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Stress Generation

Ya Nan Ruan, Sheng Xu, Long Guo, Ming Zhu Zhu, Cong Wang, Shu Yuan Li, Hong Yan Wang
By using the open top chambers (OTCs) fumigation method, this paper investigated the changes of foliar injury, level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activities and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in Ginkgo biloba leaves under different ozone (ambient ozone≈40, 80, 160, 200 nmol·mol-1 ) concentrations, in order to study the effects of elevated ozone (O3 ) concentrations on reactive metabolism. The results showed that the obvious foliar injuries were observed in 160 and 200 nmol·mol-1 O3 treatments, while no visible injury was observed in 80 nmol·mol-1 O3 and ambient O3 treatments...
November 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Li Jie Li, Wan Rong Gu, Yao Meng, Yue Li Wang, Jun Yi Mu, Jing Li, Shi Wei
To explore the role of exogenous spermidine (Spd) in enhancing the resistance of maize to drought stress, 15% polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) was used to simulate drought stress and with 'Xianyu 335' (drought-insensitive) and 'Fenghe 1' (drought sensitive) as the experiment materials, the effects of Spd (0.1 mmol·L-1 ) on the growth, photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll content, osmotic adjustment substance, membrane lipid peroxidation and root activity of maize seedlings were investigated. The results showed that the application of Spd significantly promoted the growth of maize seedlings under drought stress, increased chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn ), stomatal conductance (gs ), transpiration rate (Tr ) and water use efficiency (WUE), and decreased the enhancement of intercellular carbon dioxide concentration (Ci ) in 'Fenghe 1'...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Jing Yao, Xing Yuan He, Wei Chen
Ecosystem service flow is the key point and difficulty of ecosystem services research, which is now at the initial stage and show a developing trend of quantity and spatialization. However, the term "ecosystem service flow" is ambiguous. In this paper, we presented two descriptions about the term, and two corresponding theories and methods: the transmission of a service from ecosystems to people and distributed ecosystem model, and the flow of benefits accruing to people as generated by stocks of ecosystem structure and grey/black box theory...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Ruiting Guo, Zhiying Wang, Ying Huang, Haijuan Fan, Zhihua Liu
Salinity and alkalinity are major abiotic stresses that limit growth and development of poplar. We investigated biocontrol potential of saline- and alkaline-tolerant mutants of Trichoderma asperellum to mediate the effects of salinity or alkalinity stresses on Populus davidiana×P. alba var. pyramidalis (PdPap poplar) seedlings. A T-DNA insertion mutant library of T. asperellum was constructed using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation system; this process yielded sixty five positive transformants (T1-T65)...
April 13, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Xing Fan, Jun Rao, Ziwei Zhang, Dengfeng Li, Wenhao Cui, Jun Zhang, Hua Wang, Fangfang Tou, Zhi Zheng, Qiang Shen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Induction of oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated-apoptosis have been utilized as effective strategies in anticancer therapy. Macranthoidin B (MB) is a potent inducer of ROS-mediated apoptosis in cancer, but its mechanism of action is poorly understood. METHOD: Superoxide production with MB exposure in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells was measured using lucigenin chemiluminescence and real-time PCR. MB's inhibitory effect on proliferation and viability of CRC cells was determined by proliferation assays...
April 18, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Guillaume Charras, Alpha S Yap
Cell-cell junctions are specializations of the plasma membrane responsible for physically integrating cells into tissues. We are now beginning to appreciate the diverse impacts that mechanical forces exert upon the integrity and function of these junctions. Currently, this is best understood for cadherin-based adherens junctions in epithelia and endothelia, where cell-cell adhesion couples the contractile cytoskeletons of cells together to generate tissue-scale tension. Junctional tension participates in morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis...
April 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Balamurugan Packialakshmi, Xiaoming Zhou
Increases of the activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain generally lead to increases of production of ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS) as by-products. MnSOD is the first line of defense against the stress induced by mitochondrial ROS. Our previous studies demonstrated that EAE progression increased Na,K-ATPase activity in the mouse kidney cortex. Since mitochondria are the major source of ATP, our present studies were sought to determine whether EAE progression increased mitochondrial activity...
2018: PloS One
Benjamin P Larkin, Sarah J Glastras, Hui Chen, Carol A Pollock, Sonia Saad
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global epidemic, and its major risk factors include obesity and type 2 diabetes. Obesity not only promotes metabolic dysregulation and the development of diabetic kidney disease but also may independently lead to CKD by a variety of mechanisms, including endocrine and metabolic dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress, altered renal hemodynamics, and lipotoxicity. Deleterious renal effects of obesity can also be transmitted from one generation to the next, and it is increasingly recognized that offspring of obese mothers are predisposed to CKD...
April 24, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Yongli Xie, Qiong Liu, Lin Zheng, BingTao Wang, Xiaogang Qu, Jiazuan Ni, Yan Zhang, Xiubo Du
SCOPE: Se-methylselenocysteine (SMC) is a major selenocompound in selenium (Se) enriched plants such as garlic and broccoli florets. Se is vital for proper brain function, and Se-deficient is considered to be related with cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we evaluated for the first time the potential of SMC in intervening cognitive deficits and neuropathology of triple transgenic AD (3 × Tg-AD) mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: AD mice were treated with SMC (0...
April 24, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Hui Shan, Jiahui Sun, Minghui Shi, Xue Liu, Zhu Shi, Wengong Yu, Yuchao Gu
O-linked N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a dynamic post-translational modification that modifies thousands of proteins. However, the roles and mechanisms of O-GlcNAcylation have been clarified in only a few proteins, and one of the main reasons for this is the lack of site-specific anti-O-GlcNAc antibodies. Recently, we found that SIRT1, which is an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, is O-GlcNAcylated at the serine 549 site (S549) and plays a cytoprotective role under stress. However, the mechanism underlying the roles of SIRT1 O-GlcNAcylation remains unclear...
April 24, 2018: Glycobiology
I S Sazykin, M A Sazykina, L E Khmelevtsova, E Yu Seliverstova, K Sh Karchava, M V Zhuravleva
The level of catalase and superoxide dismutase induction, as well as generation of superoxide anion radical in cells and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in the culture medium were researched in three strains of oil-degrading bacteria Achromobacter xylosoxidans at cultivation in rich nutrient medium and in the media with hydrocarbons as the only source of carbon. The effects of pentane, decane, hexadecane, cyclohexane, benzene, naphthalene and diesel fuel were evaluated. It was determined that in the microbial cell on media with hydrocarbons, the generation of superoxide anion radical increases, accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and induction of superoxide dismutase synthesis occur, and catalase activity is reduced...
April 23, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Andreas D Flouris, Ryan McGinn, Martin P Poirier, Jeffrey C Louie, Leonidas G Ioannou, Lydia Tsoutsoubi, Ronald J Sigal, Pierre Boulay, Stephen G Hardcastle, Glen P Kenny
Population aging and global warming generate important public health risks, as older adults have increased susceptibility to heat stress (SHS). We defined and validated sex-specific screening criteria for SHS during work and leisure activities in hot environments in individuals aged 31-70 years using age, anthropometry, and cardiorespiratory fitness. A total of 123 males and 44 females [44 ± 14 years; 22.9 ± 7.4% body fat; 40.3 ± 8.6 peak oxygen uptake (mlO2 /kg/min)] participated, separated into the Analysis (n = 111) and Validation (n = 56) groups...
2018: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
Jun Shi, Jasmin Joshi, Katja Tielbörger, Koen J F Verhoeven, Mirka Macel
Admixture is the hybridization between populations within one species. It can increase plant fitness and population viability by alleviating inbreeding depression and increasing genetic diversity. However, populations are often adapted to their local environments and admixture with distant populations could break down local adaptation by diluting the locally adapted genomes. Thus, admixed genotypes might be selected against and be outcompeted by locally adapted genotypes in the local environments. To investigate the costs and benefits of admixture, we compared the performance of admixed and within-population F1 and F2 generations of the European plant Lythrum salicaria in a reciprocal transplant experiment at three European field sites over a 2-year period...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
In-Bong Song, Hyejung Gu, Hye-Ju Han, Na-Young Lee, Ji-Yun Cha, Yeon-Kyong Son, Jungkee Kwon
Environmental stimuli can lead to the excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is one of the risk factors for premature skin aging. Here, we investigated the protective effects of 7-MEGATM 500 (50% palmitoleic acid, 7-MEGA) against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and its underlying therapeutic mechanisms in the HaCaT human skin keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT cells). Our results showed that treatment with 7-MEGA prior to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-induced damage significantly increased the viability of HaCaT cells...
April 2018: Toxicological Research
Roderic H Fabian, Paul J Derry, Harriett Charmaine Rea, William V Dalmeida, Lizanne G Nilewski, William K A Sikkema, Pitchaiah Mandava, Ah-Lim Tsai, Kimberly Mendoza, Vladimir Berka, James M Tour, Thomas A Kent
Introduction: While oxidative stress can be measured during transient cerebral ischemia, antioxidant therapies for ischemic stroke have been clinically unsuccessful. Many antioxidants are limited in their range and/or capacity for quenching radicals and can generate toxic intermediates overwhelming depleted endogenous protection. We developed a new antioxidant class, 40 nm × 2 nm carbon nanoparticles, hydrophilic carbon clusters, conjugated to poly(ethylene glycol) termed PEG-HCCs...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Abir U Igamberdiev, Robert D Hill
Ca2+ can be released from cell compartments to the cytosol during stress conditions. We discuss here the causes of Ca2+ release under conditions of ATP concentration decline that result in the suppression of ATPases and activation of calcium ion channels. The main signaling and metabolic consequences of Ca2+ release are considered for stressed plant cells. The signaling function includes generation and spreading of calcium waves, while the metabolic function results in the activation of particular enzymes and genes...
April 23, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Weiran Feng, Maria Jasin
BRCA2 is a breast and ovarian tumor suppressor that guards against genome instability, a hallmark of cancer. Significant progress has been made in improving our understanding of BRCA2 function from biochemical, cellular, and mouse studies. The knowledge gained has been actively exploited to develop therapeutic strategies, including PARP inhibition, which has shown promising clinical outcomes. Recently, tremendous excitement has been generated by the findings of the roles of BRCA2 and other proteins in suppressing replication stress through homologous recombination and in the protection of stalled replication forks...
April 23, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
Vanessa Bottino-Rojas, Octavio A C Talyuli, Luana Carrara, Ademir J Martins, Anthony A James, Pedro L Oliveira, Gabriela O Paiva-Silva
Production and degradation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are extensively regulated to ensure proper cellular responses to various environmental stimuli and stresses. Moreover, physiologically generated ROS function as secondary messengers that can influence tissue homeostasis. The cap'n'collar transcription factor known as nuclear factor erythroid-derived factor 2 (Nrf2) coordinates an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional activation pathway that mediates antioxidant and detoxification responses in many animal species, including insects and mammals...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Nayanatara Swamy, Vibhor Wadhwa, Gitanjali Bajaj, Avneesh Chhabra, Tarun Pandey
The menisci play an important role in knee kinematics. Their unique anatomy allows them to channel forces generated during knee movements through the larger tibio-femoral condylar surfaces while simultaneously resisting deleterious hoop stresses. Although physiologic meniscal extrusion occurs with every knee joint movement, pathologic meniscal extrusion subjects the knee to persistent and excessive load transmission. This renders the knee structures susceptible to injury or exacerbates worsening of existing knee joint internal derangement...
May 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Christopher C Cushing, Melody R S Threlkeld, Bruno Martinez-Leo, Jennifer Hall, Monir Hossain, Belinda H Dickie, Beth Rymeski, Michael Helmrath, Meg H Zeller, Jason S Frischer
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Fecal incontinence is a prevalent pediatric condition with psychosocial impacts on both children and their caregivers. We sought to develop and validate the Cincinnati Fecal Incontinence Scale (CINCY-FIS) as a psychometrically valid measure to assess the quality of life and caregiver impacts of pediatric fecal incontinence. METHODS: Items were generated through review of previous measures, expert consensus, and pilot testing with feedback from 8 families...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
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