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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720382/activated-leukocyte-cell-adhesion-molecule-is-involved-in-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-and-plasticity-in-the-rat-spinal-dorsal-horn
#1
Eun-Sung Park, Sang-Min Jeon, Haein Weon, Hee-Jung Cho, Dong-Ho Youn
Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), a member of type I transmembrane immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecule, is expressed in the surface membrane of various cell types including neurons. In the spinal cord dorsal horn (DH), the first gate for the sensory and pain transmission to the brain, the expression and function of ALCAM have not been known yet. Therefore, we here investigate the synaptic function of ALCAM in the substantia gelatinosa (lamina II) of the spinal DH, as well as its expression in the DH...
July 15, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712050/spatiotemporal-expression-of-bcl-2-bax-and-neural-cell-apoptosis-in-the-developing-lumbosacral-spinal-cord-of-rat-fetuses-with-anorectal-malformations
#2
Zhonghua Yang, Yuanyuan Geng, Zhiya Yao, Huimin Jia, Yuzuo Bai, Weilin Wang
Fecal incontinence and constipation still remain the major complications after procedures for anorectal malformations (ARMs). Previous studies have demonstrated a decrease of neural cell in lumbosacral spinal cord of ARMs patients and rat models. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In this study, the neural cell apoptosis and Bcl-2/Bax expression were explored during lumbosacral spinal cord development in normal and ARMs fetuses. ARMs rat fetuses were induced by treating pregnant rats with ethylenethiourea on embryonic day 10...
July 15, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708760/reactive-oxygen-species-affect-spinal-cell-type-specific-synaptic-plasticity-in-a-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#3
Alice Bittar, Jaebeom Jun, Jun-Ho La, Jigong Wang, Joong Woo Leem, Jin Mo Chung
Spinal synaptic plasticity is believed to drive central sensitization that underlies the persistent nature of neuropathic pain. Our recent data showed that synaptic plasticity in the dorsal horn is cell type-specific: intense afferent stimulation produced long-term potentiation (LTP) in excitatory spinothalamic tract neurons (STTn), whereas it produced long-term depression (LTD) in inhibitory GABAergic interneurons (GABAn). In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were shown to be involved in LTP in STTn (STTn-LTP) as well as in LTD in GABAn (GABAn-LTD)...
July 11, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707588/targeting-the-prokineticin-system-to-control-chronic-pain-and-inflammation
#4
Lucia Negri, Daniela Maftei
Prokineticin1 and prokineticin2 belong to a new family of chemokines identified in several species including mammals and characterized by the presence of five disulfide bridges. These proteins signal through two G-coupled receptors (prokineticin-receptor1 and prokineticin-receptor2) widely expressed in all tissues and involved in a large spectrum of biological activities, including angiogenesis, hematopoiesis, immune processes, inflammation and nociceptive transmission. Prokineticin2 is overexpressed in inflamed tissues and has a crucial role in neutrophil dependent inflammation and hypernociception...
July 13, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706450/reactive-oxygen-species-increase-neuronal-excitability-via-activation-of-nonspecific-cation-channel-in-rat-medullary-dorsal-horn-neurons
#5
Hae In Lee, Byung Rim Park, Sang Woo Chun
The caudal subnucleus of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (medullary dorsal horn; MDH) receives direct inputs from small diameter primary afferent fibers that predominantly transmit nociceptive information in the orofacial region. Recent studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in persistent pain, primarily through spinal mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO) system, a known generator of superoxide anion (O2(·-)), on membrane excitability in the rat MDH neurons...
July 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696233/comparison-of-omadacycline-and-tigecycline-pharmacokinetics-in-the-plasma-epithelial-lining-fluid-and-alveolar-cells-in-healthy-adult-subjects
#6
Mark H Gotfried, Karolyn Horn, Lynne Garrity-Ryan, Stephen Villano, Evan Tzanis, Surya Chitra, Amy Manley, S Ken Tanaka, Keith A Rodvold
The steady-state concentrations of omadacycline and tigecycline in plasma, epithelial lining fluid (ELF), and alveolar cells (AC) concentrations were obtained in 58 healthy adult subjects. Subjects were administered either omadacycline as 100 mg intravenously (IV) every 12 hours for two doses followed by 100 mg IV every 24 hours for three doses or tigecycline as an initial dose of 100 mg IV followed by 50 mg IV every 12 hours for six doses. A bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed once in each subject following the start of the fifth dose of omadacycline at 0...
July 10, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689049/the-spatiotemporal-relationships-between-chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycans-and-terminations-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-and-parvalbumin-immunoreactive-afferents-in-the-spinal-cord-of-mouse-embryos
#7
Liqing Wang, Chao Yu, Jun Wang, Hui Zhao, Sun-On Chan
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans (PGs) are a family of complex molecules in the extracellular matrix and cell surface that regulate axon growth and guidance during development of the central nervous system. In this study, the expression of CSPGs was investigated in the mouse spinal cord at late embryonic and neonatal stages using CS-56 antibody. CS immunoreactivity was observed abundantly in ventral regions of spinal cord of embryonic day (E) 15 embryos. At E16 to E18, CS expression spread dorsally, but never reached the superficial layers of the dorsal horn...
July 5, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685789/orchestration-of-dynamic-copper-navigation-new-and-missing-pieces
#8
REVIEW
Helena Öhrvik, Jan Aaseth, Nina Horn
A general principle in all cells in the body is that an essential metal - here copper - is taken up at the plasma membrane, directed through cellular compartments for use in specific enzymes and pathways, stored in specific scavenging molecules if in surplus, and finally expelled from the cells. Here we attempt to provide a critical view on key concepts involved in copper transfer across membranes and through compartments in the human body. The focus of this review is on the influence of bioinorganic and thermodynamic rules on the flow in cellular copper networks...
July 7, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673718/d-limonene-exhibits-superior-antihyperalgesic-effects-in-a-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-complexed-form-in-chronic-musculoskeletal-pain-reducing-fos-protein-expression-on-spinal-cord-in-mice
#9
Heitor G Araújo-Filho, Erik W M Pereira, Marília M Rezende, Paula P Menezes, Adriano A S Araújo, Rosana S S Barreto, Anita O B P B Martins, Thaís R Albuquerque, Bruno A F Silva, Isabel S Alcantara, Henrique D M Coutinho, Irwin R A Menezes, Lucindo J Quintans-Júnior, Jullyana S S Quintans
Chronic musculoskeletal pain is one of the main symptoms found in Fibromyalgia with unclear etiology and limited pharmacological treatment. The aim of this study was to complex LIM in β-cyclodextrin (LIM-βCD) and then evaluate its antihyperalgesic effect in an animal model of chronic musculoskeletal pain. Differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy was used for the characterization of the inclusion complex. Male Swiss mice were used for experimental procedures where mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia, muscular strength, Fos immunofluorescence was studied after induction of hyperalgesia...
July 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669296/a-neurophysiological-approach-to-nerve-transfer-to-restore-upper-limb-function-in-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Ross M Mandeville, Justin M Brown, Geoffrey L Sheean
A successful nerve transfer surgery can provide a wealth of benefits to a patient with cervical spinal cord injury. The process of surgical decision making ideally uses all pertinent information to produce the best functional outcome. Reliance on clinical examination and imaging studies alone can miss valuable information on the state of spinal cord health. In this regard, neurophysiological evaluation has the potential to effectively gauge the neurological status of even select pools of anterior horn cells and their axons to small nerve branches in question to determine the potential efficacy of their use in a transfer...
July 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667526/isolation-of-natural-anti-fc%C3%AE%C2%B5ri%C3%AE-autoantibodies-from-healthy-donors
#11
Monique Vogel, Michael P Horn
Natural antibodies are defined as antibodies detected in a healthy individual without active immunization. These antibodies are specific for exoantigens, as well as for autoantigens, mostly without any pathogenic role. Most of the studies conducted with natural (auto-) antibodies have been performed using affinity purified antibodies from individual sera or polyclonal Ig-preparations such as Intravenous Ig (IVIg). For in-depth analysis of such autoantibodies affinity-purified Ig-preparations from healthy individuals are of no use, as they are oligoclonal or polyclonal...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666437/olfactory-coding-from-the-periphery-to-higher-brain-centers-in-the-drosophila-brain
#12
Yoichi Seki, Hany K M Dweck, Jürgen Rybak, Dieter Wicher, Silke Sachse, Bill S Hansson
BACKGROUND: Odor information is processed through multiple receptor-glomerular channels in the first order olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), then reformatted into higher brain centers and eventually perceived by the fly. To reveal the logic of olfaction, it is fundamental to map odor representations from the glomerular channels into higher brain centers. RESULTS: We characterize odor response profiles of AL projection neurons (PNs) originating from 31 glomeruli using whole cell patch-clamp recordings in Drosophila melanogaster...
June 30, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663089/sinomenine-produces-peripheral-analgesic-effects-via-inhibition-of-voltage-gated-sodium-currents
#13
Jeong-Yun Lee, Seo-Yeon Yoon, Jonghwa Won, Han-Byul Kim, Youngnam Kang, Seog Bae Oh
Sinomenium acutum has been used in traditional medicine to treat a painful disease such as rheumatic arthritis and neuralgia. Sinomenine, which is a main bioactive ingredient in Sinomenium acutum, has been reported to have an analgesic effect in diverse pain animal models. However little is known about the detailed mechanisms underlying peripheral analgesic effect of sinomenine. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate its cellular mechanism by using formalin-induced acute inflammatory pain model in mice...
June 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662468/novel-carbohydrate-substituted-metallo-porphyrazine-comparison-for-cancer-tissue-type-specificity-during-pdt
#14
Tamarisk K Horne, Marianne J Cronjé
A longstanding obstacle to cancer eradication centers on the heterogeneous nature of the tissue that manifests it. Variations between cancer cell resistance profiles often result in a survival percentage following classic therapeutics. As an alternative, photodynamic therapys' (PDT) unique non-specific cell damage mechanism and high degree of application control enables it to potentially deliver an efficient treatment regime to a broad range of heterogeneous tissue types thereby overcoming individual resistance profiles...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658046/induction-of-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-by-extracorporeal-shock-waves-after-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Dong-Chul Shin, Kee-Yong Ha, Young-Hoon Kim, Jang-Woon Kim, Yoo-Kyung Cho, Sang-Il Kim
STUDY DESIGN: Animal experimental study OBJECTIVES.: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of extracorporeal shock waves (ESWs) on endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) proliferation after spinal cord injury (SCI). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Exogenous stem cell transplantation for SCI still has many limitations to be addressed such as ideal cell sources, timing of transplantation, and fate of the transplanted cells. Moreover, the efficacy is another issue due to a peculiar pathologic condition in the chronic phase of SCI...
June 27, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657131/a-37-years-old-menkes-disease-patient-residual-atp7a-activity-and-early-copper-administration-as-key-factors-in-beneficial-treatment
#16
Zeynep Tümer, Michael Petris, Sha Zhu, Julian Mercer, Jens Bukrinski, Stefan Bilz, Kurt Baerlocher, Nina Horn, Lisbeth B Møller
Menkes disease is a lethal disorder characterized by severe neurological symptoms and connective tissue abnormalities; and results from malfunctioning of cuproenzymes, which cannot receive copper due to a defective intracellular copper transporting protein, ATP7A. Early parenteral copper-histidine supplementation may modify disease progression substantially but beneficial effects of long-term treatment have been recorded in only a few patients. Here we report on the eldest surviving Menkes disease patient (37 years) receiving early-onset and long-term copper treatment...
June 28, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657126/a-homozygous-i684t-in-gle1-as-a-novel-cause-of-arthrogryposis-and-motor-neuron-loss
#17
Teija Paakkola, Katri Vuopala, Hannaleena Kokkonen, Jaakko Ignatius, Marita Valkama, Jukka S Moilanen, Somayyeh Fahiminiya, Jacek Majewski, Reetta Hinttala, Johanna Uusimaa
Mutations in GLE1, RNA export mediator (GLE1) gene have previously been shown to cause motor neuron diseases such as Lethal congenital contracture syndrome 1 (LCCS1) and Lethal arthrogryposis with anterior horn cell disease (LAAHD), including arthrogryposis, fetal akinesis and motor neuron loss as common clinical features. The homozygous FinMajor mutation p.T144_E145insPFQ has been described as one of the causes for LCCS1 whereas LAAHD is caused by a heterocompound FinMajor mutation together with p.R569H, p...
June 28, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649695/neuronal-aromatase-expression-in-pain-processing-regions-of-the-medullary-and-spinal-cord-dorsal-horn
#18
May Tran, Julia A Kuhn, João M Bráz, Allan I Basbaum
In both acute and chronic pain conditions, women tend to be more sensitive than men. This sex difference may be regulated by estrogens, such as estradiol, that are synthesized in the spinal cord and brainstem and act locally to influence pain processing. To identify a potential cellular source of local estrogen, here we examined the expression of aromatase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of testosterone to estradiol. Our studies focused on primary afferent neurons and on their central targets in the spinal cord and medulla as well as in the nucleus of the solitary tract, the target of nodose ganglion-derived visceral afferents...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648042/-effects-of-lappaconitine-on-pain-and-inflammatory-response-of-severely-burned-rats-and-the-mechanism
#19
C L Yang, Z R Wei, T H Zhang, X Q Zeng, B H Wu
Objective: To explore the effects of lappaconitine (LA) on pain and inflammatory response of severely burned rats and the mechanism. Methods: Forty SD rats were divided into healthy+ normal saline group, sham injury+ normal saline group, pure burn group, burn+ LA group, and healthy+ LA group according to the random number table (the same dividing method below), with 8 rats in each group. Rats in pure burn and burn+ LA groups were inflicted with about 32% total body surface area deep partial-thickness scald (hereinafter referred to as burn) on the back and right hind...
June 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645297/interleukin-1-receptor-type-1-is-overexpressed-in-neurons-but-not-in-glial-cells-within-the-rat-superficial-spinal-dorsal-horn-in-complete-freund-adjuvant-induced-inflammatory-pain
#20
Krisztina Holló, László Ducza, Zoltán Hegyi, Klaudia Dócs, Krisztina Hegedűs, Erzsébet Bakk, Ildikó Papp, Gréta Kis, Zoltán Mészár, Zsuzsanna Bardóczi, Miklós Antal
BACKGROUND: All known biological functions of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) are mediated by type 1 interleukin receptor (IL-1R1). IL-1β-IL-1R1 signaling modulates various neuronal functions including spinal pain processing. Although the role of IL-1β in pain processing is generally accepted, there is a discussion in the literature whether IL-1β exerts its effect on spinal pain processing by activating neuronal or glial IL-1R1. To contribute to this debate, here we investigated the expression and cellular distribution of IL-1R1 in the superficial spinal dorsal horn in control animals and also in inflammatory pain...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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