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Molly A Bowdring, Michael A Sayette
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Elucidating why people drink and why drinking can lead to negative psychosocial consequences remains a crucial task for alcohol researchers. Because drinking typically occurs in social settings, broader investigation of the associations between alcohol and social experience is needed to advance understanding of both the rewarding and hazardous effects of alcohol use. This review aimed to (a) estimate alcohol's relation to the perception of others' physical attractiveness and (b) suggest theoretical and methodological considerations that may advance the study of this topic...
April 16, 2018: Addiction
Eric G Hansen, Ruth C Loew, Cara C Laitusis, Poorna Kushalnagar, Claudia M Pagliaro, Christopher Kurz
There is considerable interest in determining whether high-quality American Sign Language videos can be used as an accommodation in tests of mathematics at both K-12 and postsecondary levels; and in learning more about the usability (e.g., comprehensibility) of ASL videos with two different types of signers - avatar (animated figure) and human. The researchers describe the results of administering each of nine pre-college mathematics items in both avatar and human versions to each of 31 Deaf participants with high school and post-high school backgrounds...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Åsa V Keita, Mårten Carl Lindqvist, Åke Öst, Carlos D L Magana, Ida Schoultz, Jonas Halfvarson
Background and aims: The aetiology of Crohn's disease is poorly understood. By investigating twin pairs discordant for Crohn's disease we aimed to assess if the dysregulated barrier represents a cause or a consequence of inflammation and to evaluate the impact of genetic predisposition on barrier function. Methods: Ileal biopsies from 15 twin pairs discordant for Crohn's disease (monozygotic n=9, dizygotic n=6) and 10 external controls were mounted in Ussing chambers to assess paracellular permeability to51Chromium (Cr)-EDTA and trancellular passage to non-pathogenic E...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Yoojin Choi, Hyun-A Kim, Kyoung-Woong Kim, Byung-Tae Lee
With the increase in silver (Ag)-based products in our lives, it is essential to test the potential toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver ions (Ag ions) on living organisms under various conditions. Here, we investigated the toxicity of AgNPs with Ag ions to Escherichia coli K-12 strain under various conditions. We observed that both AgNPs and Ag ions display antibacterial activities, and that Ag ions had higher toxicity to E. coli K-12 strain than AgNPs under the same concentrations. To understand the toxicity of AgNPs at a cellular level, reactive oxygen species (ROS) enzymes were detected for use as antioxidant enzymatic biomarkers...
April 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Bar Lavi, Eli Levy Karin, Tal Pupko, Einat Hazkani-Covo
Perfect short inverted repeats (IRs) are known to be enriched in a variety of bacterial and eukaryotic genomes. Currently, it is unclear whether perfect IRs are conserved over evolutionary time scales. In this study, we aimed to characterize the prevalence and evolutionary conservation of IRs across 20 proteobacterial strains. We first identified IRs in Escherichia coli K-12 substr MG1655 and showed that they are overabundant. We next aimed to test whether this overabundance is reflected in the conservation of IRs over evolutionary time scales...
March 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Lori Uscher-Pines, Heather L Schwartz, Faruque Ahmed, Yenlik Zheteyeva, Erika Meza, Garrett Baker, Amra Uzicanin
BACKGROUND: During an evolving influenza pandemic, community mitigation strategies, such as social distancing, can slow down virus transmission in schools and surrounding communities. To date, research on school practices to promote social distancing in primary and secondary schools has focused on prolonged school closure, with little attention paid to the identification and feasibility of other more sustainable interventions. To develop a list and typology of school practices that have been proposed and/or implemented in an influenza pandemic and to uncover any barriers identified, lessons learned from their use, and documented impacts...
March 27, 2018: BMC Public Health
Tianqi Wang, Zhifeng Jiang, Taicheng An, Guiying Li, Huijun Zhao, Po Keung Wong
Ultrathin hydrothermal carbonation carbon (HTCC)-coated cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) composites with HTCC coating thicknesses between 0.62 and 4.38 nm were fabricated as novel, efficient, and magnetically recyclable photocatalysts via a facile, green approach. The CoFe2O4/HTCC composites showed high magnetization and low coercivity, which favored magnetic separation for reuse. The results show that the close coating of HTCC on CoFe2O4 nanoparticles enhanced electron transfer and charge separation, leading to a significant improvement in photocatalytic efficiency...
March 26, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Carrie Dooyema, Jan Jernigan, Amy Lowry Warnock, Nicola Dawkins-Lyn, Carole Harris, Tina Kauh, Laura Kettel Khan, Phyllis Ottley, Deborah Young-Hyman
BACKGROUND: State- and local-level policies can influence children's diet quality and physical activity (PA) behaviors. The goal of this article is to understand the enacted state and local policy landscape in four communities reporting declines in childhood obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: State-level policies were searched within the CDC's online Chronic Disease State Policy Tracking System. Local level policies were captured during key informant interviews in each of the sites...
March 2018: Childhood Obesity
Soo Bi Lee, Sulki Chung, HaeKook Lee, Jeong Seok Seo
Aims: The purpose of the current study was to examine the longitudinal reciprocal relationship between depression and drinking among male adults from the general population. Methods: This study used a panel dataset from the Korean Welfare Panel (from 2011 to 2014). The subjects were 2511 male adults aged between 20 and 65 years. Based on the Korean Version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-K) scores, 2191 subjects were categorized as the control group (AUDIT-K < 12) and 320 subjects were categorized as the problem drinking group (AUDIT-K ≥ 12)...
March 17, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
David I Miller, Kyle M Nolla, Alice H Eagly, David H Uttal
This meta-analysis, spanning 5 decades of Draw-A-Scientist studies, examined U.S. children's gender-science stereotypes linking science with men. These stereotypes should have weakened over time because women's representation in science has risen substantially in the United States, and mass media increasingly depict female scientists. Based on 78 studies (N = 20,860; grades K-12), children's drawings of scientists depicted female scientists more often in later decades, but less often among older children...
March 20, 2018: Child Development
Konstantinos C Tsolis, Evridiki-Pandora Tsare, Georgia Orfanoudaki, Tobias Busche, Katerina Kanaki, Reshmi Ramakrishnan, Frederic Rousseau, Joost Schymkowitz, Christian Rückert, Jörn Kalinowski, Jozef Anné, Spyridoula Karamanou, Maria I Klapa, Anastassios Economou
BACKGROUND: Members of the genus Streptomyces are Gram-positive bacteria that are used as important cell factories to produce secondary metabolites and secrete heterologous proteins. They possess some of the largest bacterial genomes and thus proteomes. Understanding their complex proteomes and metabolic regulation will improve any genetic engineering approach. RESULTS: Here, we performed a comprehensive annotation of the subcellular localization of the proteome of Streptomyces lividans TK24 and developed the Subcellular Topology of Polypeptides in Streptomyces database (SToPSdb) to make this information widely accessible...
March 15, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Ping-Tao Tseng, Yu-Shian Cheng, Yen-Wen Chen, Brendon Stubbs, Paul Whiteley, Andre F Carvalho, Dian-Jeng Li, Tien-Yu Chen, Wei-Cheng Yang, Chia-Hung Tang, Che-Sheng Chu, Wei-Chieh Yang, Hsin-Yi Liang, Ching-Kuan Wu, Cheng-Fang Yen, Pao-Yen Lin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder, and nutritional deficiency may play a role in the development of ASD. A relationship between ASD and iron levels/iron deficiency (ID) has been reported; however, the results have been inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to examine the relationship between ASD and ID following the Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. We performed a systematic search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, ProQuest, ClinicalTrials...
February 2018: Nutrition Research
Tomohiro Shimada, Hiroshi Ogasawara, Akira Ishihama
The identification of regulatory targets of all TFs is critical for understanding the entire network of the genome regulation. The lac regulon of Escherichia coli K-12 W3110 is composed of the lacZYA operon and its repressor lacI gene, and has long been recognized as the seminal model of transcription regulation in bacteria with only one highly preferred target. After the Genomic SELEX screening in vitro of more than 200 transcription factors (TFs) from E. coli K-12, however, we found that most TFs regulate multiple target genes...
February 26, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Dan-Feng Zhang, Jin-Zhou Ye, Hong-Hou Dai, Xiang-Min Lin, Hui Li, Xuan-Xian Peng
Ethanol is an efficient disinfectant, but long-term and wide usage of ethanol leads to microbial tolerance. Bacteria with the tolerance are widely identified. However, mechanisms of the tolerance are not elucidated. To explore the mechanisms of outer membrane (OM) proteins underlying ethanol tolerance in bacteria, functional proteomic methodologies were utilized to characterize OM proteins of E. coli suddenly exposed to 3.125% ethanol. Of eleven proteins altered significantly, seven were OM proteins, in which LamB, FadL and OmpC were up-regulated, and OmpT, OmpF, Tsx and OmpA were down-regulated...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Dominik Nabergoj, Nina Kuzmić, Benjamin Drakslar, Aleš Podgornik
Ability to efficiently propagate high quantities of bacteriophages (phages) is of great importance considering higher phage production needs in the future. Continuous production of phages could represent an interesting option. In our study, we tried to elucidate the effect of dilution rate on productivity of continuous production of phages in cellstat. As a model system, a well-studied phage T4 and Escherichia coli K-12 as a host were used. Experiments where physiology of bacteria was changing with dilution rate of cellstat and where bacterial physiology was kept constant were performed...
March 7, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Susanne Herbst, Martin Lorkowski, Olga Sarenko, Thi Kim Loan Nguyen, Tina Jaenicke, Regine Hengge
The nucleotide second messenger c-di-GMP nearly ubiquitously promotes bacterial biofilm formation, with enzymes that synthesize and degrade c-di-GMP being controlled by diverse N-terminal sensor domains. Here, we describe a novel class of widely occurring c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases (PDE) that feature a periplasmic "CSS domain" with two highly conserved cysteines that is flanked by two transmembrane regions (TM1 and TM2) and followed by a cytoplasmic EAL domain with PDE activity. Using PdeC, one of the five CSS domain PDEs of Escherichia coli K-12 , we show that DsbA/DsbB-promoted disulfide bond formation in the CSS domain reduces PDE activity...
March 7, 2018: EMBO Journal
Marzena Matejczyk, Renata Swislocka, Monika Kalinowska, Grzegorz Swidersk, Wlodzimierz Lewandowsk, Agata Jablonska-Trypuo
Caffeic acid and its derivatives because of its biological activities, including antioxidants, antithrombosis, antihypertensive, antifibrosis, antiviral, and anti-tumor properties are good candidates as adjuvants in anticancer therapy. The aim of this study was the examination of cyto- and genotoxic effect of caffeic acid on Escherichia coli K-12 recA::gfp strain treated with dacarbazine. Obtained results indicate that dacarbazine and caffeic acid influenced the reactivity of recA promoter and modulate the level of gfp expression in genetic construct rrcA::gfpmut2 in E...
May 2017: Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica
Marzena Matejczyk, Renata Swislocka, Monika Kalinowska, Grzegorz Widerskp, Wlodzimierz Lewandowsk, Agata Jablonska-Trypuo, Stanislaw Jozef Rosochacki
Cinnamic acid and its derivatives are important and promising compounds in cancer therapy, because of its broad spectrum of anicancer and antioxidative ability, and with high potential for development into new generation drugs. The aim of this study was to compare the cyto- and genotoxic effects of cinnamic acid and its derivatives with the use of4Escherichia coli K-12 recA::gfp microbial biosensor strain with plasmid fusion of recA promoter and gfp gene as reporter. Obtained results indicate that recA::gfpmut2 genetic system was a sensitive biosensor to the most chemicals tested in our experiments...
May 2017: Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica
Stephanie J Doong, Apoorv Gupta, Kristala L J Prather
Microbial production of value-added chemicals from biomass is a sustainable alternative to chemical synthesis. To improve product titer, yield, and selectivity, the pathways engineered into microbes must be optimized. One strategy for optimization is dynamic pathway regulation, which modulates expression of pathway-relevant enzymes over the course of fermentation. Metabolic engineers have used dynamic regulation to redirect endogenous flux toward product formation, balance the production and consumption rates of key intermediates, and suppress production of toxic intermediates until later in the fermentation...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Domonkos Sváb, Linda Falgenhauer, Manfred Rohde, Judit Szabó, Trinad Chakraborty, István Tóth
During recent years, interest in the use of bacteriophages as biocontrol agents against foodborne pathogens has increased, particularly for members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, with pathogenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, and Salmonella strains among them. Here, we report the isolation and characterisation of 12 novel T5-like bacteriophages from confiscated food samples. All bacterophages effectively lysed E. coli K-12 strains and were able to infect pathogenic E. coli strains representing enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), and enteroinvasive (EIEC) pathotypes, Shigella dysenteriae, S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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