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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727759/use-of-a-microfluidic-platform-to-uncover-basic-features-of-energy-and-environmental-stress-responses-in-individual-cells-of-bacillus-subtilis
#1
Matthew T Cabeen, Jonathan R Russell, Johan Paulsson, Richard Losick
Bacteria use a variety of stress-sensing systems to sense and respond to diverse stressors and to ensure their survival under adverse conditions. The gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis responds to energy stress (ATP depletion) and to environmental stressors using two distinct stress-sensing pathways that converge on the alternative sigma factor σB to provoke a general stress response. Past efforts to study the σB stress response in bulk culture and on agarose pads were unable to visualize the responses of individual cells under tightly controlled conditions for extended periods of time...
July 20, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727118/technical-note-assessment-of-an-alternative-technique-for-measuring-body-temperature-in-pigs
#2
A Petry, W McGilvray, A R Rakhshandeh, A Rakhshandeh
Core body temperature (CBT) is one of the main vital signs that is used to evaluate the health status of pigs. The most common and feasible method for assessing CBT in pigs is rectal temperature (RT). Obtaining RT is stressful for animals, may generate inaccurate results, and has the risk of spreading disease. Infrared imaging (IR) thermography of the body of pigs may be a safer and less stressful alternative to RT. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of using IR as an alternative for monitoring CBT in pigs...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726732/characterization-of-the-dioscorin-gene-family-in-dioscorea-alata-reveals-a-role-in-tuber-development-and-environmental-response
#3
Linya Liu, Yacheng Huang, Xiaolong Huang, Jianghua Yang, Wenqiang Wu, Yun Xu, Ziwen Cong, Jun Xie, Wei Xia, Dongyi Huang
Dioscorin is one of the major soluble proteins in yam tubers. Unlike other well-known plant storage proteins, such as patatin and sporamin, dioscorin is argued for its function as storage proteins, and the molecular mechanisms underlying its expressional complexity are little understood. In this study, we isolated five dioscorin genes from Dioscorea alata L., comprising three class A (Da-dio1, -3 and -4) and two class B (Da-dio2 and -5) isoforms. Expressions of all dioscorin genes gradually decreased in mother tubers during yam sprouting and regrowth...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726715/overexpression-of-the-osimp-gene-increases-the-accumulation-of-inositol-and-confers-enhanced-cold-tolerance-in-tobacco-through-modulation-of-the-antioxidant-enzymes-activities
#4
Rong-Xiang Zhang, Li-Jun Qin, De-Gang Zhao
Inositol is a cyclic polyol that is involved in various physiological processes, including signal transduction and stress adaptation in plants. l-myo-inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) is one of the metal-dependent phosphatase family members and catalyzes the last reaction step of biosynthesis of inositol. Although increased IMPase activity induced by abiotic stress has been reported in chickpea plants, the role and regulation of the IMP gene in rice (Oryza sativa L.) remains poorly understood. In the present work, we obtained a full-length cDNA sequence coding IMPase in the cold tolerant rice landraces in Gaogonggui, which is named as OsIMP...
July 20, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726639/mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-in-drosophila-transfers-calcium-between-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-mitochondria-in-oxidative-stress-induced-cell-death
#5
Sekyu Choi, Xianglan Quan, Sunhoe Bang, Heesuk Yoo, Jiyoung Kim, Jiwon Park, Kyu-Sang Park, Jongkyeong Chung
Mitochondrial calcium plays critical roles in diverse cellular processes ranging from energy metabolism to cell death. Previous studies have demonstrated that mitochondrial calcium uptake is mainly mediated by the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) complex. However, the roles of the MCU complex in calcium transport, signaling, and dysregulation by oxidative stress still remain unclear. Here, we confirmed that Drosophila MCU contains evolutionarily conserved structures and requires essential MCU regulator (EMRE) for its calcium channel activities...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726295/antioxidant-defense-and-oxidative-damage-vary-widely-among-high-altitude-residents
#6
Allison J Janocha, Suzy A A Comhair, Buddha Basnyat, Maniraj Neupane, Amha Gebremedhin, Anam Khan, Kristin S Ricci, Renliang Zhang, Serpil C Erzurum, Cynthia M Beall
OBJECTIVES: People living at high altitude experience unavoidable low oxygen levels (hypoxia). While acute hypoxia causes an increase in oxidative stress and damage despite higher antioxidant activity, the consequences of chronic hypoxia are poorly understood. The aim of the present study is to assess antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in high-altitude natives and upward migrants. METHODS: Individuals from two indigenous high-altitude populations (Amhara, n = 39), (Sherpa, n = 34), one multigenerational high-altitude population (Oromo, n = 42), one upward migrant population (Nepali, n = 12), and two low-altitude reference populations (Amhara, n = 29; Oromo, n = 18) provided plasma for measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity as a marker of antioxidant capacity, and urine for measurement of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a marker of DNA oxidative damage...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725626/evaluation-of-anticancer-activity-of-cordia-dichotoma-leaves-against-a-human-prostate-carcinoma-cell-line-pc3
#7
Md Azizur Rahman, Sahabjada, Juber Akhtar
Mechanisms of antioxidant and apoptosis induction may be involved in the management of cancer by medicinal plants. Aim of the study was designed to evaluate anticancer activity of the methanolic extract of Cordia dichotoma leaves (MECD) against a human prostate carcinoma cell line, PC3. Flavonoid content was determined by colorimetric principle and antioxidant activity by various in vitro assays. MTT, DCFH-DA and DAPI staining assays were performed for the evaluation of cytotoxicity, analysis of induction of apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity level by MECD against human prostate carcinoma cell line, PC3...
July 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724793/a-bag3-chaperone-complex-maintains-cardiomyocyte-function-during-proteotoxic-stress
#8
Luke M Judge, Juan A Perez-Bermejo, Annie Truong, Alexandre Js Ribeiro, Jennie C Yoo, Christina L Jensen, Mohammad A Mandegar, Nathaniel Huebsch, Robyn M Kaake, Po-Lin So, Deepak Srivastava, Beth L Pruitt, Nevan J Krogan, Bruce R Conklin
Molecular chaperones regulate quality control in the human proteome, pathways that have been implicated in many diseases, including heart failure. Mutations in the BAG3 gene, which encodes a co-chaperone protein, have been associated with heart failure due to both inherited and sporadic dilated cardiomyopathy. Familial BAG3 mutations are autosomal dominant and frequently cause truncation of the coding sequence, suggesting a heterozygous loss-of-function mechanism. However, heterozygous knockout of the murine BAG3 gene did not cause a detectable phenotype...
July 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724770/rgs-cam-detects-and-counteracts-viral-rna-silencing-suppressors-in-plant-immune-priming
#9
Eun Jin Jeon, Kazuki Tadamura, Taiki Murakami, Jun-Ichi Inaba, Bo Min Kim, Masako Sato, Go Atsumi, Kazuyuki Kuchitsu, Chikara Masuta, Kenji S Nakahara
Primary infection of a plant with a pathogen that causes high accumulation of salicylic acid in the plant typically via a hypersensitive response confers enhanced resistance against secondary infection with a broad spectrum of pathogens, including viruses. This phenomenon is called systemic acquired resistance (SAR), which is a plant-priming for adaption to repeated biotic stress. However, the molecular mechanisms of SAR-mediated enhanced inhibition, especially of virus infection, remain unclear. Here, we show that SAR against cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum) involves a calmodulin-like protein, rgs-CaM...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723625/2-acetylamino-3-4-2-acetylamino-2-carboxyethylsulfanylcarbonylamino-phenyl-carbamoylsulfanyl-propionic-acid-a-glutathione-reductase-inhibitor-induces-g2-m-cell-cycle-arrest-through-generation-of-thiol-oxidative-stress-in-human-esophageal-cancer-cells
#10
Xia Li, Zhiming Jiang, Jianguo Feng, Xiaoying Zhang, Junzhou Wu, Wei Chen
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a highly malignant cancer with poor response to both of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. 2-Acetylamino-3-[4-(2-acetylamino-2-carboxyethylsulfanylcarbonylamino) phenyl carbamoylsulfanyl] propionic acid (2-AAPA), an irreversible inhibitor of glutathione reductase (GR), is able to induce intracellular oxidative stress, and has shown anticancer activity in many cancer cell lines. In this study, we investigated the effects of 2-AAPA on the cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis and aimed to explore its mechanism of action in human esophageal cancer TE-13 cells...
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723568/loss-of-hepatic-mitochondrial-long-chain-fatty-acid-oxidation-confers-resistance-to-diet-induced-obesity-and-glucose-intolerance
#11
Jieun Lee, Joseph Choi, Ebru S Selen Alpergin, Liang Zhao, Thomas Hartung, Susanna Scafidi, Ryan C Riddle, Michael J Wolfgang
The liver has a large capacity for mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, which is critical for systemic metabolic adaptations such as gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis. To understand the role of hepatic fatty acid oxidation in response to a chronic high-fat diet (HFD), we generated mice with a liver-specific deficiency of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation (Cpt2(L-/-) mice). Paradoxically, Cpt2(L-/-) mice were resistant to HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance with an absence of liver damage, although they exhibited serum dyslipidemia, hepatic oxidative stress, and systemic carnitine deficiency...
July 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723153/understanding-the-reactivity-of-co3-%C3%A2-and-no2-%C3%A2-radicals-towards-s-containing-and-aromatic-amino-acids
#12
Sharmistha Karmakar, Ayan Datta
The reactivity of CO3-(.) and NO2(.) radicals towards six amino acid side chains namely, cysteine (Cys), methionine (Met), phenylalanine (Phe), tyrosine (Tyr), histidine (His) and tryptophan (Trp), has been explored using state-of-art density functional theory (DFT) and transition state theory (TST). Three reaction mechanisms, namely hydrogen atom abstraction (HAT), radical adduct formation (RAF) and single electron transfer (SET) have been considered for detailed study. While CO3-(.) radical is highly reactive towards majority of amino acids, the reactivity of NO2(...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721813/mechanisms-involved-in-the-increased-hemolysis-in-the-fetus-and-newborn
#13
Giuseppe Buonocore, Serafina Perrone, Rodolfo Bracci
BACKGROUND: The suicidal death of erythrocytes should be considered a possible cause of hemolysis and plasma bilirubin overload when there is no evidence of an immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, no consumptive red blood cell disorder, no morphologic or laboratory data to suggest a problem of the red cell membrane, and no evidence of a quantitative or qualitative defect in hemoglobin synthesis. OBJECTIVE: In neonatal period, xenobiotics, cytokines, osmotic shock, energy depletion, oxidative stress, and variation of temperature may induce an alteration of balance between damaging and protecting factors which can be followed by red cell death...
July 18, 2017: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721361/role-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-learning-and-memory-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease-like-neuropathology-in-the-ps19-and-app-swe-mouse-models-of-tauopathy-and-amyloidosis
#14
Denise Isabelle Briggs, Erwin Defensor, Pooneh Memar Ardestani, Bitna Yi, Michelle Halpain, Guy Seabrook, Mehrdad Shamloo
Emerging evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, pharmacological modulation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2 (eIF2α) pathway was achieved using an integrated stress response inhibitor (ISRIB). While members of this signaling cascade have been suggested as potential therapeutic targets for neurodegeneration, the biological significance of this pathway has not been comprehensively assessed in animal models of AD...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721144/clinical-implications-of-plasma-nogo-a-levels-in-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease
#15
Yu Ding, Bei-Bei Gao, Liang Zhou, Xian-Hua Ye, Hong Li, Lei Lai, Jin-Yu Huang
INTRODUCTION: Nogo-A is an important neurite growth-regulatory protein in the adult and developing nervous system. Recently, increasing evidence has shown that Nogo-A plays important roles in cardiac development and may act as a potential indicator for heart failure. In addition, increased oxidative stress has been found in individuals with cardiovascular diseases. However, not much is known regarding the expression levels of Nogo-A and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD)...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720385/differences-of-lipid-membrane-modulation-and-oxidative-stress-by-digoxin-and-21-benzylidene-digoxin
#16
Lilian Nd Silva, Silmara Lg Alves, Jessica Venugopal, Vanessa F Cortes, Herica L Santos, José Afp Villar, Leandro A Barbosa
Cardiotonic steroids (CTS) are compounds which bind to the Na,K-ATPase, leading to its inhibition and in some cases initiating signaling cascades. Long utilized as a treatment for congestive heart disease, CTS have more recently been observed to inhibit proliferation and cause apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. A synthetic derivative of the CTS digoxin, called 21-benzylidene digoxin (21-BD), activates the Na,K-ATPase rather than cause its inhibition, as its parent compound does. Here, the mechanism behind the unique effects of 21-BD are further explored...
July 15, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720286/stress-generation-during-pecking-motion-of-rotary-nickel-titanium-instruments-with-different-pecking-depth
#17
Jung-Hong Ha, Sang Won Kwak, Asgeir Sigurdsson, Seok Woo Chang, Sung Kyo Kim, Hyeon-Cheol Kim
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different pecking depth on the stress generated by the screw-in forces of a rotating endodontic file in simulated canals. METHODS: Twenty simulated resin blocks with a J-shaped curvature were used. Twenty OneG files (MicroMega, Besançon, France) were assigned for a screw-in test depending on the pecking depth in 2 groups (n = 10). The files were operated at 300 rpm, and the up and down speed was controlled at 1 mm/s stroke velocity and a 10-millisecond dwell time using a customized device...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720279/metabolomic-analysis-identifies-altered-metabolic-pathways-in-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Simone Poddighe, Federica Murgia, Lorena Lorefice, Sonia Liggi, Eleonora Cocco, Maria Giovanna Marrosu, Luigi Atzori
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, demyelinating disease that affects the central nervous system and is characterized by a complex pathogenesis and difficult management. The identification of new biomarkers would be clinically useful for more accurate diagnoses and disease monitoring. Metabolomics, the identification of small endogenous molecules in, offers an instantaneous molecular snapshot of the MS phenotype. Here the metabolomic profiles (utilizing plasma from patients with MS) were characterized with a Gas cromatography-mass spectrometry-based platform followed by a multivariate statistical analysis and comparison with a healthy control (HC) population...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719995/biomechanics-of-the-proximal-radius-following-drilling-of-the-bicipital-tuberosity-to-mimic-cortical-button-distal-biceps-repair-technique
#19
Nikhil R Oak, John R Lien, Alexander Brunfeldt, Jeffrey N Lawton
BACKGROUND: A fracture through the proximal radius is a theoretical concern after cortical button distal biceps fixation in an active patient. The permanent, nonossified cortical defect and medullary tunnel is at risk during a fall eliciting rotational and compressive forces. We hypothesized that during simulated torsion and compression, in comparison with unaltered specimens, the cortical button distal biceps repair model would have decreased torsional and compressive strength and would fracture in the vicinity of the bicipital tuberosity bone tunnel...
March 1, 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719569/stress-analysis-of-zygomatic-implants-on-the-augmented-maxillary-sinus-is-it-necessary-to-graft
#20
Süleyman Kaman, Fethi Atıl, Umut Tekin, Ozkan Ozgul, Mustafa Ercument Önder, Seda Yılmaz, Hamiyet Gungor, Ismail Doruk Kocyigit
PURPOSE: Zygomatic implants are becoming an ideal therapy with advanced implant-supported prosthetic treatment for the posterior atrophic maxilla. The purpose of this study is to examine the quantity and distribution of stress, which was caused by zygomatic implants placed using intrasinus method with or without augmentation to the atrophic posterior maxilla. MATERIALS & METHODS: In this study, 3-dimensional atrophic edentulous maxilla models with and without sinus augmentation are designed with computer-aided programs...
July 17, 2017: Implant Dentistry
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