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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333654/cytokine-changes-in-gastric-and-colonic-epithelial-cell-in-response-to-planta-ovata-extract
#1
Javed Yakoob, Wasim Jafri, Malik Hassan Mehmood, Zaigham Abbas, Kanwal Tariq
Background Psyllium (Planta ovata, Ispaghul) seed and husk are used for treatment of altered bowel habit, i. e. constipation and diarrhea. We studied the effect of Ispaghul extract on secretion of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) by AGS (ATCC CRL 1739) and SW480 (ATCC CCL-227) epithelial cell lines and determined whether Ispaghul extract has an effect on IL-1β secretion by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-stimulated AGS cell and Escherichia coli K-12 (E. coli K-12)-stimulated SW480 cells in vitro. Methods The AGS cells and SW480 cells were pretreated with Ispaghul extract in concentrations, i...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320377/application-of-an-e-coli-signal-sequence-as-a-versatile-inclusion-body-tag
#2
Wouter S P Jong, David Vikström, Diane Houben, H Bart van den Berg van Saparoea, Jan-Willem de Gier, Joen Luirink
BACKGROUND: Heterologous protein production in Escherichia coli often suffers from bottlenecks such as proteolytic degradation, complex purification procedures and toxicity towards the expression host. Production of proteins in an insoluble form in inclusion bodies (IBs) can alleviate these problems. Unfortunately, the propensity of heterologous proteins to form IBs is variable and difficult to predict. Hence, fusing the target protein to an aggregation prone polypeptide or IB-tag is a useful strategy to produce difficult-to-express proteins in an insoluble form...
March 21, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314599/anti-influenza-triterpenoid-saponins-saikosaponins-from-the-roots-of-bupleurum-marginatum-var-stenophyllum
#3
Wei Fang, Yin-Jun Yang, Bao-Lin Guo, Shan Cen
This study to investigate antiviral components from the roots of Bupleurum marginatum var. stenophyllum led to the isolation of five novel saikosaponins, namely 6″-O-crotonyl-saikosaponin a (1), tibesaikosaponin I (2), tibesaikosaponin II (3), tibesaikosaponin III (4), tibesaikosaponin IV (5), along with 9 known analogues (6-14). Their structures were established by spectral data analyses (IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR) and by comparison of spectral data with those of the related known compounds. Antiviral testing of all compounds against influenza A virus A/WSN/33 (H1N1) in 293TGluc cells showed that nepasaikosaponin k (12), saikosaponin n (13) and saikosaponin h (14) behaved more potent inhibitory activity and selectivity than the positive control, Ribavirin...
March 7, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301469/global-analysis-of-translation-termination-in-e-coli
#4
Natalie E Baggett, Yan Zhang, Carol A Gross
Terminating protein translation accurately and efficiently is critical for both protein fidelity and ribosome recycling for continued translation. The three bacterial release factors (RFs) play key roles: RF1 and 2 recognize stop codons and terminate translation; and RF3 promotes disassociation of bound release factors. Probing release factors mutations with reporter constructs containing programmed frameshifting sequences or premature stop codons had revealed a propensity for readthrough or frameshifting at these specific sites, but their effects on translation genome-wide have not been examined...
March 16, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301179/a-meta-analysis-of-self-monitoring-on-reading-performance-of-k-12-students
#5
Guadalupe Guzman, Taryn S Goldberg, H Lee Swanson
The published single-case design (SCD) research (N = 19 articles) on self-monitoring and reading performance was synthesized. The following inclusion criteria were used: (a) the study must have been peer-reviewed, (b) implemented an intervention targeting student self-monitoring of reading skills, (c) included data on at least 1 reading outcome, (d) included visual representation of the data, and (f) the study must have used an SCD to assess the topic of interest. A total of 67 participants, 45 males and 22 females, ranging in age from 7:8 -18:7 were included in the current meta-analysis...
March 16, 2017: School Psychology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291321/nanoengineered-superhydrophobic-surfaces-of-aluminum-with-extremely-low-bacterial-adhesivity
#6
Ferdi Hizal, Natthakan Rungraeng, Junghoon Lee, Soojin Jun, Henk J Busscher, Henny C van der Mei, Chang-Hwan Choi
Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on surfaces are troublesome in many industrial processes. Here, nanoporous and nanopillared aluminum surfaces were engineered by anodizing and postetching processes and made hydrophilic (using the inherent oxide layer) or hydrophobic (applying a Teflon coating) with the aim of discouraging bacterial adhesion. Adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600 (Gram-positive, spherically shaped) and Escherichia coli K-12 (Gram-negative, rod-shaped) was evaluated to the nanoengineered surfaces under both static and flow conditions (fluid shear rate of 37 s(-1))...
March 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287837/scientific-training-in-the-era-of-big-data-a-new-pedagogy-for-graduate-education
#7
Jay Aikat, Thomas M Carsey, Karamarie Fecho, Kevin Jeffay, Ashok Krishnamurthy, Peter J Mucha, Arcot Rajasekar, Stanley C Ahalt
The era of "big data" has radically altered the way scientific research is conducted and new knowledge is discovered. Indeed, the scientific method is rapidly being complemented and even replaced in some fields by data-driven approaches to knowledge discovery. This paradigm shift is sometimes referred to as the "fourth paradigm" of data-intensive and data-enabled scientific discovery. Interdisciplinary research with a hard emphasis on translational outcomes is becoming the norm in all large-scale scientific endeavors...
March 2017: Big Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285468/progress-in-nurturing-human-well-being
#8
EDITORIAL
Anthony Biglan, Ronald Prinz
Substantial evidence in the behavioral and social sciences has accrued in support of numerous intervention programs and policies bearing on improving the lives of children and families. To this end, Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review features a special journal issue on "Evolving Toward a More Nurturing Society." The field has achieved numerous advances regarding how to create and promote nurturing environments that foster successful development and prevent psychological and behavioral problems in children and youth...
March 2017: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270582/bacteria-getting-into-shape-genetic-determinants-of-e-%C3%A2-coli-morphology
#9
Shawn French, Jean-Philippe Côté, Jonathan M Stokes, Ray Truant, Eric D Brown
Perturbation of cellular processes is a prevailing approach to understanding biology. To better understand the complicated biology that defines bacterial shape, a sensitive, high-content platform was developed to detect multiple morphological defect phenotypes using microscopy. We examined morphological phenotypes across the Escherichia coli K-12 deletion (Keio) collection at the mid-exponential growth phase, revealing 111 deletions perturbing shape. Interestingly, 64% of these were uncharacterized mutants, illustrating the complex nature of shape maintenance and regulation in bacteria...
March 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266056/hica-toxin-of-escherichia-coli-derepresses-hicab-transcription-to-selectively-produce-hicb-antitoxin
#10
Kathryn J Turnbull, Kenn Gerdes
Antitoxins encoded by type II toxin - antitoxin (TA) modules neutralize cognate toxins by direct protein - protein contact and in addition, regulate TA operon transcription by binding to operators in the promoter regions. On top of the simple negative feed-back regulation, canonical type II TA operons are regulated by a mechanism called "Conditional Cooperativity" (CC). In CC, the cellular toxin:antitoxin (T:A) ratio controls the transcription-rate such that low T:A ratios favour repression and high T:A ratios favour de-repression of TA operon transcription...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257056/interaction-of-type-iv-toxin-antitoxin-systems-in-cryptic-prophages-of-escherichia-coli-k-12
#11
Zhongling Wen, Pengxia Wang, Chenglong Sun, Yunxue Guo, Xiaoxue Wang
Toxin/antitoxin (TA) systems are widespread in prokaryotic chromosomes and in mobile genetic elements including plasmids and prophages. The first characterized Type IV TA system CbtA/CbeA was found in cryptic prophage CP4-44 in Escherichia coli K-12. Two homologous TA loci of CbtA/CbeA also reside in cryptic prophages of E. coli K-12, YkfI/YafW in CP4-6 and YpjF/YfjZ in CP4-57. In this study, we demonstrated that YkfI and YpjF inhibited cell growth and led to the formation of "lemon-shaped" cells. Prolonged overproduction of YkfI led to the formation of "gourd-shaped" cells and immediate cell lysis...
March 1, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256660/consensus-architecture-of-promoters-and-transcription-units-in-escherichia-coli-design-principles-for-synthetic-biology
#12
REVIEW
Cynthia Rangel-Chavez, Edgardo Galan-Vasquez, Agustino Martinez-Antonio
Genetic information in genomes is ordered, arranged in such a way that it constitutes a code, the so-called cis regulatory code. The regulatory machinery of the cell, termed trans-factors, decodes and expresses this information. In this way, genomes maintain a potential repertoire of genetic programs, parts of which are executed depending on the presence of active regulators in each condition. These genetic programs, executed by the regulatory machinery, have functional units in the genome delimited by punctuation-like marks...
March 3, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230752/impact-of-particulate-matter-exposure-and-surrounding-greenness-on-chronic-absenteeism-in-massachusetts-public-schools
#13
Piers MacNaughton, Erika Eitland, Itai Kloog, Joel Schwartz, Joseph Allen
Chronic absenteeism is associated with poorer academic performance and higher attrition in kindergarten to 12th grade (K-12) schools. In prior research, students who were chronically absent generally had fewer employment opportunities and worse health after graduation. We examined the impact that environmental factors surrounding schools have on chronic absenteeism. We estimated the greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)) and fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) within 250 m and 1000 m respectively of each public school in Massachusetts during the 2012-2013 academic year using satellite-based data...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221904/reduction-of-bacterial-pathogens-and-potential-surrogates-on-the-surface-of-almonds-using-high-intensity-405-nanometer-light
#14
Alison Lacombe, Brendan A Niemira, Joseph Sites, Glenn Boyd, Joshua B Gurtler, Breanna Tyrell, Melissa Fleck
The disinfecting properties of high-intensity monochromatic blue light (MBL) were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella , and nonpathogenic bacteria inoculated onto the surface of almonds. MBL was generated from an array of narrow-band 405-nm light-emitting diodes. Almonds were inoculated with higher or lower levels (8 or 5 CFU/g) of pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella , as well as nonpathogenic E. coli K-12 and an avirulent strain of Salmonella Typhimurium, for evaluation as potential surrogates for their respective pathogens...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218056/regulation-of-the-escherichia-coli-ydhy-t-operon-in-the-presence-of-alternative-electron-acceptors
#15
Naji Al Ibrahim, Jeffrey Green
The Escherichia coli K-12 ydhY-T operon, coding for a predicted oxidoreductase complex, is activated under anaerobic conditions and repressed in the presence of nitrate or nitrite. Anaerobic activation is mediated by the transcription factor FNR and nitrate/nitrite repression is mediated by NarXL and NarQP. In vitro transcription reactions revealed that the DNA upstream of ydhY-T contains sufficient information for RNA polymerase alone to initiate transcription from five locations. FNR severely inhibited synthesis of two of these transcripts (located upstream of, and within, the FNR binding site) and activated the FNR-dependent promoter previously identified in vivo...
February 3, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211875/a-hyaluronan-hydrogel-scaffold-based-xeno-free-culture-system-for-ex-vivo-expansion-of-human-corneal-epithelial-stem-cells
#16
D Chen, Y Qu, X Hua, L Zhang, Z Liu, S C Pflugfelder, D-Q Li
PurposeTo develop a hyaluronan hydrogel scaffold-based xeno-free culture system for ex vivo cultivation of human corneal epithelial stem cells (CESCs).Patients and MethodsCESCs were cultivated from donor limbal explants on the HyStem-C Hydrogel bio-scaffold in 12-well plates for 3 weeks. Group A used the traditional supplemented hormonal epidermal medium (SHEM) and group B used the defined SHEM (without fetal bovine serum and toxin A, adding 20% serum replacement). The growth and morphology of the cultured cells were assessed by phase contrast microscope...
February 17, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211111/regulation-of-nrf-operon-expression-in-pathogenic-enteric-bacteria-sequence-divergence-reveals-new-regulatory-complexity
#17
Rita E Godfrey, David J Lee, Stephen J W Busby, Douglas F Browning
The Escherichia coli K-12 nrf operon encodes a periplasmic nitrite reductase, the expression of which is driven from a single promoter, pnrf. Expression from pnrf is activated by the FNR transcription factor in response to anaerobiosis and further increased in response to nitrite by the response regulator proteins, NarL and NarP. FNR-dependent transcription is suppressed by the binding of two nucleoid associated proteins, IHF and Fis. As Fis levels increase in cells grown in rich medium, the positioning of its binding site, overlapping the promoter -10 element, ensures that pnrf is sharply repressed...
February 17, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195326/processes-of-early-childhood-interventions-to-adult-well-being
#18
Arthur J Reynolds, Suh-Ruu Ou, Christina F Mondi, Momoko Hayakawa
This article describes the contributions of cognitive-scholastic advantage, family support behavior, and school quality and support as processes through which early childhood interventions promote well-being. Evidence in support of these processes is from longitudinal cohort studies of the Child-Parent Centers and other preventive interventions beginning by age 4. Relatively large effects of participation have been documented for school readiness skills at age 5, parent involvement, K-12 achievement, remedial education, educational attainment, and crime prevention...
February 13, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191041/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-shiga-toxin-producing-and-non-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-isolated-from-outbreaks-in-korea
#19
Taesoo Kwon, Won Kim, Seung-Hak Cho
BACKGROUND: The Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 strain NCCP15739 and non-STEC O157 strain NCCP15738 were isolated from outbreaks in Korea. We characterized NCCP15739 and NCCP15738 by genome sequencing and a comparative genomic analysis using two additional strains, E. coli K-12 substr. MG1655 and O157:H7 EDL933. RESULTS: Using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and the RAST server, the whole genomes of NCCP15739 and NCCP15738 were obtained and annotated...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174311/a-numbers-game-ribosome-densities-bacterial-growth-and-antibiotic-mediated-stasis-and-death
#20
Bruce R Levin, Ingrid C McCall, Véronique Perrot, Howard Weiss, Armen Ovesepian, Fernando Baquero
We postulate that the inhibition of growth and low rates of mortality of bacteria exposed to ribosome-binding antibiotics deemed bacteriostatic can be attributed almost uniquely to these drugs reducing the number of ribosomes contributing to protein synthesis, i.e., the number of effective ribosomes. We tested this hypothesis with Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 and constructs that had been deleted for 1 to 6 of the 7 rRNA (rrn) operons. In the absence of antibiotics, constructs with fewer rrn operons have lower maximum growth rates and longer lag phases than those with more ribosomal operons...
February 7, 2017: MBio
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