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horn cell

Nicholas Beazley-Long, Catherine Elizabeth Moss, William Robert Ashby, Samuel Marcus Bestall, Fatimah Almahasneh, Alexandra Margaret Durrant, Andrew Vaughan Benest, Zoe Blackley, Kurt Ballmer-Hofer, Masanori Hirashima, Richard Phillip Hulse, David Owen Bates, Lucy Frances Donaldson
Chronic pain can develop in response to conditions such as inflammatory arthritis. The central mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of chronic pain in humans are not well elucidated although there is evidence for a role of microglia and astrocytes. However in pre-clinical models of pain, including models of inflammatory arthritis, there is a wealth of evidence indicating roles for pathological glial reactivity within the CNS. In the spinal dorsal horn of rats with painful inflammatory arthritis we found both a significant increase in CD11b+ microglia-like cells and GFAP+ astrocytes associated with blood vessels, and the number of activated blood vessels expressing the adhesion molecule ICAM-1, indicating potential glio-vascular activation...
March 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
SeungHwan Lee, Xiang Qun Shi, Anni Fan, Brian West, Ji Zhang
Introduction Neuropathic pain is a debilitating condition. The importance of neuroimmune interactions in neuropathic pain has been evidenced by the involvement of different immune cells in peripheral and central sensitization of pathological pain. Macrophages and microglia are the most abundant immune cells activated in injured nerves and spinal cord, respectively. Several lines of evidence showed that macrophage/microglia survival, activation, proliferation, and differentiation require the involvement of macrophage-colony stimulating factor...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
Rishibha Sachdev, Karin Kappes-Horn, Lydia Paulsen, Yvonne Duernberger, Catharina Pleschka, Philip Denner, Bishwajit Kundu, Jens Reimann, Ina Vorberg
Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is the most prevalent acquired muscle disorder in the elderly with no defined etiology or effective therapy. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and deposition of myostatin, a secreted negative regulator of muscle growth, have been implicated in disease pathology. The myostatin signaling pathway has emerged as a major target for symptomatic treatment of muscle atrophy. Here, we systematically analyzed the maturation and secretion of myostatin precursor MstnPP and its metabolites in a human muscle cell line...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
D K Boruah, A Prakash, B B Gogoi, R R Yadav, D D Dhingani, B Sarma
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hirayama disease is a benign focal amyotrophy of the distal upper limbs involving C7, C8, and T1 segmental myotomes with sparing of the brachioradialis and proximal muscles of the upper limb innervated by C5-6 myotomes. The objective of the present study was to study the utility of MR imaging in young patients presenting with weakness and wasting of the distal upper extremity and to evaluate the importance of the laminodural space during flexion cervical MR imaging...
March 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Laura Jeacock, Joana Faria, David Horn
Protein abundance differs from a few to millions of copies per cell. Trypanosoma brucei presents an excellent model for studies on codon bias and differential gene expression because transcription is broadly unregulated and uniform across the genome. T. brucei is also a major human and animal protozoal pathogen. Here, an experimental assessment, using synthetic reporter genes, revealed that GC3 codons have a major positive impact on both mRNA and protein abundance. Our estimates of relative expression, based on coding sequences alone (codon usage and sequence length), are within 2-fold of the observed values for the majority of measured cellular mRNAs (n>7000) and proteins (n>2000)...
March 15, 2018: ELife
Rong-Ming Lyu, Alan Cowan, Ying Zhang, Yi-Hung Chen, Siok L Dun, Jaw-Kang Chang, Nae J Dun, Jin Jun Luo
In this brief review we summarize the current fndings relative to the discovery of a small peptide ligand, phoenixin (PNX). Using a bioinformatic approach, two novel peptides PNX-14 and PNX-20 containing 14 and 20 amino acids, respectively, were isolated from diverse tissues including the brain, heart, lung and stomach. Mass spectrometry analysis identified a major and minor peak corresponding to PNX-14 and PNX-20, in rat or mouse spinal cord extracts. With the use of a rabbit polyclonal antiserum, phoenixin immunoreactivity (irPNX) was detected in discrete areas of the rodent brain including several hypothalamic subnuclei and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Lambros Kordelas, Fabiola da Silva Nardi, Bettina Wagner, Markus Ditschkowski, Tobias Liebregts, Monika Lindemann, Falko M Heinemann, Peter A Horn, Dietrich W Beelen, Vera Rebmann
HLA-G is a non-classical class I molecule which induces tolerance in allogeneic situations by inhibition of cytotoxic NK and CD8 + T cells and by induction of regulatory T cells. Concordantly, in solid organ transplantation HLA-G is associated with a lower risk for acute and chronic rejection, whereas its role in allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is less established. We here present detailed analyses of HLA-G-levels in patients after allo-SCT showing a correlation of elevated soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) levels with less severe acute (p = 0...
March 14, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Zachary Curry, Jenny Wilkerson, Deniz Bagdas, Sarah Kyte, Nipa Patel, Giulia Donvito, Mohammed A Mustafa, Justin Poklis, Micah Niphakis, Ku-Lung Hsu, Benjamin F Cravatt, David A Gewirtz, M Imad Damaj, Aron H Lichtman
Although paclitaxel effectively treats various cancers, its debilitating peripheral neuropathic pain side effects often persist long after treatment has ended. Therefore, a compelling need exists for the identification of novel pharmacologic strategies to mitigate this condition. As inhibitors of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary hydrolytic enzyme of the endogenous cannabinoid 2-arachidonyolglycerol, produce antinociceptive effects in numerous rodent models of pain, we investigated whether inhibitors of this enzyme (i...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Michael E Wyde, Thomas L Horn, Myles H Capstick, John M Ladbury, Galen Koepke, Perry F Wilson, Grace E Kissling, Matthew D Stout, Niels Kuster, Ronald L Melnick, James Gauger, John R Bucher, David L McCormick
Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) causes heating, which can lead to detrimental biological effects. To characterize the effects of RFR exposure on body temperature in relation to animal size and pregnancy, a series of short-term toxicity studies was conducted in a unique RFR exposure system. Young and old B6C3F1 mice and young, old, and pregnant Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) or Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) RFR (rats = 900 MHz, mice = 1,900 MHz) at specific absorption rates (SARs) up to 12 W/kg for approximately 9 h a day for 5 days...
March 14, 2018: Bioelectromagnetics
David J Eve, George Steiner, Ajay Mahendrasah, Paul R Sanberg, Crupa Kurien, Avery Thomson, Cesar V Borlongan, Svitlana Garbuzova-Davis
Blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) alterations, including capillary rupture, have been demonstrated in animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ALS patients. To date, treatment to restore BSCB in ALS is underexplored. Here, we evaluated whether intravenous transplantation of human bone marrow CD34+ (hBM34+ ) cells into symptomatic ALS mice leads to restoration of capillary integrity in the spinal cord as determined by detection of microhemorrhages. Three different doses of hBM34+ cells (5 × 104 , 5 × 105 or 1 × 106 ) or media were intravenously injected into symptomatic G93A SOD1 mice at 13 weeks of age...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Benjamin D Horne, Joseph B Muhlestein, Durgesh Bhandary, Greta L Hoetzer, Naeem D Khan, Tami L Bair, Donald L Lappé
Objective: Post-myocardial infarction (MI) care is crucial to preventing recurrent major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), but can be complicated to personalise. A tool is needed that effectively stratifies risk of cardiovascular (CV) events 1-3 years after MI but is also clinically usable. Methods: Patients surviving ≥1 year after an index MI with ≥1 risk factor for recurrent MI (ie, age ≥65 years, prior MI, multivessel coronary disease, diabetes, glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1...
2018: Open Heart
Esteban Arrieta-Bolaños, Pietro Crivello, Maximilian Metzing, Thuja Meurer, Müberra Ahci, Julie Rytlewski, Marissa Vignali, Erik Yusko, Peter van Balen, Peter A Horn, J H Frederik Falkenburg, Katharina Fleischhauer
T cell alloreactivity is mediated by a self-human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire able to recognize both structurally similar and dissimilar allogeneic HLA molecules (i.e., differing by a single or several amino acids in their peptide-binding groove). We hypothesized that thymic selection on self-HLA molecules could have an indirect impact on the size and diversity of the alloreactive response. To test this possibility, we used TCR Vβ immunophenotyping and immunosequencing technology in a model of alloreactivity between self-HLA selected T cells and allogeneic HLA-DPB1 (DPB1) differing from self-DPB1*04:02 by a single (DPB1*02:01) or several (DPB1*09:01) amino acids in the peptide-binding groove...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Moritz Horn, Virginia Kroef, Kira Allmeroth, Nicole Schuller, Stephan Miethe, Martin Peifer, Josef M Penninger, Ulrich Elling, Martin S Denzel
Forward genetic screens in haploid mammalian cells have recently emerged as powerful tools for the discovery and investigation of recessive traits. Use of the haploid system provides unique genetic tractability and resolution. Upon positive selection, these screens typically employ analysis of loss-of-function (LOF) alleles and are thus limited to non-essential genes. Many relevant compounds, including anti-cancer therapeutics, however, target essential genes, precluding positive selection of LOF alleles. Here, we asked whether the use of random and saturating chemical mutagenesis might enable screens that identify essential biological targets of toxic compounds...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Marcel Hörning, Masaki Nakahata, Philipp Linke, Akihisa Yamamoto, Mariam Veschgini, Stefan Kaufmann, Yoshinori Takashima, Akira Harada, Motomu Tanaka
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eric K Singhi, Leora Horn
Despite significant advancements in the treatment of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) since the advent of crizotinib, the development of acquired resistance and poor CNS efficacy have necessitated the search for novel and more robust therapies. Ensartinib (X-396) is a novel second-generation ALK-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that holds much clinical promise. Preclinical data have demonstrated increased potency of the drug as compared with crizotinib and other second-generation ALK-TKI therapies such as alectinib and ceritinib...
March 6, 2018: Future Oncology
Neil J Stewart, Ho-Fung Chan, Paul J C Hughes, Felix C Horn, Graham Norquay, Madhwesha Rao, Denise P Yates, Rob H Ireland, Matthew Q Hatton, Bilal A Tahir, Paul Ford, Andrew J Swift, Rod Lawson, Helen Marshall, Guilhem J Collier, Jim M Wild
BACKGROUND: To support translational lung MRI research with hyperpolarized129 Xe gas, comprehensive evaluation of derived quantitative lung function measures against established measures from3 He MRI is required. Few comparative studies have been performed to date, only at 3T, and multisession repeatability of129 Xe functional metrics have not been reported. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: To compare hyperpolarized129 Xe and3 He MRI-derived quantitative metrics of lung ventilation and microstructure, and their repeatability, at 1...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
M J Kienitz, B J Heins, R D Moon
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial vacuum fly trap (CowVac, Spalding Laboratories, Reno, NV) in on-farm organic dairy production systems to control horn flies, stable flies, and face flies. As cows walk through the trap, flies are brushed off the face, flank, and back with hanging flaps and blown off the belly, udder, and legs from one side, and then vacuumed from the air into a chamber from vacuum inlets opposite the blower and above the cow. The study included 8 organic dairy farms during the summer of 2015 in Minnesota, and herds ranged from 30 to 350 cows in size...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Aglaia Domouchtsidou, Vahé Barsegian, Stefan P Mueller, Jan Best, Judith Ertle, Sotiria Bedreli, Peter A Horn, Andreas Bockisch, Monika Lindemann
The purpose of our study was to assess the immune function of patients with inoperable hepatic malignancies after treatment with selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) and to identify possible correlations with clinical parameters. In 25 patients receiving SIRT lymphocyte proliferation and the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ and interleukin-10) after stimulation with mitogens and microbial antigens were tested prior to therapy, directly after therapy (day 1) and at day 2, 7 and 28 post therapy using the lymphocyte transformation test and enzyme-linked immunospot assays...
March 2, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Syed F Ahmad, Jeremy K Brown, Lisa L Campbell, Magda Koscielniak, Catriona Oliver, Nick Wheelhouse, Gary Entrican, Stuart McFee, Gillian S Wills, Myra O McClure, Patrick J Horner, Sevasti Gaikoumelou, Kai F Lee, Hilary O D Critchley, W Colin Duncan, Andrew W Horne
Tubal ectopic pregnancies are a leading cause of global maternal morbidity and mortality. Previous infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is a major risk factor for tubal embryo implantation but the biological mechanism behind this association is unclear. Successful intra-uterine embryo implantation is associated with increased expression of endometrial "receptivity" integrins (cell adhesion molecules). We examined integrin expression in Fallopian tubes of women with previous C. trachomatis infection, in mice experimentally infected with C...
February 23, 2018: EBioMedicine
Silvia M S Sandes, Luana Heimfarth, Renan G Brito, Priscila L Santos, Daniele N Gouveia, Alexandra M S Carvalho, Jullyana S S Quintans, Edeildo F da Silva-Júnior, Thiago M de Aquino, Paulo H B França, João X de Araújo-Júnior, Ricardo L C Albuquerque-Júnior, Gokhan Zengin, Martine Schmitt, Jean-Jacques Bourguignon, Lucindo J Quintans-Júnior
BACKGROUND: Indole-3-guanylhydrazone hydrochloride (LQM01) is a new derivative of aminoguanidine hydrochloride, an aromatic aminoguanidine. METHODS: Mice were treated with LQM01 (5, 10, 25 or 50 mg/kg, i.p.), vehicle (0.9% saline i.p.) or a standard drug. The mice were subjected to carrageenan-induced pleurisy, abdominal writhing induced by acetic acid, the formalin test and the hot-plate test. The model of non-inflammatory chronic muscle pain induced by saline acid was also used...
February 27, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
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