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Ratneev Kaur, Tajinder Kaur, Anupam Kaur
PURPOSE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex multifactorial endocrine disorder affecting approximately 5-10% of women of reproductive age. Affected women have menstrual disturbances due to anovulation, infertility, and hyperandrogenism. Ovarian androgen overproduction is the key physiopathologic feature of PCOS. A number of genes encoding major enzymes of the androgen metabolic pathways, such as HSD17B6, CYP19A1, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, and INSR, have been examined. Very few studies have been done in North India...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Akira Nishikado, Ryo Kawata, Shin-Ichi Haginomori, Tetsuya Terada, Masaaki Higashino, Yoshitaka Kurisu, Yoshinobu Hirose
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the clinical outcomes of patients with parotid carcinoma at a single institution during an 18-year period, with the focus on diagnosis, treatment, and survival. METHODS: The subjects were 171 patients with parotid carcinoma treated at our department during the 18-year period from September 1999 to August 2017. There were 19 patients in stage I, 65 patients in stage II, 22 patients in stage III, and 65 patients in stage IV. The symptoms, preoperative diagnosis, node metastasis, survival rate, prognostic factors, and immunohistological findings were investigated...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
Jin Ju Kim, Young Min Choi, Min A Hong, Min Jeong Kim, Soo Jin Chae, Sun Mie Kim, Kyu Ri Hwang, Sang Ho Yoon, Seung Yup Ku, Chang Suk Suh, Seok Hyun Kim
Objective: The purpose of the current study was to compare the circulating levels of visfatin between women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and those without PCOS and to assess the correlations between visfatin levels and various parameters. Methods: This case-control study recruited 74 PCOS patients and 74 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls. Serum visfatin levels were evaluated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Women with PCOS were divided into 2 subgroups based on the presence of clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism...
March 2018: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
Keely M McNamara, Fouzia Guestini, Torill Sauer, Joel Touma, Ida Rashida Bukholm, Jonas C Lindstrøm, Hironobu Sasano, Jürgen Geisler
BACKGROUND: The majority of breast cancer cases are steroid dependent neoplasms, with hormonal manipulation of either CYP19/aromatase or oestrogen receptor alpha axis being the most common therapy. Alternate pathways of steroid actions are documented, but their interconnections and correlations to BC subtypes and clinical outcome could be further explored. METHODS: We evaluated selected steroid receptors (Androgen Receptor, Oestrogen Receptor alpha and Beta, Glucocorticoid Receptor) and oestrogen pathways (steroid sulfatase (STS), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (17βHSD2) and aromatase) in a cohort of 139 BC cases from Norway...
March 22, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Chunxiao Qi, Xiaoming Ji, Guoliang Zhang, Yunxiao Kang, Yuanxiang Huang, Rui Cui, Shuangcheng Li, Huixian Cui, Geming Shi
The purpose of present study was to infer the potential effects of testosterone increase in some male-based childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorders, such as Tourette syndrome. Thus, the influence of early postnatal androgen exposure upon the neurobehaviors and its possible neural basis were investigated in the study. Male pup rats received consecutive 14-day testosterone propionate (TP) subcutaneous injection from postnatal day (PND) 7. The TP treatment produced the hyperactive motor behavior and grooming behavior as well as the increased levels of dopamine, tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter in the mesodopaminergic system and the elevated levels of serotonin in the nucleus accumbens, without affecting the levels of glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid, norepinephrine and histamine in the caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens of PND21 and PND49 rats...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
David Clemmons
The IGF binding protein family contains six members that share significant structural homology. Their principal function is to regulate the actions of IGF-I and IGF-II. These proteins are present in plasma and extracellular fluids and regulate access of both IGF-I and II to the type I IGF receptor. Additionally they have functions that are independent of their ability to bind IGFs. Each protein is regulated independently of IGF-I and IGF-II and this provides an important mechanism by which other hormones and physiologic variables can regulate IGF actions indirectly...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Ana Rita Lima, Ana Margarida Araújo, Joana Pinto, Carmen Jerónimo, Rui Henrique, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Márcia Carvalho, Paula Guedes de Pinho
Prostate cancer (PCa) is an important health problem worldwide. Diagnosis and management of PCa is very complex because the detection of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) has several drawbacks. Metabolomics brings promise for cancer biomarker discovery and for better understanding PCa biochemistry. In this study, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomic profiling of PCa cell lines was performed. The cell lines include 22RV1 and LNCaP from PCa with androgen receptor (AR) expression, DU145 and PC3 (which lack AR expression), and one normal prostate cell line (PNT2)...
March 19, 2018: Metabolites
Cameron A Wade, Natasha Kyprianou
The major challenge in the treatment of patients with advanced lethal prostate cancer is therapeutic resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and chemotherapy. Overriding this resistance requires understanding of the driving mechanisms of the tumor microenvironment, not just the androgen receptor (AR)-signaling cascade, that facilitate therapeutic resistance in order to identify new drug targets. The tumor microenvironment enables key signaling pathways promoting cancer cell survival and invasion via resistance to anoikis...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shalender Bhasin, Juan P Brito, Glenn R Cunningham, Frances J Hayes, Howard N Hodis, Alvin M Matsumoto, Peter J Snyder, Ronald S Swerdloff, Frederick C Wu, Maria A Yialamas
Objective: To update the "Testosterone Therapy in Men With Androgen Deficiency Syndromes" guideline published in 2010. Participants: The participants include an Endocrine Society-appointed task force of 10 medical content experts and a clinical practice guideline methodologist. Evidence: This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach to describe the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Roger T Engeli, Cornelia Fürstenberger, Denise V Kratschmar, Alex Odermatt
Androgen biosynthesis in males occurs to a large extent in testicular Leydig cells. This study focused on the evaluation of three murine Leydig cell lines as potential screening tool to test xenobiotics interfering with gonadal androgen synthesis. The final step of testosterone (T) production in Leydig cells is catalyzed by the enzyme 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 (17β-hsd3). The endogenous 17β-hsd3 mRNA expression and Δ4-androstene-3,17-dione (AD) to T conversion were determined in the murine cell lines MA-10, BLTK1 and TM3...
February 2018: Heliyon
Mohit Kumar Jolly, Prakash Kulkarni, Keith Weninger, John Orban, Herbert Levine
It is well known that genetic mutations can drive drug resistance and lead to tumor relapse. Here, we focus on alternate mechanisms-those without mutations, such as phenotypic plasticity and stochastic cell-to-cell variability that can also evade drug attacks by giving rise to drug-tolerant persisters. The phenomenon of persistence has been well-studied in bacteria and has also recently garnered attention in cancer. We draw a parallel between bacterial persistence and resistance against androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer (PCa), the primary standard care for metastatic disease...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Khaled Abdullah Al Bishi, Ayman Afify
Background: Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of the male sex hormone (testosterone) that are increasingly used by athletes as performance enhancing drugs to increase muscle mass and strength. Multiple health adverse effects may be caused by its non-medical use. Several international and regional studies showed the high prevalence of AAS usage and low level of awareness of it among different populations. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of AAS and to determine the level of awareness toward it among gymnasts in the western province of Riyadh...
December 2017: Electronic Physician
Salpie Nowinski, Aida Santaolalla, Ben O'Leary, Massimo Loda, Ayesha Mirchandani, Mark Emberton, Mieke Van Hemelrijck, Anita Grigoriadis
Novel approaches for classification, including molecular features, are needed to direct therapy for men with low-grade prostate cancer (PCa), especially men on active surveillance. Risk alleles identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) could improve prognostication. Those risk alleles that coincided with genes and somatic copy number aberrations associated with progression of PCa were selected as the most relevant for prognostication. In a systematic literature review, a total of 698 studies were collated...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Dillon F Da Fonte, Chris J Martyniuk, Lei Xing, Vance L Trudeau
Radial glial cells (RGCs) are the main macroglia in the teleost brain and have established roles in neurogenesis and neurosteroidogenesis. They are the only brain cell type expressing aromatase B ( cyp19a1b ), the enzyme that synthesizes estrogens from androgen precursors. There are few studies on the regulation of RGC functions, but our previous investigations demonstrated that dopamine stimulates cyp19a1b expression in goldfish RGCs, while secretoneurin A (SNa) inhibits the expression of this enzyme. Here, we determine the range of proteins and cellular processes responsive to SNa treatments in these steroidogenic cells...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Brenda Ramos Robles, Ricardo A Valdez, Uriel Juárez Hernández, Brenda Marquina Castillo, Dulce Mata Espinosa, Jorge Barrios Payan, Rogelio Hernández Pando, Marta C Romano
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) that mainly affects the lungs. Along the course of pulmonary TB there are remarkable changes in the production of cytokines that cause endocrine changes. So far, it is not known the physiological and histological changes in the male reproductive system during pulmonary TB. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether pulmonary TB produces histological alterations of the BALB/c mice reproductive organs, as well as abnormalities in spermatogenesis, serum testosterone concentrations and expression of testicular cytokines...
March 2018: Tuberculosis
Ashley L Bolden, Kim Schultz, Katherine E Pelch, Carol F Kwiatkowski
BACKGROUND: In the last decade unconventional oil and gas (UOG) extraction has rapidly proliferated throughout the United States (US) and the world. This occurred largely because of the development of directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing which allows access to fossil fuels from geologic formations that were previously not cost effective to pursue. This process is known to use greater than 1,000 chemicals such as solvents, surfactants, detergents, and biocides. In addition, a complex mixture of chemicals, including heavy metals, naturally-occurring radioactive chemicals, and organic compounds are released from the formations and can enter air and water...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Lee Ena, Jong Seung Lim, Ji Yeon Son, Yu Jin Park, Yong Hee Lee, Ji Yeong Kim, Seung Jun Kwack, Byung Mu Lee, Mee-Young Ahn, Hyung Sik Kim
Triclosan (TCS), a common antimicrobial ingredient, is present in many consumer products, including soaps, shampoos, and toothpaste. Owing to its widespread use, potential adverse effects on animals and humans may arise from lifetime exposure, but data on chronic prepubertal exposure of TCS are still lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of subchronic TCS exposure (0.25, 25, 250, or 750 mg/kg) on target organ toxicity in prepubertal male rats. After daily administration of TCS to rats by oral gavage for 60 d, a significant reduction in body weight and relative weights of liver, kidneys, testes, and adrenal glands was observed in the 750-mg/kg (high dose) group...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Juan Pablo Sade, Carlos Alberto Vargas Báez, Martin Greco, Carlos Humberto Martínez, Miguel Ángel Álvarez Avitia, Carlos Palazzo, Narciso Hernández Toriz, Patricia Isabel Bernal Trujillo, Diogo Assed Bastos, Fabio Augusto Schutz, Santiago Bella, Lucas Nogueira, Neal D Shore
Prostate cancer is a significant burden and cause of mortality in Latin America. This article reviews the treatment options for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and provides consensus recommendations to assist Latin American prostate cancer specialists with clinical decision making. A multidisciplinary expert panel from Latin America reviewed the available data and their individual experience to develop clinical consensus opinions for the use of life-prolonging agents in mCRPC, with consideration given to factors influencing patient selection and treatment monitoring...
March 19, 2018: Medical Oncology
Takashi Nagai, Taku Naiki, Keitaro Iida, Toshiki Etani, Ryosuke Ando, Shuzo Hamamoto, Yosuke Sugiyama, Hidetoshi Akita, Hiroki Kubota, Yoshihiro Hashimoto, Noriyasu Kawai, Takahiro Yasui
Background: Development of novel agents targeting the androgen axis has led to improved overall survival in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). This study aimed to investigate the optimal timing of treatment with one such agent, abiraterone acetate (AA), in Japanese patients. Materials and methods: Between July 2014 and February 2016, 106 CRPC patients were administered AA in Nagoya City University Hospital, Nagoya, Japan and in four affiliated hospitals following failure of primary combined androgen blockade (CAB)...
March 2018: Prostate International
Satoru Ueno, Yasuhide Kitagawa, Mizuki Onozawa, Shiro Hinotsu, Hideyuki Akaza, Atsushi Mizokami, Mikio Namiki
Background: This prospective observational study elucidated the usefulness of hormonal therapy for localized prostate cancer. Background factors and the health-related quality of life in patients who initially underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) or primary androgen deprivation therapy (PADT) for localized prostate cancer are summarized. Materials and methods: Patients aged 67-76 years with clinical stage T1c or T2 localized prostate cancer treated with PADT or RP, a prostate-specific antigen concentration of <20 ng/mL, and Gleason score of ≤7 were included...
March 2018: Prostate International
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