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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096446/the-rpn-yhga-like-proteins-of-escherichia-coli-k-12-and-their-contribution-to-reca-independent-horizontal-transfer
#1
Anthony W Kingston, Christine Ponkratz, Elisabeth A Raleigh
: Bacteria use a variety of DNA mobilizing enzymes to facilitate environmental niche adaptation via horizontal gene transfer. This has led to real world problems, like the spread of antibiotic resistance, yet many mobilization proteins remain undefined. Here, we investigate the uncharacterized family of YhgA-like "transposase_31" proteins (PF04754). Our primary focus was the genetic and biochemical properties of the five E. coli K-12 members of this family, which we designate RpnA-RpnE for recombination promoting nuclease...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073397/identification-of-new-members-of-the-escherichia-coli-k-12-mg1655-slya-regulon
#2
Thomas Curran, Fatima Abacha, Stephen Hibberd, Matthew Rolfe, Melissa Lacey, Jeffrey Green
SlyA is a member of the MarR family of bacterial transcriptional regulators. Previously, SlyA has been shown to directly regulate only two operons in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655, fimB and hlyE (clyA). In both cases SlyA activates gene expression by antagonizing repression by the nucleoid associated protein H-NS. Here the transcript profiles of aerobic glucose-limited steady-state chemostat cultures of E. coli K-12 MG1655, slyA mutant and slyA over-expression strains are reported. The transcript profile of the slyA mutant was not significantly different to that of the parent; however, that of the slyA expression strain was significantly different from that of the vector control...
January 10, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070788/developmental-markers-of-genetic-liability-to-autism-in-parents-a-longitudinal-multigenerational-study
#3
Molly Losh, Gary E Martin, Michelle Lee, Jessica Klusek, John Sideris, Sheila Barron, Thomas Wassink
Genetic liability to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be expressed in unaffected relatives through subclinical, genetically meaningful traits, or endophenotypes. This study aimed to identify developmental endophenotypes in parents of individuals with ASD by examining parents' childhood academic development over the school-age period. A cohort of 139 parents of individuals with ASD were studied, along with their children with ASD and 28 controls. Parents' childhood records in the domains of language, reading, and math were studied from grades K-12...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062952/characterization-of-aldehyde-dehydrogenases-applying-an-enzyme-assay-with-in-situ-formation-of-phenylacetaldehydes
#4
Juliane Zimmerling, Dirk Tischler, Carolin Großmann, Michael Schlömann, Michel Oelschlägel
Herein, different dehydrogenases (DH) were characterized by applying a novel two-step enzyme assay. We focused on the NAD(P)(+)-dependent phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenases because they produce industrially relevant phenylacetic acids, but they are not well studied due to limited substrate availability. The first assay step comprises a styrene oxide isomerase (440 U mg(-1)protein) which allows the production of pure phenylacetaldehydes (>70 mmol L(-1)) from commercially available styrene oxides. Thereafter, a DH of interest can be added to convert phenylacetaldehydes in a broad concentration range (0...
January 6, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012009/hydrolase-bioh-knockout-in-e-coli-enables-efficient-fatty-acid-methyl-ester-bioprocessing
#5
Marvin Kadisch, Andreas Schmid, Bruno Bühler
Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) originating from plant oils are most interesting renewable feedstocks for biofuels and bio-based materials. FAMEs can also be produced and/or functionalized by engineered microbes to give access to, e.g., polymer building blocks. Yet, they are often subject to hydrolysis yielding free fatty acids, which typically are degraded by microbes. We identified BioH as the key enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of medium-chain length FAME derivatives in different E. coli K-12 strains...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987407/direct-label-free-selective-and-sensitive-microbial-detection-using-a-bacteriorhodopsin-based-photoelectric-immunosensor
#6
Hsiu-Mei Chen, Kai-Ru Jheng, An-Dih Yu
A photoelectric immunosensor using purple membranes (PM) as the transducer, which contains photoactive bacteriorhodopsin, is here first demonstrated for direct and label-free microbial detection. Biotinylated polyclonal antibodies against Escherichia coli were immobilized on a PM-coated electrode through further surface biotinylation and bridging avidin or NeutrAvidin. The photocurrent generated by the antibody-coated sensor was reduced after incubation with E. coli K-12 cultures, with the reduction level increased with the culture populations...
December 13, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981240/genomewide-dam-methylation-in-escherichia-coli-during-long-term-stationary-phase
#7
Lacey L Westphal, Peter Sauvey, Matthew M Champion, Ian M Ehrenreich, Steven E Finkel
DNA methylation in prokaryotes is widespread. The most common modification of the genome is the methylation of adenine at the N-6 position. In Escherichia coli K-12 and many gammaproteobacteria, this modification is catalyzed by DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) at the GATC consensus sequence and is known to modulate cellular processes including transcriptional regulation of gene expression, initiation of chromosomal replication, and DNA mismatch repair. While studies thus far have focused on the motifs associated with methylated adenine (meA), the frequency of meA across the genome, and temporal dynamics during early periods of incubation, here we conduct the first study on the temporal dynamics of adenine methylation in E...
November 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938862/the-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-alda-is-essential-for-l-1-2-propanediol-utilization-in-laboratory-evolved-escherichia-coli
#8
Ramy K Aziz, Jonathan M Monk, Kathleen A Andrews, Jenny Nhan, Valerie L Khaw, Hesper Wong, Bernhard O Palsson, Pep Charusanti
Most Escherichia coli strains are naturally unable to grow on 1,2-propanediol (PDO) as a sole carbon source. Recently, however, a K-12 descendent E. coli strain was evolved to grow on 1,2-PDO, and it was hypothesized that this evolved ability was dependent on the aldehyde dehydrogenase, AldA, which is highly conserved among members of the family Enterobacteriacea. To test this hypothesis, we first performed computational model simulation, which confirmed the essentiality of the aldA gene for 1,2-PDO utilization by the evolved PDO-degrading E...
January 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923800/school-shootings-during-2013-2015-in-the-usa
#9
Bindu Kalesan, Kinan Lagast, Marcos Villarreal, Elizabeth Pino, Jeffrey Fagan, Sandro Galea
BACKGROUND: Data on the factors associated with school shootings in the USA are limited. The public conversation has often suggested several factors that may be linked to these events, however with little empirical support. Aiming to fill this gap, we describe the characteristics of school shooting incidents in the USA between 2013 and 2015 and explore whether four factors that represent domains of firearm policy, educational policy and epidemiological risk factors for intentional firearm injuries-background check (BC) policies, per capita mental health expenditures (MHE), K-12 education expenditure (KEE) and urbanicity-were associated with school shootings during this period...
December 6, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917489/nutrition-quality-of-us-school-snack-foods-a-first-look-at-2011-2014-bid-records-in-8-school-districts
#10
Y Claire Wang, Amber Hsiao, Peter Chamberlin, McKenzie Largay, Abbie Archibald, Andrew Malone, JoAnn Stevelos
BACKGROUND: As part of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act, snacks, and desserts sold in K-12 schools as of the 2014-2015 school year are required to meet the "Smart Snacks" nutritional guidelines. Although studies exist in tracking progress in local and national efforts, the proportion of snack food procured by school districts compliant with the Smart Snacks standard prior to its full implementation is unknown. METHODS: We repurposed a previously untapped database, Interflex, of public bid records to examine the nutritional quality of snacks and desserts procured by school districts...
January 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917101/selective-enzymatic-transformation-to-aldehydes-in-vivo-by-fungal-carboxylate-reductase-from-neurospora-crassa
#11
Daniel Schwendenwein, Giuseppe Fiume, Hansjörg Weber, Florian Rudroff, Margit Winkler
The enzymatic reduction of carboxylic acids is in its infancy with only a handful of biocatalysts available to this end. We have increased the spectrum of carboxylate-reducing enzymes (CARs) with the sequence of a fungal CAR from Neurospora crassa OR74A (NcCAR). NcCAR was efficiently expressed in E. coli using an autoinduction protocol at low temperature. It was purified and characterized in vitro, revealing a broad substrate acceptance, a pH optimum at pH 5.5-6.0, a Tm of 45 °C and inhibition by the co-product pyrophosphate which can be alleviated by the addition of pyrophosphatase...
November 3, 2016: Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909030/the-college-science-learning-cycle-an-instructional-model-for-reformed-teaching
#12
Michelle Withers
Finding the time for developing or locating new class materials is one of the biggest barriers for instructors reforming their teaching approaches. Even instructors who have taken part in training workshops may feel overwhelmed by the task of transforming passive lecture content to engaging learning activities. Learning cycles have been instrumental in helping K-12 science teachers design effective instruction for decades. This paper introduces the College Science Learning Cycle adapted from the popular Biological Sciences Curriculum Study 5E to help science, technology, engineering, and mathematics faculty develop course materials to support active, student-centered teaching approaches in their classrooms...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901648/a-new-drug-design-strategy-killing-drug-resistant-bacteria-by-deactivating-their-hypothetical-genes
#13
Tit-Yee Wong, Jimmy Kuo
Despite that a bacterial genome is complicated by large numbers of horizontally transferred (HT) genes and function unknown hypothetical (FUN) genes, the Genic-Transcriptional-Stop-Signals-Ratio (TSSR) of a genome shows that HT and FUN genes are complementary to all other genes in the genome. When HT or certain FUN genes are omitted from the Escherichia coli K-12 genome, its Genomic-TSSR value becomes totally incomparable to other E. coli strains. The Genic-TSSR correlation tree of a pathogen shows that some FUN genes would form a unique cluster...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899573/the-ecocyc-database-reflecting-new-knowledge-about-escherichia-coli-k-12
#14
Ingrid M Keseler, Amanda Mackie, Alberto Santos-Zavaleta, Richard Billington, César Bonavides-Martínez, Ron Caspi, Carol Fulcher, Socorro Gama-Castro, Anamika Kothari, Markus Krummenacker, Mario Latendresse, Luis Muñiz-Rascado, Quang Ong, Suzanne Paley, Martin Peralta-Gil, Pallavi Subhraveti, David A Velázquez-Ramírez, Daniel Weaver, Julio Collado-Vides, Ian Paulsen, Peter D Karp
EcoCyc (EcoCyc.org) is a freely accessible, comprehensive database that collects and summarizes experimental data for Escherichia coli K-12, the best-studied bacterial model organism. New experimental discoveries about gene products, their function and regulation, new metabolic pathways, enzymes and cofactors are regularly added to EcoCyc. New SmartTable tools allow users to browse collections of related EcoCyc content. SmartTables can also serve as repositories for user- or curator-generated lists. EcoCyc now supports running and modifying E...
January 4, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884783/secondary-multidrug-efflux-pump-mutants-alter-escherichia-coli-biofilm-growth-in-the-presence-of-cationic-antimicrobial-compounds
#15
Denice C Bay, Carol A Stremick, Carmine J Slipski, Raymond J Turner
Escherichia coli possesses many secondary active multidrug resistance transporters (MDTs) that confer overlapping substrate resistance to a broad range of antimicrobials via proton and/or sodium motive force. It is uncertain whether redundant MDTs uniquely alter cell survival when cultures grow planktonically or as biofilms. In this study, the planktonic and biofilm growth and antimicrobial resistance of 13 E. coli K-12 single MDT gene deletion strains in minimal and rich media were determined. Antimicrobial tolerance to tetracycline, tobramycin and benzalkonium were also compared for each ΔMDT strain...
November 22, 2016: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872391/the-role-of-school-health-services-in-addressing-the-needs-of-students-with-chronic-health-conditions-a-systematic-review
#16
Zanie C Leroy, Robin Wallin, Sarah Lee
Children and adolescents in the United States spend many hours in school. Students with chronic health conditions (CHCs) may face lower academic achievement, increased disability, fewer job opportunities, and limited community interactions as they enter adulthood. School health services provide safe and effective management of CHCs, often for students with limited access to health care. A systematic review to assess the role of school health services in addressing CHCs among students in Grades K-12 was completed using primary, peer-reviewed literature published from 2000 to 2015, on selected conditions: asthma, food allergies, diabetes, seizure disorders, and poor oral health...
November 20, 2016: Journal of School Nursing: the Official Publication of the National Association of School Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866385/effectiveness-of-universal-school-based-mental-health-awareness-programs-among-youth-in-the-united-states-a-systematic-review
#17
John P Salerno
BACKGROUND: Stigmatizing attitudes toward mental illness and low mental health literacy have been identified as links to social adversity, and barriers to seeking and adhering to treatment among adolescents suffering from mental illness. Prior research has found that it is possible to improve these outcomes using school-based mental health awareness interventions. The purpose of this study was to review empirical literature pertaining to universal mental health awareness interventions aiming to improve mental health related outcomes among students enrolled in US K-12 schools, especially minorities vulnerable to health disparities...
December 2016: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842452/role-of-bola-and-rpos-genes-in-biofilm-formation-and-adherence-pattern-by-escherichia-coli-k-12-mg1655-on-polypropylene-stainless-steel-and-silicone-surfaces
#18
Mohd Adnan, Ana Margarida Sousa, Idalina Machado, Maria Olivia Pereira, Saif Khan, Glyn Morton, Sibte Hadi
Escherichia coli has developed sophisticated means to sense, respond, and adapt in stressed environment. It has served as a model organism for studies in molecular genetics and physiology since the 1960s. Stress response genes are induced whenever a cell needs to adapt and survive under unfavorable growth conditions. Two of the possible important genes are rpoS and bolA. The rpoS gene has been known as the alternative sigma (σ) factor, which controls the expression of a large number of genes, which are involved in responses to various stress factors as well as transition to stationary phase from exponential form of growth...
November 15, 2016: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834703/complete-genome-sequence-of-neb-5-alpha-a-derivative-of-escherichia-coli-k-12-dh5%C3%AE
#19
Brian P Anton, Elisabeth A Raleigh
Escherichia coli K-12 DH5α is one of the most popular and widely available laboratory strains, but, surprisingly, no complete genome sequence has been publicly available. Here, we report the complete, finished sequence of NEB 5-alpha (DH5α fhuA2). It should serve as a useful reference for researchers working with DH5α.
November 10, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834244/government-spending-in-health-and-nonhealth-sectors-associated-with-improvement-in-county-health-rankings
#20
J Mac McCullough, Jonathon P Leider
There is little evidence to demonstrate the impact on local health outcomes of spending that occurs outside the health care sector. We leveraged novel data from the US Census Bureau to measure the independent impact of a community's health and nonhealth expenditures on a broad measure of overall health-the County Health Rankings-over time. Using lagged longitudinal models that accounted for correlations of health outcomes and expenditures within counties, we found significant positive associations between expenditures and County Health Rankings for seven of the fourteen expenditure categories examined: community health care and public health, public hospitals, fire protection, K-12 education, corrections, libraries, and housing and community development...
November 1, 2016: Health Affairs
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