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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911591/type-b-insulin-resistance-masquerading-as-ovarian-hyperthecosis
#1
Rebecca J Brown, Jalaja Joseph, Elaine Cochran, Cornelia Gewert, Robert Semple, Phillip Gorden
CONTEXT: Hyperinsulinemia can lead to pathologic ovarian growth and androgen production. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 29 year old woman developed an autoantibody to the insulin receptor (Type B insulin resistance), causing extreme insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Testosterone levels were elevated to the adult male range. Treatment with gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analog led to normalization of testosterone, despite persistent extreme insulin resistance...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911121/endocan-is-a-predictor-of-increased-cardiovascular-risk-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#2
Merve Bicer, Aslı Guler, Gokcen Unal Kocabas, Cetin Imamoglu, Ali Baloglu, Oktay Bilgir, Arif Yuksel, Giray Bozkaya, Mehmet Calan
PURPOSE: Endocan is a proteoglycan secreted mainly from endothelial cells. It has been implicated that there is a link between endocan and endothelial dysfunction. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a reproductive and metabolic disease associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. The aims of this study were to ascertain whether circulating endocan levels are altered in women with PCOS, and whether there is an association between endocan and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT)...
December 2, 2016: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911021/a-rapid-and-simple-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-the-measurement-of-testosterone-androstenedione-and-dehydroepiandrosterone-in-human-serum
#3
Wenjuan Xu, Huijun Li, Qing Guan, Ying Shen, Liming Cheng
BACKGROUND: The assay of androgens plays an important role for the differential diagnosis of androgen-related endocrine diseases. We developed a rapid and simple liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method with small sample volume and simple sample preparation for simultaneous determination of serum testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in adults. METHODS: We spiked 100 μL of serum with 200 μL of internal standard solution, which was prepared in methanol, for matrix effect relief and protein precipitation...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910803/the-prognostic-and-predictive-value-of-tmprss2-erg-gene-fusion-and-erg-protein-expression-in-prostate-cancer-biopsies
#4
Kasper Drimer Berg
BACKGROUND: The clinical course of prostate carcinoma (PCa) is very heterogeneous. Consequently, a personalised approach for risk stratification and treatment planning is important. Recently, it has become evident that PCa, also at the genomic level, is heterogeneous. An early and common alteration is the gene fusion between the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) gene and the v-ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (ERG) gene resulting in expression of the oncoprotein ERG...
December 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909909/obesity-biomarkers-metabolism-and-risk-of-cancer-an-epidemiological-perspective
#5
Katharina Nimptsch, Tobias Pischon
Obesity is associated with metabolic alterations that may pose a biological link between body fatness and risk of cancer. Elucidating the role of obesity-related biomarkers in cancer development is essential for developing targeted strategies aiming at obesity-associated cancer prevention. Molecular epidemiological studies of the past decades have provided evidence that major hormonal pathways linking obesity and cancer risk include the insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis, sex-steroid hormones, adipokines and chronic low-grade inflammation...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909907/obesity-and-ovarian-cancer
#6
Shelley S Tworoger, Tianyi Huang
Ovarian cancer is the most fatal gynecologic cancer and is an important source of cancer-related mortality, particularly in developed countries. Despite substantial research examining adiposity (primarily adult body mass index [BMI]), the overall evidence suggests only a weak positive association between adiposity and risk of ovarian cancer, with stronger associations observed for population-based case-control studies compared to prospective studies. Ovarian cancer is not one disease and emerging data suggest that higher BMI may only be associated with risk of certain histologic subtypes, including low-grade serous and invasive mucinous tumors...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909718/enzalutamide-inhibits-proliferation-of-gemcitabine-resistant-bladder-cancer-cells-with-increased-androgen-receptor-expression
#7
Koji Kameyama, Kengo Horie, Kosuke Mizutani, Taku Kato, Yasunori Fujita, Kyojiro Kawakami, Toshio Kojima, Tatsuhiko Miyazaki, Takashi Deguchi, Masafumi Ito
Advanced bladder cancer is treated mainly with gemcitabine and cisplatin, but most patients eventually become resistance. Androgen receptor (AR) signaling has been implicated in bladder cancer as well as other types of cancer including prostate cancer. In this study, we investigated the expression and role of AR in gemcitabine-resistant bladder cancer cells and also the potential of enzalutamide, an AR inhibitor, as a therapeutic for the chemoresistance. First of all, we established gemcitabine-resistant T24 cells (T24GR) from T24 bladder cancer cells and performed gene expression profiling...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909227/castration-alters-protein-balance-following-high-frequency-muscle-contraction
#8
Jennifer L Steiner, David H Fukuda, Michael L Rossetti, Jay R Hoffman, Bradley S Gordon
Resistance exercise increases muscle mass by shifting protein balance in favor of protein accretion. Androgens independently alter protein balance, but it is unknown whether androgens alter this measure following resistance exercise. To answer this, male mice were subjected to sham or castration surgery 7-8 weeks prior to undergoing a bout of unilateral, high frequency, electrically induced muscle contractions in the fasted or refed state. Puromycin was injected 30 min prior to sacrifice to measure protein synthesis...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908864/identification-of-candidate-genes-in-osteoporosis-by-integrated-microarray-analysis
#9
J J Li, B Q Wang, Q Fei, Y Yang, D Li
OBJECTIVES: In order to screen the altered gene expression profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with osteoporosis, we performed an integrated analysis of the online microarray studies of osteoporosis. METHODS: We searched the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database for microarray studies of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with osteoporosis. Subsequently, we integrated gene expression data sets from multiple microarray studies to obtain differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between patients with osteoporosis and normal controls...
December 2016: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908264/hypoxia-and-inflammation-in-prostate-cancer-progression-cross-talk-with-androgen-and-estrogen-receptors-and-cancer-stem-cells
#10
Matteo A Russo, Linda Ravenna, Laura Pellegrini, Elisa Petrangeli, Luisa Salvatori, Thea Magrone, Massimo Fini, Marco Tafani
Tumors are complex tissues in which transformed cells communicate with the surrounding microenvironment and evolve traits promoting their own survival and malignancy. Hypoxia and inflammation are constant characteristics of prostate tumor microenvironment influencing both cancer stem cells and differentiated tumor cells. HIFs and NF-kB are the key regulators of the transcriptional response to hypoxic and inflammatory stresses, respectively, and a crosstalk between HIFs and NF-kB pathways has been widely documented...
November 30, 2016: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908213/determinants-of-low-bone-mineral-density-in-premenopausal-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-patients
#11
Cihan Karadağ, Tevfik Yoldemir, Dilek Gogas Yavuz
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) values and to determine the associations between BMD and insulin sensitivity, hyperandrogenemia, body mass index (BMI), and sex hormones in premenopausal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. METHODS: A hundred and three women with PCOS and sixty age- and BMI-matched healthy control women were enrolled to this cross-sectional study. Serum androgen and estradiol (E2) levels were measured...
December 2, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907978/comparison-of-the-single-dose-pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-and-safety-of-two-novel-oral-formulations-of-dimethandrolone-undecanoate-dmau-a-potential-oral-male-contraceptive
#12
R Ayoub, S T Page, R S Swerdloff, P Y Liu, J K Amory, A Leung, L Hull, D Blithe, A Christy, J H Chao, W J Bremner, C Wang
Dimethandrolone (DMA, 7α,11β-dimethyl-19-nortestosterone) has both androgenic and progestational activities, ideal properties for a male hormonal contraceptive. In vivo, dimethandrolone undecanoate (DMAU) is hydrolyzed to DMA. We showed previously that single oral doses of DMAU powder in capsule taken with food are well tolerated and effective at suppressing both LH and testosterone (T), but absorption was low. We compared the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of two new formulations of DMAU, in castor oil and in self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS), with the previously tested powder formulation...
December 1, 2016: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907851/effects-of-antiandrogenic-progestins-chlormadinone-and-cyproterone-acetate-and-the-estrogen-17%C3%AE-ethinylestradiol-ee2-and-their-mixtures-transactivation-with-human-and-rainbowfish-hormone-receptors-and-transcriptional-effects-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-eleuthero
#13
Patricia Franziska Siegenthaler, Peter Bain, Francesco Riva, Karl Fent
Synthetic progestins act as endocrine disrupters in fish but their risk to the environment is not sufficiently known. Here, we focused on an unexplored antiandrogenic progestin, chlormadinone acetate (CMA), and the antiandrogenic progestin cyproterone acetate (CPA). The aim was to evaluate whether their in vitro interaction with human and rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) sex hormone receptors is similar. Furthermore, we investigated their activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) eleuthero-embryos. First, we studied agonistic and antagonistic activities of CMA, CPA, and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), in recombinant yeast expressing either the human progesterone (PGR), androgen (AR), or estrogen receptor...
November 9, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907849/association-between-dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate-and-attention-in-long-term-survivors-of-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-treated-with-only-chemotherapy
#14
Yin Ting Cheung, Wassim Chemaitilly, Daniel A Mulrooney, Tara M Brinkman, Wei Liu, Pia Banerjee, Deokumar Srivastava, Ching-Hon Pui, Leslie L Robison, Melissa M Hudson, Kevin R Krull
Long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at risk for neurocognitive impairment, as well as compromised hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function. Dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) is an adrenal androgen commonly used as a marker of HPA function. In the general population, a low level of DHEAS has been associated with poorer cognition. At ≥2years post-treatment, we examined the association of DHEAS with attention outcomes in 35 male and 34 female long-term survivors of childhood ALL (mean[standard deviation] age at evaluation 14...
November 16, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906711/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-adolescent-girls
#15
Natalie Hecht Baldauff, Selma Feldman Witchel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heterogeneous disorder that appears to have its origins during the peripubertal years. The diagnostic conundrum is that the typical clinical features, irregular menses and acne, occur during normal female puberty. Understanding the physiologic origins and molecular basis of the dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in PCOS is fundamental to interrupting the distinctive vicious cycle of hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906500/phylogenetic-studies-gene-cluster-analysis-and-enzymatic-reaction-support-anthrahydroquinone-reduction-as-the-physiological-function-of-fungal-17%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase
#16
Leon Fürtges, David Conradt, Michael A Schätzle, Shailesh Kumar Singh, Nada Kraševec, Tea Lanišnik Rižner, Michael Müller, Syed Masood Husain
17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSDcl) from the filamentous fungus Curvularia lunata (teleomorph Cochliobolus lunatus) catalyzes NADP(H)-dependent oxidoreductions of androgens and estrogens. Despite detailed biochemical and structural characterization of 17β-HSDcl, its physiological function remains unknown. On the basis of amino acid sequence alignment, phylogenetic studies, and the recent identification of the physiological substrates of the homologous MdpC from Aspergillus nidulans and AflM from Aspergillus parasiticus, we propose an anthrahydroquinone as the physiological substrate of 17β-HSDcl...
December 1, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906189/distinct-outcomes-of-crl-nedd8-pathway-inhibition-reveal-cancer-cell-plasticity
#17
Anastasia V Rulina, Frédérique Mittler, Patricia Obeid, Sophie Gerbaud, Laurent Guyon, Eric Sulpice, Frédérique Kermarrec, Nicole Assard, Monika E Dolega, Xavier Gidrol, Maxim Y Balakirev
Inhibition of protein degradation by blocking Cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs) is a new approach in cancer therapy though of unknown risk because CRL inhibition may stabilize both oncoproteins and tumor suppressors. Probing CRLs in prostate cancer cells revealed a remarkable plasticity of cells with TMPRSS2-ERG translocation. CRL suppression by chemical inhibition or knockdown of RING component RBX1 led to reversible G0/G1 cell cycle arrest that prevented cell apoptosis. Conversely, complete blocking of CRLs at a higher inhibitor dose-induced cytotoxicity that was amplified by knockdown of CRL regulator Cand1...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905327/potential-therapeutic-effect-of-epigenetic-therapy-on-treatment-induced-neuroendocrine-prostate-cancer
#18
Xiang Xu, Yu-Hua Huang, Yan-Jing Li, Alexa Cohen, Zhen Li, Jill Squires, Wei Zhang, Xu-Feng Chen, Min Zhang, Jiao-Ti Huang
Although adenocarcinomas of the prostate are relatively indolent, some patients with advanced adenocarcinomas show recurrence of treatment-induced neuroendocrine prostate cancer, which is highly aggressive and lethal. Detailed biological features of treatment-induced neuroendocrine prostate cancer have not been characterized owing to limited biopsies/resections and the lack of a cellular model. In this study, we used a unique cellular model (LNCaP/NE1.8) to investigate the potential role of cancer stem cells in treatment-induced neuroendocrine prostate cancer with acquired resistance to hormonal therapy and chemotherapy...
November 29, 2016: Asian Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904940/-no-evidence-for-improved-outcome-with-salvage-radiotherapy-for-asymptomatic-biochemical-prostate-cancer-recurrence-after-prostatectomy-by-additive-androgen-suppression
#19
Helena Garcia Schüler, Matthias Guckenberger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904688/molecular-mechanism-of-prostate-cancer-cell-apoptosis-induced-by-busulfan-via-adjustment-of-androgen-receptor-phosphatization
#20
Jun Liu, Guojun Jiang, Aiping Yang, Guohui Yang, Wenjuan Yang, Yi Fang
OBJECTIVE: To probe killing effect of busulfan to prostate cancer cell without androgen and the influence of androgen receptor phosphatization and analyze its molecular mechanism. METHODS: prostate cancer cell line 22RV1, LAPC4 and LNCaP treated with busulfan under androgen-free condition underwent CCK-8 examination to probe killing ability of the medicine. Flow cytometry was used to check the influence of busulfan on apoptosis rate of prostate cancer cell line LAPC4...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
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