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Coping Mechanism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530344/-suppression-of-a-non-trauma-related-threatening-thought-as-an-avoidance-strategy-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-patients
#1
Lilach Abramsky-Arazi, Zeev Kaplan, Hagit Cohen
AIMS: Our goal was to examine how suppression of nontrauma- related thoughts differs between PTSD patients and patients with non-PTSD anxiety disorder compared to a group of matched controls. BACKGROUND: Intrusive recollections of aspects of the traumatic event and its sequelae are at the core of the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). People who have suffered a traumatic event may implement some form of avoidance coping strategies in order to deal with the unwanted memories that accompany them...
December 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526212/3d-deeply-supervised-network-for-automated-segmentation-of-volumetric-medical-images
#2
Qi Dou, Lequan Yu, Hao Chen, Yueming Jin, Xin Yang, Jing Qin, Pheng-Ann Heng
While deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have achieved remarkable success in 2D medical image segmentation, it is still a difficult task for CNNs to segment important organs or structures from 3D medical images owing to several mutually affected challenges, including the complicated anatomical environments in volumetric images, optimization difficulties of 3D networks and inadequacy of training samples. In this paper, we present a novel and efficient 3D fully convolutional network equipped with a 3D deep supervision mechanism to comprehensively address these challenges; we call it 3D DSN...
May 8, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522365/knowns-and-unknowns-of-membrane-lipid-synthesis-in-streptomycetes
#3
Mario Sandoval-Calderón, Ziqiang Guan, Christian Sohlenkamp
Bacteria belonging to the genus Streptomyces are among the most prolific producers of antibiotics. Research on cellular membrane biosynthesis and turnover is lagging behind in Streptomyces compared to related organisms like Mycobacterium tuberculosis. While natural products discovery in Streptomyces is evidently a priority in order to discover new antibiotics to combat the increase in antibiotic resistant pathogens, a better understanding of this cellular compartment should provide insights into the interplay between core and secondary metabolism...
May 15, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516830/childhood-victimization-attachment-coping-and-substance-use-among-victimized-women-on-probation-and-parole
#4
Amanda Dishon-Brown, Seana Golder, Tanya Renn, Katherine Winham, George E Higgins, T K Logan
Justice-involved women report high rates of victimization across their life span, and these experiences contribute to their involvement in the criminal justice (CJ) system. Within this population, research has identified an overlap among victimization and substance use, a high-risk coping mechanism. Furthermore, research indicates attachment style is related to coping and high-risk behaviors. Research is needed to understand the relationship among these mechanisms as they relate to intimate partner violence (IPV)...
May 17, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515170/respiratory-function-and-mechanics-in-pinnipeds-and-cetaceans
#5
REVIEW
Andreas Fahlman, Michael J Moore, Daniel Garcia-Parraga
In this Review, we focus on the functional properties of the respiratory system of pinnipeds and cetaceans, and briefly summarize the underlying anatomy; in doing so, we provide an overview of what is currently known about their respiratory physiology and mechanics. While exposure to high pressure is a common challenge among breath-hold divers, there is a large variation in respiratory anatomy, function and capacity between species - how are these traits adapted to allow the animals to withstand the physiological challenges faced during dives? The ultra-deep diving feats of some marine mammals defy our current understanding of respiratory physiology and lung mechanics...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515169/osmoregulation-bioenergetics-and-oxidative-stress-in-coastal-marine-invertebrates-raising-the-questions-for-future-research
#6
REVIEW
Georgina A Rivera-Ingraham, Jehan-Hervé Lignot
Osmoregulation is by no means an energetically cheap process, and its costs have been extensively quantified in terms of respiration and aerobic metabolism. Common products of mitochondrial activity are reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which may cause oxidative stress by degrading key cell components, while playing essential roles in cell homeostasis. Given the delicate equilibrium between pro- and antioxidants in fueling acclimation responses, the need for a thorough understanding of the relationship between salinity-induced oxidative stress and osmoregulation arises as an important issue, especially in the context of global changes and anthropogenic impacts on coastal habitats...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513186/initially-intact-neural-responses-to-pain-in-autism-are-diminished-during-sustained-pain
#7
Michelle D Failla, Estephan J Moana-Filho, Greg K Essick, Grace T Baranek, Baxter P Rogers, Carissa J Cascio
Pain assessments typically depend on self-report of the pain experience. Yet, in individuals with autism spectrum disorders, this can be an unreliable due to communication difficulties. Importantly, observations of behavioral hypo- and hyperresponsivity to pain suggest altered pain sensitivity in autism spectrum disorder. Neuroimaging may provide insight into mechanisms underlying pain behaviors. The neural pain signature reliably responds to painful stimulation and is modulated by other outside regions, affecting the pain experience...
May 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511048/defensive-freezing-links-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activity-and-internalizing-symptoms-in-humans
#8
Hannah C M Niermann, Bernd Figner, Anna Tyborowska, Jacobien M van Peer, Antonius H N Cillessen, Karin Roelofs
The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA)-axis plays an important role in the expression of defensive freezing. Adaptive freezing reactivity, characterized by an immediate increase in acute stress and timely termination upon threat offset or need to act, is essential for adequate stress coping. Blunted HPA-axis activity in animals is associated with blunted freezing reactivity and internalizing symptoms. Despite their potential relevance, it remains unknown whether these mechanisms apply to humans and human psychopathology...
May 3, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510631/how-might-edaphic-specialists-in-gypsum-islands-respond-to-climate-change-reciprocal-sowing-experiment-to-infer-local-adaptation-and-phenotypic-plasticity
#9
Ana M Sánchez, Patricia Alonso-Valiente, M José Albert, Adrián Escudero
Background and Aims: Local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity are considered key mechanisms for coping with climate warming, especially for plant species that inhabit island-like habitats. In Spain a complete guild of edaphic specialists, most of them threatened, occurs in gypsum outcrops, but how these species will respond to climate change has received little attention. Methods: A reciprocal sowing experiment was performed to determine the extent of local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity in five gypsophytes with contrasting distributions along a climate gradient...
May 16, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507189/oxidative-stress-affects-sperm-performance-and-ejaculate-redox-status-in-subordinate-house-sparrows
#10
Alfonso Rojas Mora, Alexandra Firth, Sophie Blareau, Armelle Vallat, Fabrice Helfenstein
Oxidative stress (OS) is the result of random cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species that leads to cell death, ageing, or illness. Most physiological processes can result in OS, which in turn has been identified as a major cause of infertility. In promiscuous species, the fertilizing ability of the ejaculate partly determines the male reproductive success. When dominance determines access to fertile females, theory predicts that lower ranking males should increase resource investment into enhancing ejaculate quality...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504364/mindfulness-meditation-regulates-anterior-insula-activity-during-empathy-for-social-pain
#11
Davide Laneri, Sören Krach, Frieder M Paulus, Philipp Kanske, Verena Schuster, Jens Sommer, Laura Müller-Pinzler
Mindfulness has been shown to reduce stress, promote health, and well-being, as well as to increase compassionate behavior toward others. It reduces distress to one's own painful experiences, going along with altered neural responses, by enhancing self-regulatory processes and decreasing emotional reactivity. In order to investigate if mindfulness similarly reduces distress and neural activations associated with empathy for others' socially painful experiences, which might in the following more strongly motivate prosocial behavior, the present study compared trait, and state effects of long-term mindfulness meditation (LTM) practice...
May 15, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502738/maternal-emotional-feeding-practices-and-adolescent-daughters-emotional-eating-mediating-roles-of-avoidant-and-preoccupied-coping
#12
Miriam Goldstein, Cin Cin Tan, Chong Man Chow
The current study examined the link between early childhood emotional feeding and adolescent girls' emotional eating, using maladaptive coping styles as the underlying mechanisms mediating these associations. We examined adolescent girls' and mothers' retrospective reports of emotional feeding during childhood, as well as adolescent girls' current reports of their coping behaviors (i.e., preoccupied and avoidant) and emotional eating. Findings showed that adolescent girls' and mothers' retrospective reports of early emotional feeding were positively associated with adolescent girls' emotional eating...
May 11, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500994/salt-tolerance-mechanisms-induced-in-stevia-rebaudiana-bertoni-effects-on-mineral-nutrition-antioxidative-metabolism-and-steviol-glycoside-content
#13
Daniel Cantabella, Abel Piqueras, José Ramón Acosta-Motos, Agustina Bernal-Vicente, José A Hernández, Pedro Díaz-Vivancos
In order to cope with challenges linked to climate change such as salinity, plants must develop a wide spectrum of physiological and molecular mechanisms to rapidly adapt. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plants are a case in point. According to our findings, salt stress has no significant effect on plant growth in these plants, which accumulate sodium (Na(+)) in their roots, thus avoiding excessive Na(+) accumulation in leaves. Furthermore, salt stress (NaCl stress) increases the potassium (K(+)), calcium (Ca(2+)), chloride ion (Cl(-)) and proline concentrations in Stevia leaves, which could contribute to osmotic adjustment...
April 26, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500894/mercury-induced-oxidative-stress-dna-damage-and-activation-of-antioxidative-system-and-hsp70-induction-in-duckweed-lemna-minor
#14
Tingting Zhang, Qianqian Lu, Chunlei Su, Yaru Yang, Dan Hu, Qinsong Xu
Mercury uptake and its effects on physiology, biochemistry and genomic stability were investigated in Lemna minor after 2 and 6d of exposure to 0-30μM Hg. The accumulation of Hg increased in a concentration- and duration-dependent manner, and was positively correlated with the leaf damage. Oxidative stress after Hg exposure was evidenced in L. minor by a significant decrease in photosynthetic pigments, an increase in malondialdehyde and lipoxygenase activities (total enzyme activity and isoenzymes activity)...
May 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500435/examining-the-mechanisms-of-therapeutic-change-in-a-cognitive-behavioral-intervention-for-anxious-children-the-role-of-interpretation-bias-perceived-control-and-coping-strategies
#15
Ana Isabel Pereira, Peter Muris, Magda Sofia Roberto, Teresa Marques, Rita Goes, Luísa Barros
This study examined the role of theoretically meaningful mediators of therapeutic change-interpretation bias, perceived control, and coping strategies-in a cognitive-behavioral intervention for anxious youth. This is one of the few studies that examined the change in potential mediator and outcome variables by means of a longitudinal design that included four assessment points: pretreatment, in-treatment, post-treatment, and at 4-months follow-up. Forty-seven 8- to 12-year-old children with a principal DSM-IV diagnosis of anxiety disorder participated in the study...
May 12, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499769/structure-biochemical-and-kinetic-properties-of-recombinant-pst2p-from-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-a-fmn-dependent-nad-p-h-quinone-oxidoreductase
#16
Karin Koch, Altijana Hromic, Marija Sorokina, Emilia Strandback, Manuel Reisinger, Karl Gruber, Peter Macheroux
The genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes four flavodoxin-like proteins, namely Lot6p, Pst2p, Rfs1p and Ycp4p. Thus far only Lot6p was characterized in detail demonstrating that the enzyme possesses NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase activity. In the present study, we heterologously expressed PST2 in Escherichia coli and purified the produced protein to conduct a detailed biochemical and structural characterization. Determination of the three-dimensional structure by X-ray crystallography revealed that Pst2p adopts the flavodoxin-like fold and forms tetramers independent of cofactor binding...
May 9, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498025/understanding-meaning-in-life-interventions-in-patients-with-advanced-disease-a-systematic-review-and-realist-synthesis
#17
Mariona Guerrero-Torrelles, Cristina Monforte-Royo, Andrea Rodríguez-Prat, Josep Porta-Sales, Albert Balaguer
BACKGROUND: Among patients with advanced disease, meaning in life is thought to enhance well-being, promote coping and improve the tolerance of physical symptoms. It may also act as a buffer against depression and hopelessness. As yet, there has been no synthesis of meaning in life interventions in which contextual factors, procedures and outcomes are described and evaluated. AIMS: To identify meaning in life interventions implemented in patients with advanced disease and to describe their context, mechanisms and outcomes...
February 1, 2017: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496270/exercise-as-a-stress-coping-mechanism-in-a-pharmacy-student-population
#18
Mathew C Garber
Objective. To assess the coping mechanisms used by pharmacy students and their relationship to perceived stress. Methods. Data were gathered utilizing the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS10) and Brief COPE with the additional coping mechanisms of exercise and use of prescribed medications. Results. A survey that was sent to 368 students had an 81% response rate. Perceived stress was significantly higher than standard populations, but consistent with other pharmacy student populations. The most frequently reported coping mechanisms were the adaptive strategies of active coping, acceptance and planning...
April 2017: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494207/psychological-vulnerability-and-gambling-in-later-life
#19
Cory B Dennis, Thomas D Davis, Janet Chang, Carolyn McAllister
OBJECTIVES: Because behavioral problems often emerge from maladaptive coping methods, we investigated whether unmet basic psychological needs evolve toward a level of psychological vulnerability that puts older adults who gamble at risk for becoming problem gamblers. METHODS: Data from a community sample of 379 adults ages 60 and above were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Participants responded to items regarding their demographics, gambling frequency, engagement in at-risk gambling behaviors, and the extent to which their basic psychological needs were met...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493337/cas6-processes-tight-and-relaxed-repeat-rna-via-multiple-mechanisms-a-hypothesis
#20
REVIEW
Jana Sefcikova, Mitchell Roth, Ge Yu, Hong Li
RNA molecules are flexible yet foldable. Proteins must cope with this structural duality when forming biologically active complexes with RNA. Recent studies of the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs)-mediated RNA immunity illustrate some remarkable mechanisms with which proteins interact with RNA. Currently known structures of CRISPR-Cas6 endoribonucleases bound with RNA suggest a conserved protein recognition mechanism mediated by RNA stem-loops. However, a survey of CRISPR RNA reveals that many repeats either lack a productive stem-loop (Relaxed) or possess stable but inhibitory structures (Tight), which raises the question of how the enzyme processes structurally diverse RNA...
May 11, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
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