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horn cell axon

Robert D Henderson, Pamela A McCombe
The motor unit comprises the anterior horn cell, its axon, and the muscle fibers that it innervates. Although the true number of motor units is unknown, the number of motor units appears to vary greatly between different muscles and between different individuals. Assessment of the number and function of motor units is needed in diseases of the anterior horn cell and other motor nerve disorders. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is the most important disease of anterior horn cells. The need for an effective biomarker for assessing disease progression and for use in clinical trials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has stimulated the study of methods to measure the number of motor units...
September 6, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Gemma Olive, Antonia Clarke, Katja Doerholt, Vasantha Gowda, Atta Siddiqui, Ming J Lim
BACKGROUND: Acute flaccid weakness may be the first presentation of acute transverse myelitis (ATM), an immune-mediated central nervous system disorder or may be the first presentation of anterior horn cell syndrome or peripheral nervous system disease. CASE REPORTS: We describe two previously healthy female infants who presented with acute flaccid paralysis and encephalopathy. Neuroimaging revealed central cord signal changes in both cases and surprisingly electrophysiological studies performed revealed a generalized axonal motor neuropathy as well...
November 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Jingjun Xing, Dan Liu, Shu Shen, Zhengyuan Su, Lin Zhang, Yijie Duan, Fang Tong, Yue Liang, Hualin Wang, Fei Deng, Zhihong Hu, Yiwu Zhou
OBJECTIVES: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease and can cause death; however, its pathogenesis remains elusive. METHODS: We performed a detailed systematic histopathologic examination and molecular studies on six autopsy cases of EV71 infection using H&E, immunohistochemistry, double immunofluorescence staining, and nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Characteristic features of acute encephalomyelitis were observed...
July 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
Elena Ian, Aleksander Berg, Siri Corneliussen Lillevoll, Bente Gunnveig Berg
As in other insects, three main tracts in the moth brain form parallel connections between the antennal lobe and the protocerebrum. These tracts, which consist of the antennal-lobe projection-neuron axons, target two main areas in the protocerebrum, the calyces of the mushroom bodies and the lateral horn. In spite of the solid neuroanatomical knowledge already established, there are still unresolved issues regarding the antennal-lobe tracts of the moth. One is the proportion of lateral-tract neurons targeting the calyces...
October 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Yanjun Guo, Luning Wang, Mingwei Zhu, Honghong Zhang, Yazhuo Hu, Zhitao Han, Jia Liu, Weiqin Zhao, Dexin Wang
The aim of this study was to investigate the neuropathological features of the spinal cord in patients suffering with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Spinal cord tissue collected from three AD patients and eight controls was selected for the study. Data were collected at T2, T8, T10, L4, and S2 spinal levels. The sections were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin and Gallyas-Braak staining methods and then were immunostained with antibodies such as phosphorylated tau protein (AT8), α-synuclein, Aβ, amyloid precursor protein, ubiquitin, and TDP-43...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Ge Dang, Xinran Chen, Yicong Chen, Yuhui Zhao, Fubing Ouyang, Jinsheng Zeng
Cerebral infarction can cause secondary damage to nonischemic brain regions. However, whether this phenomenon will appear in central nervous system regions outside the brain remains unclear. Here we investigated pathological changes in the spinal cord and ventral root after ischemic stroke. All rats exhibited apparent neurological deficits post-MCAO, which improved gradually but could still be detected 12-weeks. Neuronal filaments in the corticospinal tract (CST) and neurons in the ventral horn were significantly declined in the contralateral cervical and lumbar enlargement 1-week post-MCAO...
2016: Scientific Reports
Noboru Iwagaki, Robert P Ganley, Allen C Dickie, Erika Polgár, David I Hughes, Patricia Del Rio, Yulia Revina, Masahiko Watanabe, Andrew J Todd, John S Riddell
The spinal dorsal horn contains numerous inhibitory interneurons that control transmission of somatosensory information. Although these cells have important roles in modulating pain, we still have limited information about how they are incorporated into neuronal circuits, and this is partly due to difficulty in assigning them to functional populations. Around 15% of inhibitory interneurons in laminae I-III express neuropeptide Y (NPY), but little is known about this population. We therefore used a combined electrophysiological/morphological approach to investigate these cells in mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under control of the NPY promoter...
March 2016: Pain
Ming-Dong Zhang, Swapnali Barde, Edit Szodorai, Anna Josephson, Nicholas Mitsios, Masahiko Watanabe, Johannes Attems, Gert Lubec, Gábor G Kovács, Mathias Uhlén, Jan Mulder, Tibor Harkany, Tomas Hökfelt
Neuronal calcium-binding protein 1 and -2 (NECAB1/2) localize to multiple excitatory neuron populations in the mouse spinal cord. Here, we analyzed rat and human spinal cord, combining in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, complementing newly collated data on mouse spinal cord for direct comparisons. Necab1/2 mRNA transcripts showed complementary distribution in rodent's spinal cord. Multiple-labeling fluorescence histochemistry with neuronal phenotypic markers localized NECAB1 to a dense fiber plexus in the dorsal horn, to neurons mainly in superficial layers and to commissural interneurons in both rodent species...
September 2016: Brain Structure & Function
T Onozato, A Nakahara, E Suzuki-Kouyama, A Hineno, T Yasude, T Nakamura, H Yahikozawa, M Watanabe, K Kayanuma, H Makishita, S Ohara, T Hashimoto, K Higuchi, T Sakai, K Asano, T Hashimoto, H Kanno, J Nakayama, K Oyanagi
AIMS: Axonal aggregates of phosphorylated (p-) transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS) were examined in relation to propagation of the protein in the nervous system. METHODS: Brains and spinal cords of Japanese patients with sALS and control subjects were examined immunohistochemically using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens with special reference to the topographical distribution, microscopic features, presynaptic aggregates, and correlation between the aggregates in axons and the clinical course...
October 2016: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Beatriz San Millan, Jose M Fernandez, Carmen Navarro, Alfredo Reparaz, Susana Teijeira
BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1) is a clinically and genetically distinct and uncommon variant of SMA that results from irreversible degeneration of α-motor neurons in the anterior horns of the spinal cord and in ganglion cells on the spinal root ganglia. AIMS: To describe the clinical, electrophysiological, neuropathological, and genetic findings, at different stages from birth to death, of a Spanish child diagnosed with SMARD1...
March 2016: Clinical Neuropathology
Julia Kauder, Susanne Petri, Andrea Tipold, Veronika M Stein
Motor unit number estimation (MUNE) is an electrophysiological technique to assess the number of motor units innervating a single muscle or muscle group of interest. It may quantify axonal loss in any disease involving injury or degeneration of ventral horn cells or motor axons. Since MUNE has rarely been used in veterinary medicine, our study aimed to evaluate its potential role as an additional diagnostic and prognostic parameter in canine neurology. Therefore, we examined five healthy dogs and seven dogs suffering from diseases that necessitated general anesthesia for further diagnostics and treatment and that were not expected to interfere with the results of electrodiagnostic testing...
2015: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Valerie C Siembab, Laura Gomez-Perez, Travis M Rotterman, Neil A Shneider, Francisco J Alvarez
Motor function in mammalian species depends on the maturation of spinal circuits formed by a large variety of interneurons that regulate motoneuron firing and motor output. Interneuron activity is in turn modulated by the organization of their synaptic inputs, but the principles governing the development of specific synaptic architectures unique to each premotor interneuron are unknown. For example, Renshaw cells receive, at least in the neonate, convergent inputs from sensory afferents (likely Ia) and motor axons, raising the question of whether they interact during Renshaw cell development...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Paul J May, Susan Warren, Martin O Bohlen, Miriam Barnerssoi, Anja K E Horn
The central mesencephalic reticular formation, a region associated with horizontal gaze control, has recently been shown to project to the supraoculomotor area in primates. The Edinger-Westphal nucleus is found within the supraoculomotor area. It has two functionally and anatomically distinct divisions: (1) the preganglionic division, which contains motoneurons that control both the actions of the ciliary muscle, which focuses the lens, and the sphincter pupillae muscle, which constricts the iris, and (2) the centrally projecting division, which contains peptidergic neurons that play a role in food and fluid intake, and in stress responses...
November 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Hitoshi Maeda, Satoshi Fukuda, Hiroshi Kameda, Naoyuki Murabe, Noriko Isoo, Hiroaki Mizukami, Keiya Ozawa, Masaki Sakurai
Direct connections between corticospinal (CS) axons and motoneurons (MNs) appear to be present only in higher primates, where they are essential for discrete movement of the digits. Their presence in adult rodents was once claimed but is now questioned. We report that MNs innervating forearm muscles in infant rats receive monosynaptic input from CS axons, but MNs innervating proximal muscles do not, which is a pattern similar to that in primates. Our experiments were carefully designed to show monosynaptic connections...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Aurélie Stil, Pierre Drapeau
We describe neuronal patterns in the spinal cord of adult zebrafish. We studied the distribution of cells and processes in the three spinal regions reported in the literature: the 8th vertebra used as a transection injury site, the 15th vertebra mainly used for motor cell recordings and also for crush injury, and the 24th vertebra used to record motor nerve activity. We used well-known transgenic lines in which expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) is driven by promoters to hb9 and isl1 in motoneurons, alx/chx10 and evx1 interneurons, ngn1 in sensory neurons and olig2 in oligodendrocytes, as well as antibodies for neurons (HuC/D, NF and SV2) and glia (GFAP)...
June 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Valérie Brügger, Stefanie Engler, Jorge A Pereira, Sophie Ruff, Michael Horn, Hans Welzl, Emmanuelle Münger, Adrien Vaquié, Páris N M Sidiropoulos, Boris Egger, Peter Yotovski, Luis Filgueira, Christian Somandin, Tessa C Lühmann, Maurizio D'Antonio, Teppei Yamaguchi, Patrick Matthias, Ueli Suter, Claire Jacob
The pathogenesis of peripheral neuropathies in adults is linked to maintenance mechanisms that are not well understood. Here, we elucidate a novel critical maintenance mechanism for Schwann cell (SC)-axon interaction. Using mouse genetics, ablation of the transcriptional regulators histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1/2) in adult SCs severely affected paranodal and nodal integrity and led to demyelination/remyelination. Expression levels of the HDAC1/2 target gene myelin protein zero (P0) were reduced by half, accompanied by altered localization and stability of neurofascin (NFasc)155, NFasc186, and loss of Caspr and septate-like junctions...
2015: PLoS Biology
Naomi A Abel, Eduardo A De Sousa, Raghav Govindarajan, Matthew P Mayer, David A Simpson
The American Association of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AANEM) developed guidelines to formalize the ethical standards that neuromuscular and electrodiagnostic (EDx) physicians should observe in their clinical and scientific activities. Neuromuscular and EDx medicine is a subspecialty of medicine that focuses on evaluation, diagnosis, and comprehensive medical management, including rehabilitation of individuals with neuromuscular disorders. Physicians working in this subspecialty focus on disorders of the motor unit, including muscle, neuromuscular junction, axon, plexus, nerve root, anterior horn cell, and the peripheral nerves (motor and sensory)...
December 2015: Muscle & Nerve
Frederik Seibt, Rémy Schlichter
In the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (DH), noradrenaline (NA) is released by axons originating from the locus coeruleus and induces spinal analgesia, the mechanisms of which are poorly understood. Here, the effects of NA on synaptic transmission in the deep laminae (III-V) of the DH were characterized. It was shown that exogenously applied, as well as endogenously released, NA facilitated inhibitory [γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic and glycinergic] synaptic transmission in laminae III-IV of the DH by activating α1-, α2- and β-adrenoceptors (ARs)...
November 2015: European Journal of Neuroscience
Chee Geap Tay, Lai Choo Ong, Khean Jin Goh, Kartini Rahmat, Choong Yi Fong
We report a previously well 10-month-old Somalian girl who acquired asymmetric lower limb weakness in July 2013 in Mogadishu, Banadir, before arriving in Malaysia at 12 months of age. In May 2013, there was a wild poliomyelitis outbreak in that area, as reported by the World Health Organization. Laboratory investigation, including cerebrospinal fluid, was unremarkable, and electrophysiological studies showed active axonal denervation in the left lower limb. The whole spine T2-weighted MRI revealed non-enhancing hyperintensities of the bilateral anterior horn cells, predominantly on the left side at T11-12...
December 2015: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Chuang Lyu, Jan Mulder, Swapnali Barde, Kristoffer Sahlholm, Hugo Zeberg, Johanna Nilsson, Peter Århem, Tomas Hökfelt, Kaj Fried, Tie-Jun Sten Shi
BACKGROUND: Increased nociceptive neuronal excitability underlies chronic pain conditions. Various ion channels, including sodium, calcium and potassium channels have pivotal roles in the control of neuronal excitability. The members of the family of G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels, GIRK1-4, have been implicated in modulating excitability. Here, we investigated the expression and distribution of GIRK1 and GIRK2 in normal and injured dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and spinal cord of rats...
2015: Molecular Pain
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