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Verónica A Segarra, Barbara Natalizio, Cibele V Falkenberg, Stephanie Pulford, Raquell M Holmes
While the demand for a strong STEM workforce continues to grow, there are challenges that threaten our ability to recruit, train, and retain such a workforce in a way that is effective and sustainable and fosters innovation. One way in which we are meeting this challenge is through the use of the arts in the training of scientists. In this Perspectives article, we review the use of the arts in science education and its benefits in both K-12 and postsecondary education. We also review the use of STEAM (science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics) programs in science outreach and the development of professional scientists...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Susanne Bury, Manonmani Soundararajan, Richa Bharti, Rudolf von Bünau, Konrad U Förstner, Tobias A Oelschlaeger
Shiga toxin (Stx) producing E. coli (STEC) such as Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are the major cause of foodborne illness in humans. In vitro studies showed the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) to efficiently inhibit the production of Stx. Life threatening EHEC strains as for example the serotype O104:H4, responsible for the great outbreak in 2011 in Germany, evolutionary developed from certain E. coli strains which got infected by stx2 -encoding lambdoid phages turning the E. coli into lysogenic and subsequently Stx producing strains...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Billie-Jo Grant, Stephanie Wilkerson, Molly Henschel
"Passing the trash," enabling teachers who sexually abuse students to pursue another job with no record of their sexual misconduct, is common practice for K-12 school district administrators who fear legal liability and tarnished reputations. The "Prohibition on Aiding and Abetting Sexual Abuse" provision in the United States Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) of 2015 aims to eliminate passing the trash. This study explores states' progress toward developing and implementing relevant law and policy to comply with the provision...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
(no author information available yet)
Studies surrounding the sexual abuse of children by school personnel in Canadian contexts are infrequent and often limited in their scope. The present study addresses this drawback with a contribution of data gathered from disciplinary decisions of educator misconduct, media reports, and published case law concerning child/student sexual abuse cases (between 1997 and 2017) that involved any individual employed (or formerly employed) in a Canadian K-12 school. The study revealed a number of interesting points about the larger student victim and offender demographic patterns and characteristics across Canada...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Kingshuk Mukherjee, Darshan Washimkar, Martin D Muggli, Leena Salmela, Christina Boucher
Optical mapping is a unique system that is capable of producing high-resolution, high-throughput genomic map data that gives information about the structure of a genome [21]. Recently it has been used for scaffolding contigs and assembly validation for large-scale sequencing projects, including the maize [32], goat [6], and amborella [4] genomes. However, a major impediment in the use of this data is the variety and quantity of errors in the raw optical mapping data, which are called Rmaps. The challenges associated with using Rmap data are analogous to dealing with insertions and deletions in the alignment of long reads...
May 26, 2018: GigaScience
J Scott Tonigan, Matthew R Pearson, Molly Magill, Kylee J Hagler
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is consensus that best clinical practice for dual diagnosis (DD) is integrated mental health and substance use treatment augmented with Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) attendance. This is the first quantitative review of the direction and magnitude of the association between AA attendance and alcohol abstinence for DD patients. METHOD: A systematic literature search (1993-2017) identified 22 studies yielding 24 effect sizes that met our inclusion criteria (8,075 patients)...
May 29, 2018: Addiction
Daniel Brisotto Pavanelo, Sébastien Houle, Letícia Beatriz Matter, Charles Martin Dozois, Fabiana Horn
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) are responsible for various infections outside the gastrointestinal tract in humans and other animals. ExPEC strain MT78 is invasive to various non-phagocytic cells and highly virulent in vivo To identify genes required for invasion of non-phagocytic cells by this strain, we applied signature-tagged mutagenesis to generate a library of mutants, and tested them for invasion of avian fibroblasts. Mutants showing reduced cellular invasion included those with insertions in the fim operon, encoding for type 1 fimbriae...
May 29, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Susan D McMahon
Schools are important settings that can be utilized to yield a positive impact on youth and the many issues our society faces. In this Presidential Address, I identify key issues and directions for the field, advocating that we need to expand our ecological focus, improve school climate, and collaborate with schools to effect change. To illustrate these key themes, findings from four projects with k-12 youth and educators in the United States are described, and these projects have the following foci: protective factors for youth exposed to violence, teacher-directed violence as part of an APA Task Force, school climate and neighborhood factors in relation to academic outcomes, and school transitions for students with disabilities...
May 28, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Issam Hamdallah, Nadia Torok, Katarina M Bischof, Nadim Majdalani, Sriya Chadalavada, Nonto Mdluli, Kaitlin E Creamer, Michelle Clark, Chase Holdener, Preston J Basting, Susan Gottesman, Joan L Slonczewski
Experimental evolution of Escherichia coli K-12 W3110 by serial dilutions for 2,200 generations at high pH extended the range of sustained growth from pH 9.0 to pH 9.3. pH 9.3-adapted isolates showed mutations in DNA-binding regulators and envelope proteins. One population showed an IS1 knockout of phoB (positive regulator of the phosphate regulon). A phoB :: kanR knockout increased growth at high pH. phoB mutants are known to increase production of fermentation acids, which could enhance fitness at high pH...
May 25, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Yasufumi Matsumura, Gisele Peirano, Johann D D Pitout
We report here the complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli J53, which is used as a recipient in conjugation experiments and is a laboratory strain derived from E. coli K-12. This genome sequence will help in the development of a comprehensive genetic analysis of conjugative elements.
May 24, 2018: Genome Announcements
Melinda Gushwa, Jetta Bernier, David Robinson
Child sexual abuse (CSA) in schools and educator misconduct represents a threat to the safety and well-being of our children. The Enough! Preventing Child Sexual Abuse in My School program is a 1-hour online training course developed to address the problem of sexual misconduct and CSA in K-12 education via the use of two avatars/teachers who are navigating CSA and misconduct in their schools. One hundred and thirty-four teachers from three school districts participated in a study to examine the effectiveness of the program in terms of knowledge awareness, including prevalence rates, types of CSA behaviors, impact of CSA on children, signs and symptoms, reporting responsibilities and responses to suspected abuse...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Sylvia Rosenfield, Markeda Newell, Scott Zwolski, Lauren E Benishek
Teams and other collaborative structures have become commonplace in American schools, although historically school staff members functioned more independently from one another. In this article, we describe the growing influence of collaboration and teaming in a variety of school contexts, but focus on the empirical literature on problem-solving teams as reflecting the state of research and practice in the schools. A review of the research on problem-solving teams, using an input-mediator-outcome-input framework, provides evidence for how teaming could become more effective and efficient in this context as well as sets an agenda for what additional research is needed...
May 2018: American Psychologist
Shailesh Kumar Singh, Syed Masood Husain
Superoxide (O2*-) generation in biological systems is achieved through some of the most complex enzymatic systems. Of these, only the xanthine/xanthine oxidase has been used for in vitro biochemical studies. However, it suffers from limitations such as, lack of suitable heterologous expression system for xanthine oxidase and the irreversible consumption along with low solubility of xanthine under physiological conditions. Here, we report a redox-based, enzyme-catalyzed system where autoxidation of hydroquinone to quinone via semiquinone results in superoxide generation...
May 23, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Alberto Sánchez-Pascuala, Pablo I Nikel, Víctor de Lorenzo
The Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway is widely accepted to be the biochemical standard of glucose catabolism. The well-characterized glycolytic route of Escherichia coli, based on the EMP catabolism, is an example of an intricate pathway in terms of genomic organization of the genes involved and patterns of gene expression and regulation. This intrinsic genetic and metabolic complexity renders it difficult to engineer glycolytic activities and transfer them onto other microbial cell factories, thus limiting the biotechnological potential of bacterial hosts that lack the route...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Karen Peterman, Kelley Withy, Rachel Boulay
A common challenge in the evaluation of K-12 science education is identifying valid scales that are an appropriate fit for both a student's age and the educational outcomes of interest. Though many new scales have been validated in recent years, there is much to learn about the appropriate educational contexts and audiences for these measures. This study investigated two such scales, the DEVISE Self-Efficacy for Science scale and the Career Interest Questionnaire (CIQ), within the context of two related health sciences projects...
June 2018: CBE Life Sciences Education
Matt von Konrat, Thomas Campbell, Ben Carter, Matthew Greif, Mike Bryson, Juan Larraín, Laura Trouille, Steve Cohen, Eve Gaus, Ayesha Qazi, Eric Ribbens, Tatyana Livshultz, Taylor J Walker, Tomomi Suwa, Taylor Peterson, Yarency Rodriguez, Caitlin Vaughn, Christina Yang, Selma Aburahmeh, Brian Carstensen, Peter de Lange, Charlie Delavoi, Kalman Strauss, Justyna Drag, Blanka Aguero, Chris Snyder, Joann Martinec, Arfon Smith
Premise of the Study: Biological collections are uniquely poised to inform the stewardship of life on Earth in a time of cataclysmic biodiversity loss. Efforts to fully leverage collections are impeded by a lack of trained taxonomists and a lack of interest and engagement by the public. We provide a model of a crowd-sourced data collection project that produces quality taxonomic data sets and empowers citizen scientists through real contributions to science. Entitled MicroPlants, the project is a collaboration between taxonomists, citizen science experts, and teachers and students from universities and K-12...
February 2018: Applications in Plant Sciences
Madeline Schneider, Jennifer S Hirsch
Sexual violence (SV) represents a serious public health problem with high rates and numerous health consequences. Current primary prevention strategies to reduce SV perpetration have been shown to be largely ineffective-not surprisingly, since as others have pointed out current prevention largely fails to draw on existing knowledge about the characteristics of effective prevention. In this article, we examine the potential of K-12 comprehensive sexuality education (CSE), guided by the National Sexuality Education Standards (NSES), to be an effective strategy...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Keya Mukherjee, Tamari Narindoshvili, Frank M Raushel
The substrate profiles for three uncharacterized enzymes (YcjM, YcjT, and YcjU) that are expressed from a cluster of 12 genes ( ycjM-W and ompG) of unknown function in Escherichia coli K-12 were determined. Through a comprehensive bioinformatic and steady-state kinetic analysis, the catalytic function of YcjT was determined to be kojibiose phosphorylase. In the presence of saturating phosphate and kojibiose (α-(1,2)-d-glucose-d-glucose), this enzyme catalyzes the formation of d-glucose and β-d-glucose-1-phosphate ( kcat = 1...
May 15, 2018: Biochemistry
Molly A Bowdring, Michael A Sayette
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Elucidating why people drink and why drinking can lead to negative psychosocial consequences remains a crucial task for alcohol researchers. Because drinking occurs typically in social settings, broader investigation of the associations between alcohol and social experience is needed to advance understanding of both the rewarding and hazardous effects of alcohol use. This review aimed to (a) estimate alcohol's relation to the perception of others' physical attractiveness and (b) suggest theoretical and methodological considerations that may advance the study of this topic...
April 16, 2018: Addiction
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