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Coping Mechanism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339486/cell-type-specific-role-for-nucleus-accumbens-neuroligin-2-in-depression-and-stress-susceptibility
#1
Mitra Heshmati, Hossein Aleyasin, Caroline Menard, Daniel J Christoffel, Meghan E Flanigan, Madeline L Pfau, Georgia E Hodes, Ashley E Lepack, Lucy K Bicks, Aki Takahashi, Ramesh Chandra, Gustavo Turecki, Mary Kay Lobo, Ian Maze, Sam A Golden, Scott J Russo
Behavioral coping strategies are critical for active resilience to stress and depression; here we describe a role for neuroligin-2 (NLGN-2) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Neuroligins (NLGN) are a family of neuronal postsynaptic cell adhesion proteins that are constituents of the excitatory and inhibitory synapse. Importantly, NLGN-3 and NLGN-4 mutations are strongly implicated as candidates underlying the development of neuropsychiatric disorders with social disturbances such as autism, but the role of NLGN-2 in neuropsychiatric disease states is unclear...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338581/perceived-discrimination-as-a-risk-factor-for-use-of-emerging-tobacco-products-more-similarities-than-differences-across-demographic-groups-and-attributions-for-discrimination
#2
Jennifer B Unger
BACKGROUND: Perceived discrimination has been associated with cigarette smoking and other substance use among members of disadvantaged minority groups. However, most studies have focused on a single minority group, have not considered the individual's attribution for the discrimination, and have not considered emerging tobacco products. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the associations between perceived discrimination and use of six tobacco products (cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, pipe tobacco, hookah, and smokeless tobacco) in a diverse sample of 1,068 adults in the United States...
January 17, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336596/hiv-related-thought-avoidance-sexual-risk-and-alcohol-use-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#3
Ashley E Pérez, Tyler B Wray, Mark A Celio, Peter M Monti
HIV-related "cognitive escape" refers to a tendency to avoid thoughts associated with HIV, which may be particularly common among men who have sex with men (MSM) who are often inundated with HIV information, potentially to the point of fatigue. HIV-related cognitive escape is associated with increased sexual risk behaviors, such as condomless sex, and heavier alcohol use patterns. Other studies show that some MSM may use alcohol specifically to facilitate sex. These sexual motives for drinking (SMDs) could be one mechanism whereby cognitive escape leads to health risk behaviors...
January 16, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335816/organ-reserve-excess-metabolic-capacity-and-aging
#4
Hani Atamna, Alfred Tenore, Forshing Lui, Joseph M Dhahbi
"Organ reserve" refers to the ability of an organ to successfully return to its original physiological state following repeated episodes of stress. Clinical evidence shows that organ reserve correlates with the ability of older adults to cope with an added workload or stress, suggesting a role in the process of aging. Although organ reserve is well documented clinically, it is not clearly defined at the molecular level. Interestingly, several metabolic pathways exhibit excess metabolic capacities (e.g., bioenergetics pathway, antioxidants system, plasticity)...
January 15, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335360/activity-in-the-ventral-medial-prefrontal-cortex-is-necessary-for-the-therapeutic-effects-of-extinction-in-rats
#5
Elizabeth A Fucich, Denisse Paredes, Madeleine O Saunders, David A Morilak
Poor response and high relapse rates remain problematic in the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders like depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While mechanisms of pharmacotherapies are intensely studied, little is known about mechanisms of behavioral therapy that could inform improved treatments. We have previously demonstrated the therapeutic effects of extinction learning as a behavioral intervention modeling exposure therapy in rats. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that activity in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) during extinction is necessary for its therapeutic effects...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332744/how-many-physical-therapy-sessions-are-required-to-reach-a-good-outcome-in-symptomatic-lumbar-spondylolisthesis-a-retrospective-study
#6
Silvano Ferrari, Jorge Hugo Villafañe, Pedro Berjano, Carla Vanti, Marco Monticone
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of conclusive information about the optimal dosage of physical therapy treatments in Spondylolisthesis (SPL) patients. PURPOSE: The present study attempted to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of two different doses in reaching similar clinical outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 64 consecutive patients admitted for physical therapy with symptomatic lumbar grade I SPL (42 ± 15years, 57% female) was conducted...
January 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331719/regulated-effects-of-prorocentrum-donghaiense-lu-exudate-on-nickel-bioavailability-when-cultured-with-different-nitrogen-sources
#7
Xu-Guang Huang, Shun-Xing Li, Feng-Jiao Liu, Wang-Rong Lan
Exudates by marine phytoplankton and metals coexist in the seawater, but little is known about their interaction. In this study, cultures of Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu were grown in urea and ammonium, and then exposed to different Ni ion levels in order to study the effects of Ni ions on algal growth. The regulatory mechanisms of P. donghaiense Lu for coping with different Ni ion levels was investigating by characterizing dissolved organic carbon (DOC), carbohydrate and protein content released per cell, hydropathy properties (hydrophilic and hydrophobic fractions) and thiol compounds (cysteine-like or glutathione-like)...
January 10, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323523/trauma-across-generations-and-paths-to-adaptation-and-resilience
#8
Amy Lehrner, Rachel Yehuda
OBJECTIVE: There is a growing literature on the intergenerational transmission of trauma, representing approaches across psychodynamic, family systems, epidemiological, sociological, and biological levels of analysis. Embitterment has been proposed as a response to severe, but normative, stressful events, different from the life-threatening trauma that precedes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHOD: This article reviews the potential applicability of the construct of embitterment to trauma and intergenerational effects through (a) a historical review of the intergenerational transmission of trauma literature, (b) a discussion of embitterment versus PTSD, (c) a brief review of theories of mechanisms of transmission, and (d) a discussion of biological findings and their interpretation...
January 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322657/polyetheretherketone-overlay-prosthesis-over-high-noble-ball-attachments-to-overcome-base-metal-sensitivity-a-clinical-report
#9
Panagiotis Zoidis
A modified polyetheretherketone (PEEK) framework material in combination with heat-polymerized denture base acrylic resin was used for the fabrication of an overlay prosthesis for a patient sensitive to base metals. High noble metal was used for the fabrication of the post/coping/ball attachment assemblies to promote retention and stability. These protruding attachments into the acrylic resin could result in stress concentration; therefore, a framework is often used to strengthen the prosthesis. PEEK frameworks could be a treatment alternative to high noble or Ti frameworks since they combine good mechanical properties with biocompatibility, reduced cost, and common laboratory procedures...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322289/the-interaction-between-asthma-and-anxiety-an-interpretative-phenomenological-analysis-of-young-people-s-experiences
#10
Eleni Pateraki, Yvonne Vance, Paul Graham Morris
Asthma and anxiety are highly co-morbid, and their interaction leads to exacerbations for both conditions. This study explored the interplay between these two conditions from the perspective of children and adolescents. The objective was to identify potential mechanisms of interaction between asthma and anxiety, and to derive improvements for prevention and treatment. Eleven semi-structured interviews of young people (aged 11-15), who met criteria for both asthma and anxiety, were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320876/-it-s-not-really-worth-my-while-understanding-contextual-factors-contributing-to-decisions-to-participate-in-community-aphasia-groups
#11
Lucette Lanyon, Linda Worrall, Miranda Rose
PURPOSE: Community aphasia groups represent a formalised opportunity for social participation. The potential barriers and facilitators to accessing and maintaining group participation remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to explore environmental and personal factors contributing to community aphasia group participation. METHODS: A framework analysis (FA) was used to analyse the semi-structured interview data from 22 current and past members of community aphasia groups...
January 10, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320582/thyroid-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-different-adaptive-responses-to-cold-environmental-conditions-between-two-chicken-breeds
#12
Shanshan Xie, Xukai Yang, Dehe Wang, Feng Zhu, Ning Yang, Zhuocheng Hou, Zhonghua Ning
Selection for cold tolerance in chickens is important for improving production performance and animal welfare. The identification of chicken breeds with higher cold tolerance and production performance will help to target candidates for the selection. The thyroid gland plays important roles in thermal adaptation, and its function is influenced by breed differences and transcriptional plasticity, both of which remain largely unknown in the chicken thyroid transcriptome. In this study, we subjected Bashang Long-tail (BS) and Rhode Island Red (RIR) chickens to either cold or warm environments for 21 weeks and investigated egg production performance, body weight changes, serum thyroid hormone concentrations, and thyroid gland transcriptome profiles...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318195/economic-costs-of-hospitalized-diarrheal-disease-in-bangladesh-a-societal-perspective
#13
Abdur Razzaque Sarker, Marufa Sultana, Rashidul Alam Mahumud, Nausad Ali, Tanvir M Huda, M Salim Uzzaman, Sabbir Haider, Hafizur Rahman, Ziaul Islam, Jahangir A M Khan, Robert Van Der Meer, Alec Morton
Background: Diarrheal diseases are a major threat to human health and still represent a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although the burden of the diarrheal diseases is much lower in developed countries, it is a significant public health problem in low and middle-income countries like Bangladesh. Though diarrhea is preventable and managed with low-cost interventions, it is still the leading cause of morbidity according to the patient who sought care from public hospitals in Bangladesh indicating that significant resources are consumed in treating those patients...
2018: Global health research and policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317513/cyclic-amp-regulates-bacterial-persistence-through-repression-of-the-oxidative-stress-response-and-sos-dependent-dna-repair-in-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#14
Roberto C Molina-Quiroz, Cecilia Silva-Valenzuela, Jennifer Brewster, Eduardo Castro-Nallar, Stuart B Levy, Andrew Camilli
Bacterial persistence is a transient, nonheritable physiological state that provides tolerance to bactericidal antibiotics. The stringent response, toxin-antitoxin modules, and stochastic processes, among other mechanisms, play roles in this phenomenon. How persistence is regulated is relatively ill defined. Here we show that cyclic AMP, a global regulator of carbon catabolism and other core processes, is a negative regulator of bacterial persistence in uropathogenic Escherichia coli, as measured by survival after exposure to a β-lactam antibiotic...
January 9, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317381/using-social-media-for-the-promotion-of-education-and-consultation-in-adolescents-who-have-undergone-kidney-transplant-protocol-for-a-randomized-control-trial
#15
Claudiana Pase, Andréia Dias Mathias, Clotilde Druck Garcia, Clarissa Garcia Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Falling ill represents a traumatic experience especially in adolescence, since in addition to the moments of ambiguity and contradictions that this period brings, there is coping with the disease. Renal transplantation provides a better quality of life but the dependence on dialysis is replaced by the greater responsibility of self-care. With advances in technology, contemporary communication methods are a strategic mechanism for the approximation of the adolescent and the multiprofessional team...
January 9, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315947/color-in-zirconia-based-restorations-and-related-factors-a-literature-review
#16
REVIEW
Farhad Tabatabaian
Zirconia ceramic is a popular trend in esthetic and restorative dentistry. Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems have been well developed to fabricate zirconia frameworks and restorations with acceptable mechanical properties. Zirconia ceramics have excellent optical characteristics; however, achieving optimal esthetic outcomes with zirconia-based restorations is still challenging due to multiple effective factors on the final color. These factors are different layers of a zirconia-based restoration and its underlying structures including: dental substrate, cement, zirconia coping, veneering ceramic, and glaze...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307045/a-comparison-of-cell-survival-and-heat-shock-protein-expression-after-radiation-in-normal-dermal-fibroblasts-microvascular-endothelial-cells-and-different-head-and-neck-squamous-carcinoma-cell-lines
#17
Dominique Muschter, Fabian Geyer, Richard Bauer, Tobias Ettl, Stephan Schreml, Frank Haubner
OBJECTIVES: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) shows increased radioresistance due to the manipulation of homeostatic mechanisms like the heat shock response. This study intended to comparatively analyze effects of ionizing radiation on different HNSCC cell lines (PCI) and normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHFs) and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) to uncover differences in radiation coping strategies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Proliferation (BrdU assay), apoptosis (caspase 3/7) and intracellular protein expression of heat shock protein (HSP)-70, and phosphorylated and total HSP27, determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), were analyzed after exposure to increasing doses of ionizing radiation (2, 6, and 12 Gray, Gy)...
January 6, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306924/perceived-stress-mediates-the-associations-between-sleep-quality-and-symptoms-of-anxiety-and-depression-among-college-nursing-students
#18
Yuan Zhang, Anya Peters, Guanling Chen
Mental illnesses, such as anxiety and depression, are top concerns among college students. Poor sleep quality intensifies the risk of mental illnesses. However, the mechanism for the associations between sleep quality and mental illnesses in college students is not well understood. Online surveys were collected with 242 undergraduate nursing students at a public university in the northeast United States. Multivariate linear regression models suggested that poor sleep quality was associated with an increased risk of symptoms of anxiety (β = 1...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306920/status-of-violence-in-a-selected-faculty-the-students-experience
#19
Mohammad Fathi, Arezoo Fallahi, Salar Sharifi, Shoaib Dehghani, Nazila Olyaei, Sina Valiee
The present study is aimed at examining the status of violence among the students of nursing, midwifery, and operating room. A self-reporting questionnaire with two sections of demographic characteristics and experience of violence was used. The data obtained were analyzed, using SPSS software. 58.7 percent of the students had a history of violence in the previous year. The maximum percentage of violence exposure belonged to the students of operating room (76.9%). The highest incidence of violence was verbal (76...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304195/thermal-discrimination-and-transgenerational-temperature-response-in-bemisia-tabaci-mediterranean-hemiptera-aleyrodidae-putative-involvement-of-the-thermo-sensitive-receptor-bttrpa
#20
Tian-Mei Dai, Yu-Sheng Wang, Wan-Xue Liu, Zhi-Chuang Lü, Fang-Hao Wan
Anthropogenic climate change and global warming are expected to alter the geographic distribution and abundance of many ectothermic species, which will increase the invasion of new areas by exotic species. To survive in variable or fluctuating temperature conditions, insects require sensitive thermal sensory mechanisms to detect external thermal stimuli and induce the appropriate behavioral and physiological responses. TRPA, a thermal-activated transient receptor potential (TRP) family ion channel, is essential for thermotaxis in insects...
January 3, 2018: Environmental Entomology
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