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Neuromuscular control

Ashley Gionfriddo, Mika L Nonoyama, Peter C Laussen, Peter N Cox, Megan Clarke, Alejandro A Floh
OBJECTIVES: To promote standardization, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention introduced a new ventilator-associated pneumonia classification, which was modified for pediatrics (pediatric ventilator-associated pneumonia according to proposed criteria [PVAP]). We evaluated the frequency of PVAP in a cohort of children diagnosed with ventilator-associated pneumonia according to traditional criteria and compared their strength of association with clinically relevant outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...
March 15, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Christopher L Jones, Derek G Kamper
Finger-thumb coordination is crucial to manual dexterity but remains incompletely understood, particularly following neurological injury such as stroke. While being controlled independently, the index finger and thumb especially must work in concert to perform a variety of tasks requiring lateral or palmar pinch. The impact of stroke on this functionally critical sensorimotor control during dynamic tasks has been largely unexplored. In this study, we explored finger-thumb coupling during close-open pinching motions in stroke survivors with chronic hemiparesis...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Lydia K Caldwell, William H DuPont, Matthew K Beeler, Emily M Post, Emily C Barnhart, Vincent H Hardesty, John P Anders, Emily C Borden, Jeff S Volek, William J Kraemer
The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation was to examine the effects of a Korean Ginseng (GINST15) on measures of perception and physical performance following an acute bout of resistance exercise. Ten women (age: 38.7 ± 7.8 years; height: 1.64 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 76.0 ± 11.6 kg) and nine men (age: 41.2. ± 9.7 years; height: 1.77 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 88.5 ± 5.0 kg) completed the investigation. Participants were randomized to a three-cycle testing scheme consisting of high dose ginseng (HIGH: 960 mg/day), low dose ginseng (LOW: 160 mg/day) and placebo (PBO: 0 mg/day)...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Summer B Cook, Brendan R Scott, Katherine L Hayes, Bethany G Murphy
Low-load blood flow restricted (BFR) resistance exercise has been suggested to be as effective as moderate and high-load resistance training for increasing muscle size and strength. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of 6 weeks of HL or low-load BFR resistance training on neuromuscular function, strength, and hypertrophy of the knee extensors. Eighteen participants aged 18-22 years old were randomized to one of three training groups: moderate load (ML: 70% of 1 repetition maximum [1-RM]); BFR (20% 1-RM with a vascular restriction set to ~180 mmHg); and a control group (CON) that did not exercise...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Marco A Minetto, Alberto Botter, Giulia Gamerro, Ilaria Varvello, Giuseppe Massazza, Rosa G Bellomo, Nicola A Maffiuletti, Raoul Saggini
BACKGROUND: The "contralateral effect" phenomenon refers to the strength gain in the opposite, untrained homonymous muscle following unilateral training. Previous studies showed that neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) of the right quadriceps facilitated maximal voluntary strength and efferent neural drive of the left knee extensors, while no previous study investigated the contralateral effect elicited by focal muscle vibration. AIM: To investigate whether quadriceps NMES and focal vibration, when applied unilaterally, have the same potential to enhance the contralateral muscle strength and the associated neural drive...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Chen Yue, Xue Zhang, Yingjie Zhu, Yudong Jia, Huichao Wang, Youwen Liu
BACKGROUND: The comparative effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), and electroacupuncture (EA) for improving patient rehabilitation following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is controversial. Therefore we conducted this systematic review to assess the available evidence. METHODS: The PubMed, OVID, and ScienceDirect databases were comprehensively searched and studies were selected and analyzed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) recommendations...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Jociane Schardong, Verônica Bidinotto Brito, Thiago Dipp, Fabrício Edler Macagnan, Jenifer Saffi, Rodrigo Dm Plentz
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney failure (CKF) patients on renal replacement therapies exhibit elevated levels of DNA lesions and this is directly related to high mortality. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on genomic damage in CKF patients on conventional hemodialysis (HD). METHODS: Twenty-one patients with CKF on HD were randomized into control (CG = 10) or neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMESG = 11) groups...
March 12, 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
Sangeeta Rathi, Nicholas F Taylor, Brendan Soo, Rodney A Green
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether patients with symptomatic rotator cuff pathology had more glenohumeral joint translation and different patterns of rotator cuff muscle activity compared to controls. DESIGN: Repeated measurements of glenohumeral translation and muscle activity in two positions and six testing conditions in two groups. METHODS: Twenty participants with a symptomatic and diagnosed rotator cuff tear and 20 age, and gender matched controls were included...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Jagatkumar A Patel, Bryan J Ray, Camilo Fernandez-Salvador, Christopher Gouveia, Soroush Zaghi, Macario Camacho
OBJECTIVE: A collapsible upper airway is a common cause of obstructive sleep apnea. The exact pathophysiology leading to a more collapsible airway is not well understood. A progressive neuropathy of the soft palate and pharyngeal dilators may be associated with the progression of snoring to OSA. The purpose of this study is to systematically review the international literature investigating the neurophysiologic changes in the soft palate and uvula that contribute to progression from snoring to OSA...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Paul Hendrickse, Magdalena Galinska, Emma Hodson-Tole, Hans Degens
A large part of age-related muscle wasting is due to incomplete reinnervation of fibres that have become denervated following motoneuron loss. Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and sodium channel NaV1.5 are considered markers for denervation, but the time course of changes in their expression following denervation has never been systematically evaluated in young-adult and old muscle. To assess the time course of denervation-induced changes in their expression, the left gastrocnemius muscle in 15 young-adult (5-month) and 10 old (25-month) male Wistar rats was denervated for 1, 2 or 4 weeks, while the right muscle served as an internal control...
March 7, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Peter D Sottile, David Albers, Marc M Moss
BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular blockade (NMB) is a therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the mechanism by which NMB may improve outcome for ARDS patients remains unclear. We sought to determine whether NMB attenuates biomarkers of epithelial and endothelial lung injury and systemic inflammation in ARDS patients, and whether the association is dependent on tidal volume size and the initial degree of hypoxemia. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of patients enrolled in the ARDS network low tidal volume ventilation (ARMA) study...
March 10, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Simona Zanotti, Dimos Kapetis, Sara Gibertini, Franco Salerno, Emilio Ciusani, Chiara Colombo, Alessandro Gronchi, Lucia Morandi, Renato Mantegazza, Franco Molteni, Marina Mora
Botulin toxin (BTX) is widely used for treating skeletal muscle spasticity. Experimental reports on BTX treatment were mainly focused on the neuromuscular junction, while relatively little is known about toxin effects on the muscle cell itself. We investigated possible impact of BTX type A on skeletal muscle cell transcriptome by microarray analysis in muscle-derived cell cultures (fibroblasts, myoblasts and myotubes) from controls and spastic patients, and results were then validated at transcript and protein level...
March 6, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Mohsen Abedi, Majid M Moghaddam, Davoud Fallah
Since the past decade, rehabilitation robots have become common technologies for recovering gait ability after a stroke. Nevertheless, it is believed that these robots can be further enhanced. Hence, several researches are making progress in optimizing gait rehabilitation robots. However, most of these researches have only assessed the robots and their controllers in improving spatiotemporal and kinetic features of walking. There are not many researchers have focused on the robots' controllers' effects on the central nervous or neuromuscular systems...
March 5, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Woo Young Park, Jae Chan Choi, Hey Jeong Yun, Yeong Gwan Jeon, Gisoon Park, Jong Bum Choi
BACKGROUND: Combined rocuronium and cisatracurium have synergistic effects. We investigated whether reduced doses are effective during coadministration, by monitoring neuromuscular relaxation during surgery. METHODS: This randomized, controlled clinical trial was registered at (registration number NCT02495038). The participants were 81 patients scheduled for elective mastoidectomy and tympanoplasty. Participants were assigned to groups, including the intubating dose group (Group I, n = 27; combined ED95 rocuronium and ED95 cisatracurium), the small reduction group (Group S, n = 27; dose reduced by 10% of each ED95), or the large reduction group (Group L, n = 27; dose reduced by 20% of each ED95)...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Tatsuo Horiuchi, Akihiko Yokohama, Masaki Orihara, Yukinari Tomita, Akihiro Tomioka, Nagahide Yoshida, Kenichiro Takahashi, Shigeru Saito, Tomonori Takazawa
BACKGROUND: Sugammadex is used to reverse the effects of neuromuscular blocking agents in many cases of general anesthesia. However, there are several reports of anaphylaxis after its use. Skin testing is the gold standard for detecting the causative agent of anaphylaxis. However, due to the lack of validated protocols for skin testing with sugammadex, the diagnostic accuracy might be inadequate. Recently, the basophil activation test (BAT) has been established as a tool to detect the causative agent of anaphylaxis with high sensitivity and specificity...
March 6, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Dan Sun, Wei Xu, Na Chen, Shi-Min Li, Tian Fu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy of intradermal needle-embedding therapy in the treatment of dysphagia in stroke patients. METHODS: A total of 80 stroke patients with dysphagia were randomly divided into treatment group and control group ( n = 40 in each). The control group was treated with conventional medicines, neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the bilateral midlines of the neck and swallowing function training, and the treatment group treated by intradermal needle-embedding at Lianquan (CV 23), Jialianquan-point, Yifeng (TE 17), Ashi-point, etc...
February 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
André Santana, Jean Carlos Debastiani, Regina Inês Kunz, Pamela Buratti, Rose Meire Costa Brancalhão, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko Ribeiro, Márcia Miranda Torrejais, Gladson Ricardo Flor Bertolini
Physical exercise may help maintain muscle properties and functional improvement after peripheral nerve lesion, which may be enhanced by using biocompatible substances, such as sericin. The aim of this study was analyse the effect of sericin associated with swimming exercise on the phenotype, innervation, and functionality of the plantar muscle of Wistar rats. Forty randomly divided adult rats were used in five groups of eight animals: control, injury, sericin, exercise, exercise and sericin. The application of sericin was done on the spot, 100 μL, shortly after nerve compression...
February 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Yoyo T Y Cheng, William W N Tsang, Catherine Mary Schooling, Shirley S M Fong
Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a common motor disorder affecting balance performance. However, few studies have investigated reactive balance performance and the underlying mechanisms in children with DCD. This study aimed to compare the reactive balance performance, lower limb muscle reflex contraction latency and attention level in response to unpredictable balance perturbations between 100 typically developing children and 120 children with DCD (with and without comorbid autism spectrum disorder) aged 6-9 years...
March 1, 2018: Gait & Posture
Michelle Chatwin, Michel Toussaint, Miguel R Gonçalves, Nicole Sheers, Uwe Mellies, Jesus Gonzales-Bermejo, Jesus Sancho, Brigitte Fauroux, Tiina Andersen, Brit Hov, Malin Nygren-Bonnier, Matthieu Lacombe, Kurt Pernet, Mike Kampelmacher, Christian Devaux, Kathy Kinnett, Daniel Sheehan, Fabrizio Rao, Marcello Villanova, David Berlowitz, Brenda M Morrow
This is a unique state of the art review written by a group of 21 international recognized experts in the field that gathered during a meeting organized by the European Neuromuscular Centre (ENMC) in Naarden, March 2017. It systematically reports the entire evidence base for airway clearance techniques (ACTs) in both adults and children with neuromuscular disorders (NMD). We not only report randomised controlled trials, which in other systematic reviews conclude that there is a lack of evidence base to give an opinion, but also include case series and retrospective reviews of practice...
March 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Daniela de Melo Miranda Gonçalves, Gustavo Falbo Wandalsen, Ana Sílvia Scavacini, Fernanda Cordoba Lanza, Ana Lucia Goulart, Dirceu Solé, Amélia Miyashiro Nunes Dos Santos
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary function in former preterm infants may be compromised during childhood. OBJECTIVES: To assess pulmonary function in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants at 6-12 months of corrected age and analyze the factors associated with abnormal pulmonary function. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with preterm infants at 6-12 months of corrected age with birth weight <1500 g. Children with malformations or affected by neuromuscular and respiratory diseases were excluded...
March 2018: Respiratory Medicine
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