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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662439/chondroitin-sulfate-expression-in-perineuronal-nets-after-goldfish-spinal-cord-lesion
#1
Akihito Takeda, Masashige Shuto, Kengo Funakoshi
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) surrounding neuronal cell bodies regulate neuronal plasticity during development, but their roles in regeneration are unclear. In the PNNs, chondroitin sulfate (CS) is assumed to be involved in inhibiting contact formation. Here, we examined CS expression in PNNs in the ventral horn of a goldfish hemisected spinal cord in which descending axons regenerate beyond the lesion to connect with distal spinal neurons. In intact fish, chondroitin sulfate A (CS-A)-positive PNNs accounted for 5...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497838/substance-p-expressing-excitatory-interneurons-in-the-mouse-superficial-dorsal-horn-provide-a-propriospinal-input-to-the-lateral-spinal-nucleus
#2
Maria Gutierrez-Mecinas, Erika Polgár, Andrew M Bell, Marine Herau, Andrew J Todd
The superficial dorsal horn (laminae I and II) of the spinal cord contains numerous excitatory and inhibitory interneurons, and recent studies have shown that each of these groups can be divided into several neurochemically distinct populations. Although it has long been known that some neurons in this region have intersegmental (propriospinal) axonal projections, there have been conflicting reports concerning the number of propriospinal cells and the extent of their axons. In addition, little is known about the neurochemical phenotype of propriospinal neurons or about the termination pattern of their axons...
March 1, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476750/functional-relationship-between-brainstem-putative-pain-facilitating-neurons-and-spinal-nociceptive-neurons-during-development-of-inflammation-in-rats
#3
Rafael Salas, Karla Ramirez, Victor Tortorici, Horacio Vanegas, Enrique Vazquez
The so-called on- and off-cells of the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) send their axons to the spinal dorsal horn. Activation of on-cells precedes and coincides with a facilitation, and activation of off-cells coincides with an inhibition, of withdrawal reflexes elicited by noxious agents. Considerable evidence supports the notion that on- and off-cells modulate nocifensive reflexes during opioid and non-opioid action and also during normal circumstances and during peripheral neuropathy and inflammation...
February 21, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329908/anatomical-evidence-for-lateral-hypothalamic-innervation-of-the-pontine-a7-catecholamine-cell-group-in-rat
#4
Janean E Holden, Monica A Wagner, Brady L Reeves
Substantial behavioral evidence exists to support the idea that the lateral hypothalamus (LH) makes axonal connection with spinally-projecting noradrenergic neurons of the A7 catecholamine cell group in the pons. Through this putative projection, the LH modulates nociception via α1- and α2 -adrenoceptors in the dorsal horn. We used double-label immunocytochemistry to demonstrate that axons from the LH labeled with the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) appose tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) neuron profiles in the A7 area...
March 6, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314212/lumbar-to-sacral-root-rerouting-to-restore-bladder-function-in-a-feline-spinal-cord-injury-model-urodynamic-and-retrograde-nerve-tracing-results-from-a-pilot-study
#5
Ornella Lam Van Ba, Mary F Barbe, Romain Caremel, Shachar Aharony, Oleg Loutochin, Line Jacques, Matthew W Wood, Ekta Tiwari, Gerald F Tuite, Lysanne Campeau, Jacques Corcos, Michael R Ruggieri
AIMS: Lumbar to sacral rerouting surgery can potentially allow voiding via a skin-central nervous system-bladder reflex pathway. Here, we assessed if this surgery was effective in treating neurogenic bladder dysfunction/sphincter in felines. METHODS: Eight cats underwent spinal cord transection (SCT) at thoracic level 10/11. Unilateral L7 to S1 ventral root anastomosis was performed 1 month later in six cats. Two cats served as transection-only controls. Electrical and manual stimulation of L6-S1 dermatomes, and urodynamics were performed at 3, 5, 7, and 9/10 months post transection...
January 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311559/injured-adult-motor-and-sensory-axons-regenerate-into-appropriate-organotypic-domains-of-neural-progenitor-grafts
#6
Jennifer N Dulin, Andrew F Adler, Hiromi Kumamaru, Gunnar H D Poplawski, Corinne Lee-Kubli, Hans Strobl, Daniel Gibbs, Ken Kadoya, James W Fawcett, Paul Lu, Mark H Tuszynski
Neural progenitor cell (NPC) transplantation has high therapeutic potential in neurological disorders. Functional restoration may depend on the formation of reciprocal connections between host and graft. While it has been reported that axons extending out of neural grafts in the brain form contacts onto phenotypically appropriate host target regions, it is not known whether adult, injured host axons regenerating into NPC grafts also form appropriate connections. We report that spinal cord NPCs grafted into the injured adult rat spinal cord self-assemble organotypic, dorsal horn-like domains...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285976/partial-recovery-of-proprioception-in-rats-with-dorsal-root-injury-following-human-olfactory-bulb-cell-transplantation
#7
Andrew Collins, Daqing Li, Modinat Liadi, Pawel Tabakow, Wojciech Fortuna, Geoffrey Raisman, Ying Li
We transplanted human olfactory bulb OECs (hOECs) mixed with collagen into a unilateral transection of four dorsal roots (C6-T1) in a rat model. By mixing with collagen, we could maximise the limited numbers of hOEC from an olfactory bulb biopsy and optimise cavity-filling. Cyclosporine was administered daily to prevent immune rejection. Forelimb proprioception was assessed weekly in a vertical climb task. Half of the rats receiving hOEC transplants showed some functional improvement ('responders') over six weeks of the study whilst the other half did not ('non-responders') and performed similarly to 'injured only' rats...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229559/axons-of-individual-dorsal-horn-neurons-bifurcated-to-project-in-both-the-anterolateral-and-the-postsynaptic-dorsal-column-systems
#8
M Condés-Lara, G Martínez-Lorenzana, G Rojas-Piloni, I A Tello-García, A Manzano-García, E Rubio-Beltran, A González-Hernández
Sensory information stimulates receptors of somatosensory system neurons generating a signal that codifies the characteristics of peripheral stimulation. This information reaches the spinal cord and is relayed to supra-spinal structures through two main systems: the postsynaptic dorsal column-medial lemniscal (DC-ML) and the anterolateral (AL) systems. From the classical point of view, the DC-ML has an ipsilateral ascending pathway to the Gracilis (GRA) or Cuneate (CUN) nuclei and the AL has a contralateral ascending pathway to the ventral posterolateral (VPL) thalamic nucleus...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979176/noncanonical-adult-human-neurogenesis-and-axonal-growth-as-possible-structural-basis-of-recovery-from-traumatic-vegetative-state
#9
Yulia Vainshenker, Vsevolod Zinserling, Alexander Korotkov, Svyatoslav Medvedev
Patient recovering from traumatic vegetative state has suddenly died from cardiac arrest. In-life improvement of consciousness appeared after reduction of generalized spasticity due to botulinum toxin administration. Neuropathologic examination revealed Musashi1+, Nestin+, PCNA+, and Ki67+ cells in the hippocampus, frontal, parietal and occipital cortex, caudate, thalamus, mammillary bodies, brainstem, cerebellum, and near the posterior horn of the lateral ventricle. New neurons with neurite growth (TUC4+) appeared in corpus callosum...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874746/rgma-inhibition-with-human-monoclonal-antibodies-promotes-regeneration-plasticity-and-repair-and-attenuates-neuropathic-pain-after-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Andrea J Mothe, Nardos G Tassew, Alirezha P Shabanzadeh, Romeo Penheiro, Robin J Vigouroux, Lili Huang, Christine Grinnell, Yi-Fang Cui, Emma Fung, Philippe P Monnier, Bernhard K Mueller, Charles H Tator
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a cascade of degenerative events including cell death, axonal damage, and the upregulation of inhibitory molecules which prevent regeneration and limit recovery. Repulsive guidance molecule A (RGMa) is a potent neurite growth inhibitor in the central nervous system, exerting its repulsive activity by binding the Neogenin receptor. Here, we show for the first time that inhibitory RGMa is markedly upregulated in multiple cell types after clinically relevant impact-compression SCI in rats, and importantly, also in the injured human spinal cord...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689049/the-spatiotemporal-relationships-between-chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycans-and-terminations-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-and-parvalbumin-immunoreactive-afferents-in-the-spinal-cord-of-mouse-embryos
#11
Liqing Wang, Chao Yu, Jun Wang, Hui Zhao, Sun-On Chan
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans (PGs) are a family of complex molecules in the extracellular matrix and cell surface that regulate axon growth and guidance during development of the central nervous system. In this study, the expression of CSPGs was investigated in the mouse spinal cord at late embryonic and neonatal stages using CS-56 antibody. CS immunoreactivity was observed abundantly in ventral regions of spinal cord of embryonic day (E) 15 embryos. At E16 to E18, CS expression spread dorsally, but never reached the superficial layers of the dorsal horn...
August 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669296/a-neurophysiological-approach-to-nerve-transfer-to-restore-upper-limb-function-in-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Ross M Mandeville, Justin M Brown, Geoffrey L Sheean
A successful nerve transfer surgery can provide a wealth of benefits to a patient with cervical spinal cord injury. The process of surgical decision making ideally uses all pertinent information to produce the best functional outcome. Reliance on clinical examination and imaging studies alone can miss valuable information on the state of spinal cord health. In this regard, neurophysiological evaluation has the potential to effectively gauge the neurological status of even select pools of anterior horn cells and their axons to small nerve branches in question to determine the potential efficacy of their use in a transfer...
July 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658046/induction-of-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-by-extracorporeal-shock-waves-after-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Dong-Cheul Shin, Kee-Yong Ha, Young-Hoon Kim, Jang-Woon Kim, Yoo-Kyung Cho, Sang-Il Kim
STUDY DESIGN: Animal experimental study OBJECTIVES.: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of extracorporeal shock waves (ESWs) on endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) proliferation after spinal cord injury (SCI). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Exogenous stem cell transplantation for SCI still has many limitations to be addressed such as ideal cell sources, timing of transplantation, and fate of the transplanted cells. Moreover, the efficacy is another issue owing to a peculiar pathologic condition in the chronic phase of SCI...
February 15, 2018: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524374/possible-role-of-the-myelinated-neural-network-in-the-parietal-peritoneum-in-rats-as-a-mechanoreceptor
#14
Koichi Tanaka, Sachi Kuwahara-Otani, Seishi Maeda, Yusuke Minato, Hideshi Yagi
A network of myelinated nerve fibers in the peritoneum covers the abdominal wall. We studied the topographic distribution of this network, explored the fibers' destination in the central nervous system, and examined the markers in these fibers in order to identify the nature of the sensation conveyed by the network of nerve fibers in rats. We used Sihler's method, which stains myelinated fibers in whole mount materials, and observed a dense nerve network and endings toward the peritoneal cavity in the peritoneum that covers the abdomen's lateral bulge...
May 19, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441464/crucial-roles-of-pox-neuro-in-the-developing-ellipsoid-body-and-antennal-lobes-of-the-drosophila-brain
#15
Shilpi Minocha, Werner Boll, Markus Noll
The paired box gene Pox neuro (Poxn) is expressed in two bilaterally symmetric neuronal clusters of the developing adult Drosophila brain, a protocerebral dorsal cluster (DC) and a deutocerebral ventral cluster (VC). We show that all cells that express Poxn in the developing brain are postmitotic neurons. During embryogenesis, the DC and VC consist of only 20 and 12 neurons that express Poxn, designated embryonic Poxn-neurons. The number of Poxn-neurons increases only during the third larval instar, when the DC and VC increase dramatically to about 242 and 109 Poxn-neurons, respectively, virtually all of which survive to the adult stage, while no new Poxn-neurons are added during metamorphosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428485/pathological-lesions-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-peripheral-tissues-of-ddy-mice-with-street-rabies-virus-1088-strain
#16
Kazunori Kimitsuki, Kentaro Yamada, Nozomi Shiwa, Satoshi Inoue, Akira Nishizono, Chun-Ho Park
Most studies on rabies virus pathogenesis in animal models have employed fixed rabies viruses, and the results of those employing street rabies viruses have been inconsistent. Therefore, to clarify the pathogenesis of street rabies virus (1088 strain) in mice, 10(6) focus forming units were inoculated into the right hindlimb of ddY mice (6 weeks, female). At 3 days postinoculation (DPI), mild inflammation was observed in the hindlimb muscle. At 5 DPI, ganglion cells in the right lumbosacral spinal dorsal root ganglia showed chromatolysis...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380320/reappraisal-of-the-f-m-amplitude-ratio-in-carpal-tunnel-syndrome
#17
F Ginanneschi, M Mondelli, A Aretini, Alessandro Rossi
The F-wave/M-wave amplitude (F/M-amp) ratio has been shown to be increased in peripheral neuropathies, provided the maximum M-wave is relatively preserved. Reduced M-wave amplitudes and central facilitation of antidromically-induced reactivation of the anterior horn cells' axon hillocks (F-wave) are believed to contribute to higher F/M-amp ratios. The present study was undertaken to re-evaluate mechanisms responsible for higher F/M-amp ratios in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We enrolled 232 cases affected by CTS and 108 controls...
January 2017: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337957/transplantation-of-cultured-olfactory-bulb-cells-prevents-abnormal-sensory-responses-during-recovery-from-dorsal-root-avulsion-in-the-rat
#18
Andrew Collins, Daqing Li, Stephen B McMahon, Geoffrey Raisman, Ying Li
The central branches of the C7 and C8 dorsal roots were avulsed close to their entry point into the spinal cord in adult rats. The forepaw responses to heat and cold stimuli were tested at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after injury. Over this period, the paws were sensitive to both stimuli at 1-2 weeks and returned toward normal at 3 weeks. Immunohistology showed no evidence of axonal regeneration into the spinal cord in a control group of rats with avulsion only, implying that adjacent dorsal roots and their corresponding dermatomes were involved in the recovery...
May 9, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264978/deletion-of-the-fractalkine-receptor-cx3cr1-improves-endogenous-repair-axon-sprouting-and-synaptogenesis-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-mice
#19
Camila M Freria, Jodie C E Hall, Ping Wei, Zhen Guan, Dana M McTigue, Phillip G Popovich
Impaired signaling via CX3CR1, the fractalkine receptor, promotes recovery after traumatic spinal contusion injury in mice, a benefit achieved in part by reducing macrophage-mediated injury at the lesion epicenter. Here, we tested the hypothesis that CX3CR1-dependent changes in microglia and macrophage functions also will enhance neuroplasticity, at and several segments below the injury epicenter. New data show that in the presence of inflammatory stimuli, CX3CR1-deficient (CX3CR1(-/-)) microglia and macrophages adopt a reparative phenotype and increase expression of genes that encode neurotrophic and gliogenic proteins...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197201/-three-methods-and-three-points-regulates-p38-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-in-the-dorsal-horn-of-the-spinal-cord-in-a-rat-model-of-sciatic-nerve-injury
#20
Xin Guo, Tian-Yuan Yu, Wong Steven, Wen-Duan Jia, Chi Ma, Yan-Hong Tao, Chao Yang, Tao-Tao Lv, Shuai Wu, Meng-Qian Lu, Jia-Li Liu
Tuina is a traditional Chinese treatment for sensory disturbances caused by peripheral nerve injury and related diseases. Our previous studies showed that tuina regulates relevant regions and indices of the spinal dorsal horn using the Dian, Bo, and Rou method in Yinmen (BL37), Yanglingquan (GB34), and Weizhong (BL40). Treatment prevents muscle atrophy, protects spinal cord neurons, and promotes sciatic nerve repair. The mechanisms of action of tuina for treating peripheral nerve injury remain poorly understood...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
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