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Andrew W Brown, Kathryn A Kaiser, David B Allison
Some aspects of science, taken at the broadest level, are universal in empirical research. These include collecting, analyzing, and reporting data. In each of these aspects, errors can and do occur. In this work, we first discuss the importance of focusing on statistical and data errors to continually improve the practice of science. We then describe underlying themes of the types of errors and postulate contributing factors. To do so, we describe a case series of relatively severe data and statistical errors coupled with surveys of some types of errors to better characterize the magnitude, frequency, and trends...
March 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Andrew C Porter, Rachel L Zelkowitz, David A Cole
This study examined the unique associations of shame-proneness and self-criticism to symptoms of disordered eating and depression among 186 undergraduate students. The study also tested the degree to which self-criticism and shame-proneness accounted for the association between disordered eating and depressive symptoms. Both shame-proneness and self-criticism were significantly related to disordered eating and depressive symptoms. Self-criticism was significantly associated with disordered eating and depressive symptoms, over-and-above shame-proneness, but the reverse was not true...
March 3, 2018: Eating Behaviors
María de Los Ángeles Quiroga
This study addresses the epidemiology of risk factors and personality traits in adolescents of 16 and 17 years of age, charged with homicide, with a focus on analyzing psychic functioning, socio-demographic variables and family constitution. This is a longitudinal, retrospective and inferential study of the psychiatric assessments of several subjects who were interviewed in the Family Courts of the province of Mendoza. The hypothesis states that adolescents who have violent behavior, impulsivity and diffculty in complying with rules, do so as a result of having been victims of violence in an inadequate family environment...
November 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Rachel L Zelkowitz, David A Cole
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and disordered eating (DE) are highly comorbid and may be regarded as belonging to a spectrum of self-harm behaviors. We investigated self-criticism as a transdiagnostic correlate of these behaviors, in keeping with etiological theories of both NSSI and DE. We reviewed the literature and meta-analyzed the relation of self-criticism to both NSSI (15 studies; 17 effect sizes) and DE (24 studies; 29 effect sizes). Results showed equivalent, moderate-to-large effects for the relation of self-criticism to NSSI (r = ...
March 5, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Alex R Kelman, Benjamin S Evare, Alinne Z Barrera, Ricardo F Muñoz, Paul Gilbert
OBJECTIVE: Depression is a prevalent and costly mental health problem that affects women as well as their larger communities, with substantial impacts on mother and infant during childbearing years. Face-to-face care has not adequately addressed this global concern due to difficulties in scaling these resources. Internet interventions, which can provide psychological tools to those lacking adequate access, show promise in filling this void. METHOD: We conducted a 2-condition proof-of-concept pilot randomized trial comparing brief Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and brief Internet-based compassionate mind training (CMT) for women who are currently pregnant, became pregnant within the last year, and intend to become pregnant in the future...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Ana Carolina Gois, Cláudia Ferreira, Ana Laura Mendes
In research, it has been suggested that early threatening emotional experiences, characterized by abuse, rejection, neglect or absence of affiliative signals may activate maladaptive defensive responses. Further, several studies have emphasised the association between the recall of early emotional experiences and eating psychopathology. However, this relationship does not seem to be direct. Thus, the current study explored the mediator roles of self-criticism and shame (general and body image-focused shame) in the link between early emotional experiences and the engagement in disordered eating, while controlling for the effect of body mass index...
January 29, 2018: Appetite
Ann Haberman, Ben Shahar, Eran Bar-Kalifa, Sigal Zilcha-Mano, Gary M Diamond
OBJECTIVE: This study examined purported change mechanisms in emotion-focused therapy for social anxiety disorder. METHODS: The sample included nine clients who had participated in a multiple-baseline case study trial examining the efficacy of emotion-focused therapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Multilevel analyses were conducted to examine the trajectories of emotions over the course of treatment, and whether primary adaptive emotions in a given session predicted levels of SAD symptoms, self-criticism, and self-reassurance over the course of the following week...
January 24, 2018: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
Alexandra V Rose, Katharine A Rimes
PURPOSE: Self-criticism is a transdiagnostic process that has been attracting research and clinical interest. The accurate measurement of this construct is therefore crucial; however, there are currently numerous measures of self-criticism and no guidelines about which to use in different contexts. This systematic review evaluated the measurement properties of self-report questionnaires of self-criticism. METHODS: OvidSP and Web of Science were used to search through multiple databases, and an initial grey literature search was completed...
January 18, 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Iona Naismith, Amanda Mwale, Janet Feigenbaum
BACKGROUND: Compassion-focused therapy (CFT) has potential to benefit clients with a personality disorder (PD), given the inflated levels of shame and self-criticism in this population. However, clinical observation indicates that clients with PD may find techniques from this approach challenging. AIMS: The aim of this study is to trial one aspect of CFT, compassion-focused imagery (CFI), with this population, and identify factors that predict clients' ability to generate CFI and experience self-compassion during the task, including type of CFI exercise and, second, to establish whether CFI outcomes increase with practice...
December 18, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Graziano Serrao, Massimo Tassoni, Alberto M Magenta-Biasina, Antonio Giuseppe Mantero, Antonino Previtera, Michela Crisitna Turci, Elia Mario Biganzoli, Emanuela A M Bertolini
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess the educational plan of first-year students of medicine by analyzing their scores in ultrasound body scanning. Methods: Since 2009, the San Paolo Medical School (Milan, Italy) has vertically integrated the study of anatomy with ultrasound-assisted virtual body dissection. Three modules were supplied: musculoskeletal system, heart and abdomen pelvis. 653 first-year students were trained. The students alternated as mutual model and operator...
September 2017: Ultrasound International Open
Kathryn R Fox, Jessica D Ribeiro, Evan M Kleiman, Jill M Hooley, Matthew K Nock, Joseph C Franklin
Few risk factors for nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) have been identified. This study investigated diminished aversion toward self-injury (i.e., NSSI, suicide/death stimuli) and self-criticism as unique NSSI risk factors. After terminating a treatment study, 154 adults with a recent and frequent NSSI history completed self-report and computer-based measures of psychopathology, implicit and explicit self-criticism, and implicit aversion to NSSI and suicide/death. Participants were then contacted 4 weeks later to test factors predicting NSSI frequency over this follow-up period...
December 1, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Golan Shahar, Sheera F Lerman, Maayan Topaz, Silviu Brill, Hadar Shalev, Zvia Rudich
OBJECTIVE: Chronic physical pain is one of modern medicine's principal challenges. Recently, there has been a keen research interest in the role of depressive personality vulnerability (DPV) in the course of chronic pain. This is the first attempt to examine the role of three leading DPV dimensions-sociotropy, autonomy, and self-criticism-in chronic pain. METHOD: Chronic pain patients (N = 428) were assessed four times as to their pain, disability, anxious depression, and pain-based catastrophizing...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Personality
Kenichi Asano, Haruna Koike, Yuriko Shinohara, Hiromi Kamimori, Akiko Nakagawa, Masaomi Iyo, Eiji Shimizu
OBJECTIVE: Depression is a representative mental problem, and more than 350 million people are suffering in the world. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in individual or group formats is mainly recommended in major guidelines. However, patients with high self-criticism have a poor response to CBT. To treat such patients, psychotherapies focusing on compassion are gaining attention. Although trials have begun to be reported, there are relatively few studies examining the effectiveness of group CBT with compassion work for managing depression...
December 4, 2017: BMC Research Notes
Moitree Banerjee, Kate Cavanagh, Clara Strauss
In order to increase the cost-efficiency, availability and ease of accessing and delivering mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), clinical and research interest in mindfulness-based self-help (MBSH) interventions has increased in recent years. Several studies have shown promising results of effectiveness of MBSH. However, like all self-help interventions, dropout rates and disengagement from MBSH are high. The current study explored the facilitators and barriers of engaging in a MBSH intervention. Semi-structured interviews with members of healthcare staff who took part in an MBSH intervention ( n  = 16) were conducted...
2017: Mindfulness
Leah M Schumacher, Gerald J Martin, Stephanie P Goldstein, Stephanie M Manasse, Ross D Crosby, Meghan L Butryn, Jason Lillis, Evan M Forman
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether self-attitudes and self-efficacy after dietary lapses relate to lapse frequency or predict risk for lapsing again on the same day. METHOD: Adults with overweight/obesity (n = 91) completed ecological momentary assessment for 14 days at the start of a lifestyle modification program. At each survey, participants reported whether they had experienced a dietary lapse, and, if so, reported their self-attitudes (i.e., self-criticism, self-forgiveness, self-regard) and self-efficacy...
February 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Daniel C Kopala-Sibley, Daniel N Klein, Greg Perlman, Roman Kotov
There is substantial evidence that personality traits, such as self-criticism and dependency, predict the development of depression and anxiety symptoms, as well as depressive episodes. However, it is unknown whether self-criticism and dependency predict the first onset of depressive and anxiety disorders, and unclear how to characterize dynamic mechanisms by which these traits, stressful life events, and psychopathology influence one another over time. In this study, 550 female adolescents were assessed at baseline, 528 and 513 of whom were assessed again at Waves 2 and 3, respectively, over the course of 18 months...
November 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Lisa McLean, Stanley R Steindl, Matthew Bambling
Child sexual abuse can have long-term negative impacts across psychological, physical, and interpersonal domains. Some of the common issues for survivors of sexual abuse include shame and self-blame, attachment-based difficulties, avoidant coping strategies, and reduced capacity for self-compassion. Compassion-focused therapy is a transdiagnostic intervention that specifically responds to these concerns. Compassion-focused therapy was originally developed for clients who experience high levels of shame and self-criticism and aims to strengthen the soothing and affiliative system through the cultivation of compassion...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Charlotte M Handford, Ronald M Rapee, Jasmine Fardouly
Research suggests that mothers may influence the development of body image concerns and eating disturbances in their daughters by modeling negative body image beliefs and unhealthy eating behaviors. However, the causal nature of that mode of influence is yet to be established. This study implemented an experimental design to examine the impact of mothers' modeling of negative comments about their own appearance and diet on their daughters' body image concerns and eating behaviors. Participants were 8-12 year old girls and their mothers (N = 50)...
November 6, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Sharath Chandra Guntuku, J Russell Ramsay, Raina M Merchant, Lyle H Ungar
OBJECTIVE: We computationally analyze the language of social media users diagnosed with ADHD to understand what they talk about, and how their language is correlated with users' characteristics such as personality and temporal orientation. METHOD: We analyzed approximately 1.3 million tweets written by 1,399 Twitter users with self-reported diagnoses of ADHD, comparing their posts with those used by a control set matched by age, gender, and period of activity. RESULTS: Users with ADHD are found to be less agreeable, more open, to post more often, and to use more negations, hedging, and swear words...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
David S Basser
BACKGROUND: As suggested by Shook and Giordano, understanding and therefore addressing the urgent international governance issues around globalizing bio-medical/technology research and applications is limited by the perception of the underlying science. METHODS: A philosophical methodology is used, based on novel and classical philosophical reflection upon existent literature, clinical wisdoms and narrative theory to discover a meta-science and telos of humankind for the development of a relevant and defendable global biomedical bioethics...
November 7, 2017: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
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