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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475069/in-vitro-model-to-study-cocaine-and-its-contaminants
#1
Aline Steinmetz, Luiza Steffens, Ana Moira Morás, Flávia Prezzi, Elizandra Braganhol, Jenifer Saffi, Rafael Scorsatto Ortiz, Helena M T Barros, Dinara Jaqueline Moura
Cocaine is one of the most popular illicit drug worldwide. Due its great addictive potential, which leads to euphoria and hyperactivity, it is considered a public health concern. At the central nervous system, the drug acts inhibiting catecholamine re-uptake. It is now known that in addition to the toxicity of the drug itself, the contaminants present in the street drug have raised concern about the harmful effects on health. Toxicological in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated the toxic effects of cocaine correlated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn lead to oxidative damage to the cells...
February 20, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474225/a-model-to-predict-birth-stress-in-adolescents-within-72-hours-of-childbirth
#2
Cheryl A Anderson, John P Connolly
An organizing framework for understanding adolescent birth stress in immediate postpartum does not exist. Researchers evaluated adolescent birth stress within 72 hours postpartum via a modification of Slade's conceptual model of risk factors for posttraumatic stress (PTS). Birth stress was defined by negative birth appraisal and subjective distress. Precipitating factors pain management, partner presence, and delivery type, plus maintaining factor infant complications, predicted negative birth appraisal. Predisposing factors depression and prior trauma predicted subjective distress...
February 22, 2018: ANS. Advances in Nursing Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473646/research-review-intergenerational-transmission-of-disadvantage-epigenetics-and-parents-childhoods-as-the-first-exposure
#3
Pamela Scorza, Cristiane S Duarte, Alison E Hipwell, Jonathan Posner, Ana Ortin, Glorisa Canino, Catherine Monk
BACKGROUND: For decades, economists and sociologists have documented intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic disadvantage, demonstrating that economic, political, and social factors contribute to 'inherited hardship'. Drawing on biological factors, the developmental origins of adult health and disease model posits that fetal exposure to maternal prenatal distress associated with socioeconomic disadvantage compromises offspring's neurodevelopment, affecting short- and long-term physical and mental health, and thereby psychosocial standing and resources...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473442/hu-protein-is-involved-in-intracellular-growth-and-full-virulence-of-francisella-tularensis
#4
Pavla Stojkova, Petra Spidlova, Juraj Lenco, Helena Rehulkova, Lucie Kratka, Jiri Stulik
The nucleoid-associated HU proteins are small abundant DNA-binding proteins in bacterial cell which play an important role in the initiation of DNA replication, cell division, SOS response, control of gene expression and recombination. HU proteins bind to double stranded DNA non-specifically, but they exhibit high affinity to abnormal DNA structures as four-way junctions, gaps or nicks, which are generated during DNA damage. In many pathogens HU proteins regulate expression of genes involved in metabolism and virulence...
February 23, 2018: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473408/adaptation-of-operational-parameters-of-cold-atmospheric-plasma-for-in-vitro-treatment-of-cancer-cells
#5
Eda Gjika, Sonali Pal-Ghosh, Anna Tang, Megan Kirschner, Gauri Tadvalkar, Jerome Canady, Mary Ann Stepp, Michael Keidar
Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), an ionized gas operated at near ambient temperature has been introduced as a new therapeutic opportunity for treating cancers. The effectiveness of the therapy has been linked to CAP generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species such as hydrogen peroxide and nitrite. In this study, we monitor in real time cancer cell response to CAP over the course of 48 hours. The results demonstrate a correlation between cell viability, exposure time (30, 60, 90, 180-s) and discharge voltage (3...
February 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472946/heavy-chronic-intermittent-ethanol-exposure-alters-small-noncoding-rnas-in-mouse-sperm-and-epididymosomes
#6
Gregory R Rompala, Anais Mounier, Cody M Wolfe, Qishan Lin, Iliya Lefterov, Gregg E Homanics
While the risks of maternal alcohol abuse during pregnancy are well-established, several preclinical studies suggest that chronic preconception alcohol consumption by either parent may also have significance consequences for offspring health and development. Notably, since isogenic male mice used in these studies are not involved in gestation or rearing of offspring, the cross-generational effects of paternal alcohol exposure suggest a germline-based epigenetic mechanism. Many recent studies have demonstrated that the effects of paternal environmental exposures such as stress or malnutrition can be transmitted to the next generation via alterations to small noncoding RNAs in sperm...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472175/impact-of-a-student-driven-virtual-patient-application-on-objective-structured-clinical-examination-performance-observational-study
#7
David Bergeron, Jean-Nicolas Champagne, Wen Qi, Maxime Dion, Julie Thériault, Jean-Sébastien Renaud
BACKGROUND: Peer-assisted learning (PAL) refers to a learning activity whereby students of similar academic level teach and learn from one another. Groupe de perfectionnement des habiletés cliniques (Clinical Skills Improvement Group), a student organization at Université Laval, Canada, propelled PAL into the digital era by creating a collaborative virtual patient platform. Medical interviews can be completed in pairs (a student-patient and a student-doctor) through an interactive Web-based application, which generates a score (weighted for key questions) and automated feedback...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471585/ripply3-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-epithelial-sheets-in-the-morphogenesis-of-pharyngeal-pouches
#8
Yoshihiro Tsuchiya, Yusuke Mii, Kazunori Okada, Mikio Furuse, Tadashi Okubo, Shinji Takada
During tissue development, the morphogenesis of epithelial sheets is regulated by many factors, including mechanical force, although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the pharyngeal region of the vertebrate embryo, endodermal epithelium is reiteratively folded outward to form pharyngeal pouches, making partitions between the pharyngeal arches. Ripply3, encoding a member of the Ripply family of adaptor proteins, is required for the pouch formation posterior to the 2nd pharyngeal pouch. In this study, we found that the expression of mouse Ripply3 was specifically activated in accordance with the bending of the endodermal epithelium during the pouch formation...
February 22, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471125/biochar-activation-with-exoenzymes-induced-by-earthworms-a-novel-functional-strategy-for-soil-quality-promotion
#9
Juan C Sanchez-Hernandez
The activation of biochar (carbonaceous material generated by pyrolysis of biomass) with extracellular enzymes generated from soil biological processes was studied via a 2-month microcosm using earthworms. The isolation of biochar particles (post-incubated biochar) from earthworm-treated soils allowed to confirm an enrichment of biochar with extracellular enzymes associated to biogeochemical (alkaline phosphatase, β-glucosidase and arylsulfatase) and bioremediation pathways (carboxylesterase). The hydrolytic activity of this biochar incubated with earthworms was up to 8 times higher compared with that of control biochar (incubated in earthworm-free soils)...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471077/fabrication-of-antibody-loaded-microgels-using-microfluidics-and-thiol-ene-photoclick-chemistry
#10
Manuel Gregoritza, Kathrin Abstiens, Moritz Graf, Achim M Goepferich
Reducing burst effects, providing controlled release, and safeguarding biologics against degradation are a few of several highly attractive applications for microgels in the field of controlled release. However, the incorporation of proteins into microgels without impairing stability is highly challenging. In this proof of concept study, the combination of microfluidics and thiol-ene photoclick chemistry was evaluated for the fabrication of antibody-loaded microgels with narrow size distribution. Norbornene-modified eight-armed poly(ethylene glycol) with an average molecular mass of 10,000 Da, 20,000 Da, or 40,000 Da were prepared as macromonomers for microgel formation...
February 19, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470993/stress-common-themes-toward-the-next-frontier
#11
REVIEW
Ilia N Karatsoreos
"Stress is complicated". A phrase uttered by many a stress researcher. This is true, from the vast array of stimuli considered "stressors" to the interactive and hormetic nature of the molecular, cellular, endocrine, and behavioral responses generated by such stressors. This commentary takes the position that stress researchers are poised to make even bigger contributions if they begin to shift from investigating the myriad effects of stress on brain and body, and to refocus a larger part of our efforts on more in-depth investigations of common themes in stress biology, with the goal of uncovering potential "universal principles" of stress that may help us better interpret the findings at higher levels of analysis, and provide a structured approach to help breach the next frontiers of stress research...
February 19, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470981/ghot-of-the-ghot-ghos-toxin-antitoxin-system-damages-lipid-membranes-by-forming-transient-pores
#12
Jun-Seob Kim, Allen B Schantz, Sooyeon Song, Manish Kumar, Thomas K Wood
GhoT is a bacterial toxin of the type V toxin/antitoxin system that allows Escherichia coli to reduce its metabolism in response to oxidative and bile stress. GhoT functions by increasing membrane permeability and reducing both ATP levels and the proton motive force. However, how GhoT damages the inner membrane has not been elucidated. Here we investigated how GhoT damages membranes by studying its interaction with lipid bilayers and determined that GhoT does not cause macroscopic disruption of the lipid bilayer to increase membrane permeability to the dye carboxyfluorescein...
February 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470857/numerical-study-on-the-hemodynamics-of-patient-specific-carotid-bifurcation-using-a-new-mesh-approach
#13
S I S Pinto, J B L M Campos, E Azevedo, C F Castro, L C Sousa
The definition of a suitable mesh to simulate blood flow in the human carotid bifurcation has been investigated. In this research, a novel mesh generation method is proposed: hexahedral cells at the centre of the vessel and a fine grid of tetrahedral cells near the artery wall, in order to correctly simulate the large blood velocity gradients associated with specific locations. The selected numerical examples to show the pertinence of the novel generation method are supported by carotid ultrasound (US) image data of a patient-specific case...
February 22, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470747/solid-stress-facilitates-fibroblasts-activation-to-promote-pancreatic-cancer-cell-migration
#14
Maria Kalli, Panagiotis Papageorgis, Vasiliki Gkretsi, Triantafyllos Stylianopoulos
Pancreatic fibroblasts are continuously gaining ground as an important component of tumor microenvironment that dynamically interact with cancer cells to promote tumor progression. In addition, these tumor-infiltrated fibroblasts can acquire an activated phenotype and produce excessive amounts of extracellular matrix creating a highly dense stroma, a situation known as desmoplasia. Desmoplasia, along with the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells, leads to the development of compressive forces within the tumor, generating the so-called solid stress...
February 22, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470695/a-banana-nac-transcription-factor-musasnac1-impart-drought-tolerance-by-modulating-stomatal-closure-and-h-2-o-2-content
#15
Sanjana Negi, Himanshu Tak, T R Ganapathi
MusaSNAC1 function in H2 O2 mediated stomatal closure and promote drought tolerance by directly binding to CGT[A/G] motif in regulatory region of multiple stress-related genes. Drought is a abiotic stress-condition, causing reduced plant growth and diminished crop yield. Guard cells of the stomata control photosynthesis and transpiration by regulating CO2 exchange and water loss, thus affecting growth and crop yield. Roles of NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) protein in regulation of stress-conditions has been well documented however, their control over stomatal aperture is largely unknown...
February 22, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470671/predicting-soil-water-content-at-33-kpa-by-pedotransfer-functions-in-stoniness-1-soils-in-northeast-venezuela
#16
M C Pineda, J Viloria, J A Martínez-Casasnovas, A Valera, D Lobo, L C Timm, L F Pires, D Gabriels
Soil water content is a key property in the study of water available for plants, infiltration, drainage, hydraulic conductivity, irrigation, plant water stress and solute movement. However, its measurement consumes time and, in the case of stony soils, the presence of stones difficult to determinate the water content. An alternative is the use of pedotransfer functions (PTFs), as models to predict these properties from readily available data. The present work shows a comparison of different widely used PTFs to estimate water content at-33 kPa (WR-33kPa ) in high stoniness soils...
February 22, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470055/unique-molecular-regulation-of-higher-order-prefrontal-cortical-circuits-insights-into-the-neurobiology-of-schizophrenia
#17
Dibyadeep Datta, Amy F T Arnsten
Schizophrenia is associated with core deficits in cognitive abilities and impaired functioning of the newly evolved prefrontal association cortex (PFC). In particular, neuropathological studies of schizophrenia have found selective atrophy of the pyramidal cell microcircuits in deep layer III of the dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC), and compensatory weakening of related GABAergic interneurons. Studies in monkeys have shown that recurrent excitation in these layer III microcircuits generates the precisely patterned, persistent firing needed for working memory and abstract thought...
February 22, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469215/dinitrosyl-iron-complexes-formation-and-antiradical-action-in-heart-mitochondria
#18
Konstantin B Shumaev, Arina L Dudylina, Marina V Ivanova, Igor S Pugachenko, Enno K Ruuge
Mitochondria are widely known as a major source of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species for the cardiovascular system. Numerous studies established that superoxide anion radical production by heart mitochondria is only slightly suppressed under conditions of deep hypoxia, but is completely blocked under anoxia. It was found also that dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC) compare favourably with other physiologically active derivatives of nitric oxide (NO). DNIC with glutathione effectively scavenge superoxide radicals generated by mitochondria at different partial pressures of oxygen...
February 22, 2018: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468936/copd-as-an-endothelial-disorder-endothelial-injury-linking-lesions-in-the-lungs-and-other-organs-2017-grover-conference-series
#19
Francesca Polverino, Bartolome R Celli, Caroline A Owen
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic expiratory airflow obstruction that is not fully reversible. COPD patients develop varying degrees of emphysema, small and large airway disease, and various co-morbidities. It has not been clear whether these co-morbidities share common underlying pathogenic processes with the pulmonary lesions. Early research into the pathogenesis of COPD focused on the contributions of injury to the extracellular matrix and pulmonary epithelial cells...
January 2018: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468827/exploration-of-antigen-induced-caco-3-nanoparticles-for-therapeutic-vaccine
#20
Shuang Wang, Dezhi Ni, Hua Yue, Nana Luo, Xiaobo Xi, Yugang Wang, Min Shi, Wei Wei, Guanghui Ma
Therapeutic vaccines possess particular advantages and show promising potential to combat burdening diseases, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, hepatitis, and even cancers. An efficient therapeutic vaccine would strengthen the immune system and eventually eliminate target cells through cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Unfortunately, insufficient efficacy in triggering such an adaptive immune response is a problem that remains unsolved. To achieve efficient cellular immunity, antigen-presenting cells must capture and further cross-present disease-associated antigens to CD8 T cells via major histocompatibility complex I molecules...
February 22, 2018: Small
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