regulator-akt-mtor-in-experimental-models-of-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#5
Yu-Ting Tseng, Cheng-Sheng Chen, Yuh-Jyh Jong, Fang-Rong Chang, Yi-Ching Lo
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor neurons degeneration and muscular atrophy. There is no effective SMA treatment. Loganin is a botanical candidate with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, glucose-lowering and anti-diabetic nephropathy activities. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential protective effects of loganin on SMA using two cellular models, SMN-deficient NSC34 cells and SMA patient fibroblasts, and an animal disease model, SMAΔ7 mice...
September 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27211080/electron-beam-induced-synthesis-of-nanostructures-a-review
#6
REVIEW
I G Gonzalez-Martinez, A Bachmatiuk, V Bezugly, J Kunstmann, T Gemming, Z Liu, G Cuniberti, M H Rümmeli
As the success of nanostructures grows in modern society so does the importance of our ability to control their synthesis in precise manners, often with atomic precision as this can directly affect the final properties of the nanostructures. Hence it is crucial to have both deep insight, ideally with real-time temporal resolution, and precise control during the fabrication of nanomaterials. Transmission electron microscopy offers these attributes potentially providing atomic resolution with near real time temporal resolution...
June 2, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103799/hyaluronan-conjugated-liposomes-encapsulating-gemcitabine-for-breast-cancer-stem-cells
#7
Na-Kyung Han, Dae Hwan Shin, Jung Seok Kim, Kwon Yeon Weon, Chang-Young Jang, Jin-Seok Kim
Investigation of potential therapeutics for targeting breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) is important because these cells are regarded as culprit of breast cancer relapse. Accomplishing this kind of strategy requires a specific drug-delivery system using the distinct features of liposomes. Studies on targeted liposomal delivery systems have indicated the conjugation of hyaluronan (HA), a primary ligand for CD44 surface markers, as an appropriate method for targeting BCSCs. For this study, enriched BCSCs were obtained by culturing MCF-7 breast cancer cells in nonadherent conditions...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053683/strategies-for-recruiting-representative-samples-of-asian-americans-for-a-population-based-case-control-study
#8
Celeste K Wong, Pamela L Horn-Ross, Gilbert C Gee, Salma Shariff-Marco, Thu Quach, Laura Allen, Roxanna Bautista, Patricia Quema La Chica, Winston Tseng, Pancho Chang, Christina A Clarke, Juan Yang, Gem M Le, Alison Canchola, Melinda L Irwin, Sandra Soo-Jin Lee, Scarlett Lin Gomez
BACKGROUND: Data are limited on effective methods for recruiting persons, especially from ethnically diverse populations, into population-based studies. The goal of this study was to evaluate the variation among and representativeness of controls identified using multiple methods for a population-based case-control study of breast cancer among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (AANHPIs) in the San Francisco Bay Area. METHODS: We used a unique combination of targeted recruitment strategies, including address-based sampling, community-based methods, and internet-based and media-based approaches for recruiting controls, frequency matched on age and ethnicity to a population-based sample of cases...
October 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053550/emerging-role-of-pml-nuclear-bodies-in-innate-immune-signaling
#9
REVIEW
Myriam Scherer, Thomas Stamminger
Research in the last 2 decades has demonstrated that a specific organelle of the cell nucleus, termed PML nuclear body (PML-NB) or nuclear domain 10 (ND10), is frequently modified during viral infection. This correlates with antagonization of a direct repressive function of individual PML-NB components, such as the PML, hDaxx, Sp100, or ATRX protein, that are able to act as cellular restriction factors. Recent studies now reveal an emerging role of PML-NBs as coregulatory structures of both type I and type II interferon responses...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27033672/cost-effectiveness-of-gemcitabine-plus-modern-radiotherapy-in-locally-advanced-pancreatic-cancer
#10
Henry W C Leung, Agnes L F Chan, Chih-Hsin Muo
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of gemcitabine plus modern radiotherapy versus gemcitabine alone in the treatment of locally advanced pancreatic cancer in Taiwan. METHODS: A Markov decision-analytic model was performed to compare the cost-effectiveness of 3 treatment regimens; gemcitabine alone (gem-alone), gemcitabine plus intensity-modulated radiotherapy (gem-IMRT), and gemcitabine plus stereotactic body radiotherapy (gem-SBRT)...
May 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26908624/monoubiquitination-of-survival-motor-neuron-regulates-its-cellular-localization-and-cajal-body-integrity
#11
Ke-Jun Han, Daniel Foster, Edward W Harhaj, Monika Dzieciatkowska, Kirk Hansen, Chang-Wei Liu
Low levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein cause spinal muscular atrophy, the leading genetic disorder for infant mortality. SMN is ubiquitously expressed in various cell types and localizes in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus, where it concentrates in two subnuclear structures termed Cajal body (CB) and gems. In addition, SMN can also be detected in the nucleolus of neurons. Mechanisms that control SMN sorting in the cell remain largely unknown. Here, we report that the ubiquitin (Ub) ligase Itch directly interacts with and monoubiquitinates SMN...
April 1, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26806264/risk-factors-for-vertebral-compression-fractures-in-preoperative-chemoradiotherapy-with-gemcitabine-for-pancreatic-cancer
#12
Keisuke Otani, Teruki Teshima, Yuri Ito, Yoshifumi Kawaguchi, Koji Konishi, Hidenori Takahashi, Hiroaki Ohigashi, Kazuya Oshima, Nobuhito Araki, Kinji Nishiyama, Osamu Ishikawa
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with gemcitabine (GEM) for pancreatic cancer is often accompanied by vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). This study aimed to establish the incidence of VCFs and identify the related risk factors (RFs) to elucidate how to decrease the overall incidence of VCF. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated 220 patients with resectable or borderline-resectable pancreatic cancers who had completed preoperative CRT between 2006 and 2011...
March 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26805366/-nab-paclitaxel-plus-gemcitabine-for-metastatic-pancreatic-cancer
#13
Yoshiteru Katsura, Yutaka Takeda, Yoshiaki Ohmura, Yurina Motoyama, Tomo Ishida, Yoshihiro Morimoto, Katsunori Matsushita, Atsushi Naito, Kohei Murakami, Yoshinori Kagawa, Masatsugu Okishiro, Atsushi Takeno, Chiyomi Egawa, Takeshi Kato, Shigeyuki Tamura
Pancreatic ductal carcinoma is a highly aggressive cancer, with one of the highest mortality rates among gastrointestinal cancers. Nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine (GEM) significantly improved overall survival, progression-free survival, and response rate in a phase Ⅲ trial in 151 community and academic centers in 11 countries. As a result, nab-paclitaxel plus GEM was approved for use in December 2014 in Japan. We report a case of a patient with pancreatic cancer who underwent this chemotherapy. A 47-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for evaluation of pancreatic lesions...
November 2015: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26788165/measuring-body-composition-using-the-bioelectrical-impedance-method-can-predict-the-outcomes-of-gemcitabine-based-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-pancreatobiliary-tract-cancer
#14
Mami Muramatsu, Aya Tsuchiya, Seiko Ohta, Yukie Iijima, Miyuki Maruyama, Yoshiko Onodera, Megumi Hagihara, Naoki Nakaya, Itaru Sato, Kenji Omura, Soichiro Ueno, Hideo Nakajima
In order to examine the effect on body composition of anticancer drug treatments, the body composition rate in patients being treated with gemcitabine (GEM)-based chemotherapy was measured over time on an outpatient basis with a simple body composition monitor using the bioelectrical impedance (BI) method. The results revealed a significant reduction in the body fat rate (P=0.01) over the course of treatment in patients with pancreatobiliary tract cancer who became unable to continue GEM-based chemotherapy due to progressive disease or a decreased performance status...
December 2015: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26697964/repeatability-of-quantitative-18f-fluoromethylcholine-pet-ct-studies-in-prostate-cancer
#15
Daniela E Oprea-Lager, Gem Kramer, Peter M van de Ven, Alfons J M van den Eertwegh, Reindert J A van Moorselaar, Patrick Schober, Otto S Hoekstra, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Ronald Boellaard
UNLABELLED: Repeatable quantification is essential when using (18)F-fluoromethylcholine PET/CT to monitor treatment response in prostate cancer. It has been shown that SUV normalized to the area under the blood activity concentration curve (SUVAUC) provides a better correlation with full kinetic analysis than does standard SUV. However, the precision of SUVAUC is not known yet. The purpose of this study was to assess the repeatability of various semiquantitative (18)F-fluoromethylcholine parameters in prostate cancer...
May 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26623826/book-review-%C3%A2-the-book-of-beetles-a-lifesize-guide-to-six-hundred-of-nature-s-gems-editd-by-patrice-bouchard-ivy-press-uk-2014-656-pages
#16
Fedor Jr Čiampor
Today, there are plenty of beetle books available on the market. They usually introduce readers to the biggest or smallest, strangely-shaped, or markedly-coloured beetle species. This generally proves to be fairly easy given the richness of morphological and ecological diversity within this order. Unfortunately, such treatments only capture a fraction of the world's Coleoptera diversity, use the same examples, and sometimes even the same pictures. That is almost all you learn about one of the biggest and most important animal groups in the world...
2015: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26466149/appendicitis-and-analgesia-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department-are-we-adequately-controlling-pain
#17
Kristen M Delaney, Alexis Pankow, Jeffrey R Avner, Joni E Rabiner
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the study was to compare analgesia-prescribing practices and timing of analgesia administration between pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) and general emergency medicine (GEM) practitioners for children with appendicitis. The secondary objective was to compare analgesia administration versus triage pain score, pediatric appendicitis score (PAS), and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of patients younger than 21 years who presented to either an urban pediatric emergency department (ED) or 2 general EDs and were diagnosed with appendicitis...
September 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26237416/tumor-targeting-salmonella-typhimurium-a1-r-arrests-a-chemo-resistant-patient-soft-tissue-sarcoma-in-nude-mice
#18
Yukihiko Hiroshima, Ming Zhao, Yong Zhang, Nan Zhang, Ali Maawy, Takashi Murakami, Sumiyuki Mii, Fuminari Uehara, Mako Yamamoto, Shinji Miwa, Shuya Yano, Masashi Momiyama, Ryutaro Mori, Ryusei Matsuyama, Takashi Chishima, Kuniya Tanaka, Yasushi Ichikawa, Michael Bouvet, Itaru Endo, Robert M Hoffman
A patient-derived nude-mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma has been established and treated in the following groups: (1) untreated controls; (2) gemcitabine (GEM) (80 mg/kg, ip, weekly, 3 weeks); (3) Pazopanib (100 mg/kg, orally, daily, 3 weeks) and (4) Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (5 × 10(7) CFU/body, ip, weekly, 3 weeks). The sarcoma was resistant to GEM (p = 0.879). Pazopanib tended to reduce the tumor volume compared to the untreated mice, but there was no significant difference (p = 0.115). S. typhimurium A1-R significantly inhibited tumor growth compared to the untreated mice (p = 0...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26209309/human-metabolic-atlas-an-online-resource-for-human-metabolism
#19
Natapol Pornputtapong, Intawat Nookaew, Jens Nielsen
Human tissue-specific genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) provide comprehensive understanding of human metabolism, which is of great value to the biomedical research community. To make this kind of data easily accessible to the public, we have designed and deployed the human metabolic atlas (HMA) website (http://www.metabolicatlas.org). This online resource provides comprehensive information about human metabolism, including the results of metabolic network analyses. We hope that it can also serve as an information exchange interface for human metabolism knowledge within the research community...
2015: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25750046/lactic-acid-bacteria-20-years-exploring-their-potential-as-live-vectors-for-mucosal-vaccination
#20
REVIEW
Agnieszka Wyszyńska, Patrycja Kobierecka, Jacek Bardowski, Elżbieta Katarzyna Jagusztyn-Krynicka
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a diverse group of Gram-positive, nonsporulating, low G + C content bacteria. Many of them have been given generally regarded as safe status. Over the past two decades, intensive genetic and molecular research carried out on LAB, mainly Lactococcus lactis and some species of the Lactobacillus genus, has revealed new, potential biomedical LAB applications, including the use of LAB as adjuvants, immunostimulators, or therapeutic drug delivery systems, or as factories to produce therapeutic molecules...
April 2015: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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